EO1-2

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AirField Lighting Engineering Objective 1-02 International Standards:

A ir F ield L ighting E ngineering Objective 1-02 International Standards Goal, Purpose, Learning Objective To introduce AFL International Standards such that students will know which reference documents they must consult in order to check for compliance towards International Standards.

Table of Contents::

Table of Contents: Standards Aerodrome Reference Codes RVR / ACN / PCN Int’l Categories of Operation Low Visibility Procedures 4 C’s of AFL Operational Performance Categories & Standard lay-outs Power & Control Photometrics A ir F ield L ighting E ngineering O bjective 1-02 International Standards

Standards – Internationally recognized:

3 Standards – Internationally recognized ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) Annex 14 Volume 1 - Aerodromes Annex 14 Volume 2 - Heliports Aerodrome Design Manual Part 4 - Visual Aids Aerodrome Design Manual Part 5 - Electrical systems Aerodrome Design Manual Part 6 - Frangibility Airport Services Manual Part 9 - Airport Maintenance Practices IEC 61821 Electrical installations for lighting and beaconing of aerodromes – Maintenance of aeronautical ground lighting constant current series circuits

National or other Standards:

4 FAA (USA) Advisory Circular N° AC 150 / 5340 - 30 D Design & Installation of airport visual aids facilities Advisory Circular N° AC 150 / 5340 - 26 A Maintenance of airport visual aids facilities STNA (France ) Instruction N° 060488 STNA / 6 BA “Maintenance of Visual Aids” UK Standard CAP ( Civil Aviation Publication )168 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) STANAG (Standardisation Agreement ) 3316 US Military UFC ( Unified Facilities Criteria ) 3 - 535 - 01 New Standards for the European Community member States to replace National Standards : EASA (European Aviation Safety Authority) National or other Standards

Aerodromes Reference Codes:

This defines the characteristics of an airfield and is composed of both a code number and a letter Aerodromes Reference Codes

RVR / ACN / PCN:

Runway Visual Range The visual range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings, or the lights, delineating the runway or identifying its centreline Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) A number expressing the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a specified standard subgrade category Pavement Classification Number (PCN) A number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestricted operations RVR / ACN / PCN

International Categories of Operation:

International Categories of Operation Instrument / Non-instrument Precision / Non-Precision CAT 1 - RVR @ 550 metres CAT 2 - RVR @ 300 metres CAT 3A - RVR @ 175 metres 3B - RVR @ 50 metres 3C - RVR @ N/A Note: Annex 14 Vol 1 – Edition 5 Issued: 2009

Definition of Operating Characteristics:

Reference: ICAO Annex 6 Part II Chapter 1 Definition of Operating Characteristics

Category of Operation:

ICAO Annex 6 Part II Chapter 1 Category of Operation

Low Visibility Procedures (LVP):

Low Visibility Procedures (LVP)

4 C’s of AFL:

C onfiguration C olour C andela C overage 4 C’s of AFL

Operational Performance:

Operational Performance To achieve the 4 C’s of AGL and provide safe aircraft operations we need to look at: Purpose Categories and Standard Layouts Power, control and circuit interleaving Photometric compliance Alignment Serviceability

Purpose:

Visual aids provides visual guidance to pilots approaching, landing and for movement on the ground at an airfield, e.g. approach system provides: Alignment to Runway Centreline Aircraft Roll Horizon Height above runway Distance to Threshold Purpose

AFL Lighting is important:

AFL Lighting is important Surrounding terrain could be deceptive to the pilot Because the human brain can interpret visual information rapidly, the pilot can make quick decisions and actions. Instrument Landing Systems use lighting for safety and confidence 14

Design:

Design AGL developed on the basis of glide path angles, visual range, cockpit cut-off angle and aircraft landing speeds Standard layouts devised for early recognition of airport Terrain or other constraints may limit the length of an approach light system to less than the standard lengths

Categories and Standard Layouts:

Categories and Standard Layouts Simple Approach Precision Approach Category I (CAT I) Precision Approach Category II/III (CAT II/III)

Simple Approach:

Note the crossbar at 300m from the Threshold and 30m wide, because it is important in ALL Approach Configurations Simple Approach

ICAO Approach – Category I:

This pattern is called Barrette or Type B 30m 900 m 300 m 300m Crossbar Flashing Light Threshold Also called ALSF- 1 ( FAA standard ) Spacing at 1.5 metres 30 metres wide Note the crossbar at 300m from the Threshold and 30m wide, because it is important in ALL Approach Configurations ICAO Approach – Category I Approach Light

ICAO Approach Category II/III (Barrette):

Note the crossbar at 300m from the Threshold and 30m wide, because it is important in ALL Approach Configurations ICAO Approach Category II/III (Barrette)

ICAO Approach – Category II/III (Barrette):

30m 900 m 300 m 300m Crossbar Approach Light (white) Flashing Light including RTILS ( REILS ) Threshold 150m Crossbar Side Row Barrettes (red) Also called ALSF-2 ICAO Approach – Category II/III (Barrette)

Precision Approach Category 1 (CAT I):

The pattern is called: Distance Coded Calvert CL5B Type A Precision Approach Category 1 (CAT I)

ICAO Approach Category II/III (Calvert):

Note the crossbar at 300m from the Threshold and 30m wide, because it is important in ALL Approach configurations ICAO Approach Category II/III (Calvert)

Other Layouts:

Other Layouts FAA Medium Intensity FAA Medium Intensity systems are used mainly for airports catering to general aviation aircraft and meet the minimum requirements of the ‘Simple Approach Lighting’ systems specified by ICAO. There are three types: MALS - This is the simplest of U.S. configurations. MALSR - M edium ALS with Runway alignment indicator. MALSF - M edium ALS with Sequence F lashers at the three centreline barrettes furthest from the threshold.

Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System:

Threshold 300 m crossbar NOTE: General pattern of the MALS is the same as an ICAO Simple Approach M edium Intensity A pproach L ighting S ystem

MALS / MALSR / MALSF:

MALS / MALSR / MALSF

MALS / MASF / MALSR:

MALS / MASF / MALSR

Precision Approach Path Indicator:

P recision A pproach P ath I ndicator

Power & Control:

Power & Control Power In the event of a mains power failure, the maximum switchover time allowable in ICAO for the secondary power supply to take effect is: 15 seconds for Simple Approach (Scale L3 - UK CAP 168) and CAT 1 Precision Approach (Scale L2 - UK CAP 168) 1 second for CAT II/III Precision Approach (Scale L1 - CAP 168)

Power & Control:

Power & Control Control Where a high intensity approach lighting system is utilised, a suitable intensity control is required for adjustment with regard to the prevailing weather conditions. Standard lighting intensities have been specified by the ICAO for this control which are: 100% 30% 10% 3% 1%

Power & Control:

Power & Control Although the Air Traffic Controllers have guidelines for selecting brilliancy, the pilot can decide to have the brilliancy altered if required. It’s therefore important for a remote control system to be in operation for control of the CCR’s which are likely to be located some distance from the Air Traffic Control Tower. Simple Approach The Simple Approach lighting system can be powered by one Constant Current Regulator and one circuit only. Cat I, II & III Approach Light fittings are to be powered by at least two Constant Current Regulators on two circuits. This is called interleaving and is arranged to ensure a uniform pattern is provided to the pilot in the event of one circuit failing.

CAT I (Calvert) Approach Interleaving:

CAT I (Calvert) Approach Interleaving

Cat II/III Side Row Barrettes - interleaving:

Note: ICAO accepts 3 lights in a side row barrette for the CAT II/III Barrette Approach Note: These supplementary approach lights are from a CAT II/III Calvert Approach Cat II/III Side Row Barrettes - interleaving

Photometric compliance:

Photometric compliance

Intermediate-Quiz EO1…:

Intermediate-Quiz EO1… A ir F ield L ighting Engineering Objective EO1-02 Introduction to International Standards

End Intermediate-Quiz EO1…:

End Intermediate-Quiz EO1… Thank you! You have now completed Engineering Objective 1-02

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