Typical Development of One-year-old Toddlers

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Typical Development of One-year-old Toddlers:

Typical Development of One-year-old Toddlers Child Development – HSC5142 Chad Polk Christine Rodriguez

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Gross Motor Development At 12 months, the child can walk independently Characteristics of gait at 12 months: Fast Speed Short step/stride length High cadence Short swing phase Wide BOS Lack of reciprocal arm swing

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Gross Motor Development cont. Characteristics of gross motor development 12-18 months: Begins to run without reciprocal arm swing and trunk rotation Walks upstairs with one hand support Pulls toys while walking Plays in standing vs. the floor Characteristics of gross motor development 18-24 months : Climbing Kicks ball forward Throws ball at large target Jumps in place with both feet Walking up and down stairs (no reciprocal pattern yet)

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Fine Motor Development At 12 months, the child begins to use coordinated asymmetric movements The use of coordinated bimanual skills is characteristic of this age The movements become more refined by the end of this stage (24 months)

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12-18 months: Supinated grasp pattern used to hold crayon and make marks or scribbles Holds toys, stacks blocks with both hands Graded release developed before precise release 18-24 months: Builds towers with blocks Moves from supinated to pronated grasp pattern Begins to develop in-hand manipulations Fine Motor Development cont.

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Visual-Motor Development By 12 months, the child has reached their adult level of visual acuity By 24 months, the child’s hand-eye coordination and depth perception should be fully developed Children this age use visual skills for scribbling on paper, stacking blocks, and recognizing pictures of familiar faces and objects

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Cognitive Development T he child is in the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development at this age 12-18 months: 5 th substage of sensorimotor stage Active motor experimentation: very active, very experimental and exploratory of his/her surroundings 18-24 months: 6 th substage of sensorimotor stage Mental representation is developed Concept of time and space has increased Able to handle deferred information Starting to combine objects together At 24 months, realizes there are consequences to actions

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Self-Help/Adaptive Development Dressing 12 mos.: helps with dressing by holding limbs out, pulls pants off 18 mos.: Takes shoes and socks off no help 21 mos.: Can completely undress 24 mos.: Tries to dress unsuccessfully Toileting 15-20 mos.: able to control bowel 18-24 mos.: Can feel the urges to go At 24 mos. The child shows little resistance to toileting and can differentiate between bowel and bladder functions.

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Communication Development Auditory system is mostly developed and is vital for communication/language development . Language development from 12-23 months Receptive: Points to pictures in book when named Can name a few body parts when asked Listens and responds to songs and stories Listens to and follows simple directions Responds to adult questions with answers Expressive: Uses 100 or more words to express his/herself Begins to put two words together, Uses one to two word sentences to communicate Communicates needs/wants through nonverbal gestures Experiments with spontaneous vocal play

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Social, Emotional, and Personal Development Erickson’s personality development stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt: Toddler becomes more independent due to significant motor development increase and decision making in activities and play. 12-18 months: More social with familiar vs. unfamiliar people, shares toys with parent, responds to facial expressions of others 18-24 months: Begins to move away from parent (during play time), expresses affection, shows wide variety of emotions, can feel frustrated, engages in parallel, reciprocal, and complementary play, laughs when someone does something silly.

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Developmental Play-Stage At this age, play is predominantly sensorimotor E xploratory play: child performs activity for the enjoyment of physical sensation it creates Play includes repetitive movements, creates actions in toys for the sensory experiences of hearing, seeing, and feeling. Sensorimotor single toy and combination play occurs up to 24 months 12-18 mos.: Representational play with single toy 24 mos.: Representational play combinations

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Typical Toys, Games, and Activities cont. Things for using their large and small muscles—puzzles, large pegboards, toys with parts that do things (dials, switches, knobs, lids), and large and small balls Things to pretend with—toy phones, dolls and doll beds, baby carriages and strollers, dress-up accessories (scarves, purses), puppets, stuffed toys, plastic animals, and plastic and wood “realistic” vehicles, pop up toys, toy phones Things to build with—cardboard and wood blocks (can be smaller than those used by infants—2 to 4 inches) Typical toys for 1-year-olds to play with include toys are mostly sensory based and progress to include toys that promote movement and manipulation.

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Typical Toys, Games and Activities

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References Schwier, E. Child Development-HSC5142 course notes. University of St. Augustine; St. Augustine, FL: 2013. Georgia Early Learning and Development Standards: GELDS - 12-24 months. Bright From the Start: Georigia Department of Early Care and Learning website. http://www.gelds.decal.ga.gov/Documents/12-24_Indicators.pdf . Accessed June 28 th 2014. Ginsburg, K R. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond. Journal of American Academy of Pediatrics. 2007; 119 (1): 183-185.

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