night of long knives 2010

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Summary lesson of Hitler's consolidation of power and the importance of the night of the long knives

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PowerPoint Presentation:

The Fuhrer knocked gently on Rohm’s door: ‘A message from Munich.’ he said in a disguised voice. ‘ Well come in’ Rohm shouted to the supposed messenger, ‘ the door is open.’ Hitler tore open the door, fell on Rohm as he lay in bed and screamed, ‘you are under arrest you pig!’. Then he turned the traitor over to the SS. Next morning (Sunday 1 July 1934) Two SS men asked at the reception desk to be Taken to Rohm. They handed over a pistol to Rohm, who once again asked to Speak to Hitler. They ordered him to shoot himself. If he did not comply, they would Come back in ten minutes and kill him. When the time was up, the two SS men Re-entered the cell, and found Rohm standing with his chest bared. Immediately One of them from the door shot him in the throat and Rohm collapsed on the Floor.

The Night of the Long Knives:

The Night of the Long Knives Learning objectives: To be able to explain why the Night of the Long knives took place To Know the events of the Night of the Long Knives To analyse the results of the Night of the Long Knives PLTS: Independent enquirer Creative and reflective learner

The Night of the Long Knives:

The Night of the Long Knives

PowerPoint Presentation:

(c) ‘The most important reason why Hitler was able to strengthen his control over Germany during 1933 and 1934 was the “Night of the Long Knives”.’ Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. (10)

The SA:

The SA SA – Sturm-Abteilung, or Stormtroopers, were also known as Brownshirts. They were formed in 1921 to protect the Nazi party. Ernst Rohm was their leader.

Why were they disloyal?:

Why were they disloyal? Some SA members were still keen on the original ideas of the Nazis – a National Socialist Revolution. They wanted rich landowners and big businesses to be swept away or taken over.

Ernst Rohm:

Ernst Rohm Ernst Rohm, the leader of the SA clashed with Hitler. He wanted his Brownshirts to become the new German army. With him in charge, of course.

Did Rohm know what was coming?:

Did Rohm know what was coming? Adolf is a swine. He will give us all way. He only associates with reactionaries now. Adolf knows exactly what I want. Not a second edition of the old imperial army. Are we revolutionaries or aren't we? We've got to produce something new, don't you see? A new discipline. A new principle of organization. The generals are a lot of old fogies. May 1933

Was Rohm in a strong position?:

Was Rohm in a strong position? Hitler can't walk over me as he might have done a year ago; I've seen to that. Don't forget that I have three million men, with every key position in the hands of my own people…If Hitler is reasonable I shall settle the matter quietly; if he isn't I must be prepared to use force - not for my sake but for the sake of our revolution. Jan 1934

What did Hitler do?:

What did Hitler do? He got his friends to compile hit-lists of disloyal SA men. Himmler, Heydrich and Goering were keen to do this.

This was of course, done in secret!:

This was of course, done in secret! Watch your back, Ernst.... Himmler, leader of the SS, was especially keen to rub out Rohm. He wanted control of the concentration camps and the police forces.

On 30 June, Hitler strikes!:

On 30 June, Hitler strikes! The SS and the police arrest dozens of SA leaders. Many are shot dead in their homes, others are taken to camps for execution. Rohm is jailed, and shot the next day. Hitler even takes the opportunity to have von Schleicher, the ex-chancellor, killed.

Hitler’s speech on 13 July:

Hitler’s speech on 13 July "In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I become the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason." Hitler had wanted Rohm to be let off, for old time’s sake. Himmler and Goering wanted none of it. Rohm was ordered to commit suicide. When he refused, two SS men shot him dead....

Results of the Night of the Long Knives:

Results of the Night of the Long Knives Over 1,000 opponents were killed. In August, President Hindenburg died. Hitler made himself President as well as Chancellor, a new role called ‘Der Fuehrer’. He also made himself head of the armed forces, who had to swear an oath of loyalty to him. He was now in complete control.

The Fuehrer Oath:

The Fuehrer Oath I swear by almighty God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to the Fuehrer of the German Reich and people, Adolf Hitler, Supreme Commander of the Wehrmacht, and, as a brave soldier, I will be ready at any time to stake my life for this oath."

PowerPoint Presentation:

Causes Events Results Use the information from the powerpoint and p 169 - 170 To complete this diagram. Clues: SA Rohm power Army Scare others 30 th June 1934 Who were the victims and how many? How did this help Hitler strengthen his position?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Causes Events Results Use the information from the powerpoint and p 169 -170 To complete this diagram. SA was too powerful SA wanted well paid jobs and to merge with the army. Uniting the SA with the army would cause Hitler to lose the support of the leaders of German army. SA criticising Hitler’s support from big business. Rohm might emerge as rival to Hitler. Scare critics of Hitler into silence. Party under control Army pleased with Hitlers Actions – August 1934 Swore an oath of loyalty to Hitler Control in Germany through fear 30 th June 1934 Hitler ordered elite Bodyguards to arrest and execute leaders of SA. Rohm, Von Schleicher and other opponents killed Over 1000 opponents killed

PowerPoint Presentation:

(c) ‘The most important reason why Hitler was able to strengthen his control over Germany during 1933 and 1934 was the “Night of the Long Knives”.’ Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. January 1933 Chancellor with little power August 1934 Dictator Fuhrer

PowerPoint Presentation:

(c) ‘The most important reason why Hitler was able to strengthen his control over Germany during 1933 and 1934 was the “Night of the Long Knives”.’ Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. With your neighbour discuss how you would answer that question. Write a list of the paragraphs that you would include and evidence to support the answer. Introduction – set out your argument. Was the night of the long knives the most important reason? What was Hitler’s position in January 1933? Paragraph 1 – The night of the long knives was an important reason why Hitler was able to strengthen his control because… Paragraph 2 – On the other hand / However … Paragraph 3 - Furthermore Paragraph 4 - Moreover Overall

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