Translation PowerPoint

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PROTEIN SYNTHESIS PART 2 TRANSLATION:

1 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS PART 2 TRANSLATION

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2 Translation Translation is the process of decoding the mRNA into a protein. Ribosomes read mRNA three bases or 1 codon at a time and construct the proteins This process could not occur without another type of RNA called tRNA (transfer RNA)

Transfer RNA (tRNA):

amino acid attachment site U A C anticodon methionine amino acid 3 Transfer RNA ( tRNA ) Has a clover-leaf shape Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm Transports amino acids to the mRNA Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds to them. Have anticodons that are complementary to mRNA codons

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Each 3-letter codon in the mRNA has an anticodon on the tRNA that will match it. Below shows a series of codons . Fill in what the anticodons would look like below. AUG | CGU | ACU | GAU | CGU | UCA | GAU | UGA UAC AGU GCA CUA ACU GCA CUA UGA Codons and Anticodons

Ribosomes:

5 Large subunit P Site A Site Small subunit mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 5 Ribosomes Made of a large and small subunit Composed of globular-shaped rRNA (40%) and proteins (60%) Have two sites for tRNA attachment --- P and A

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6 Step 1 Initiation mRNA transcript start codon AUG attaches to the small ribosomal subunit Small subunit attaches to large ribosomal subunit mRNA transcript P Site A Site Small subunit mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G Large subunit

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7 Step 1 Initiation

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8 Step 2 Elongation As ribosome moves , two tRNA with their amino acids move into site A and P of the ribosome Peptide bonds join the amino acids

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9 Step 2 Elongation

mRNA Codons Join the Ribosome:

10 mRNA Codons Join the Ribosome P Site A Site Large subunit Small subunit mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G

Initiation:

11 Initiation mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa2 A U A 1-tRNA U A C aa1 anticodon hydrogen bonds codon

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12 mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A anticodon hydrogen bonds codon peptide bond 3-tRNA G A A aa3 Elongation

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13 mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 1-tRNA 2-tRNA U A C G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bond 3-tRNA G A A aa3 (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon

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14 mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U

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15 mRNA A U G C U A C U U C G 2-tRNA G aa1 aa2 A U A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U (leaves) Ribosomes move over one codon

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16 mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U U G A 5-tRNA aa5

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17 mRNA G C U A C U U C G aa1 aa2 A peptide bonds 3-tRNA G A A aa3 4-tRNA G C U aa4 A C U U G A 5-tRNA aa5 Ribosomes move over one codon

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18 mRNA A C A U G U aa1 aa2 U primary structure of a protein aa3 200-tRNA aa4 U A G aa5 C U aa200 aa199 terminator or stop codon Termination

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19 Termination

End Product –The Protein!:

20 End Product –The Protein! The end products of protein synthesis is a protein - A sequence of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa200 aa199

Messenger RNA (mRNA):

21 Messenger RNA (mRNA) methionine glycine serine isoleucine glycine alanine stop codon protein A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A mRNA start codon Protein aa1 aa2 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa6 peptide bonds codon 2 codon 3 codon 4 codon 5 codon 6 codon 7 codon 1