educational administration model

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2. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION MODEL (System Approach)

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A system is a set of two or more interrelated elements of any kind by Ackoff (1974) Concepts – as in the number system Objects – as in telephone system or human body People – as in social system

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A set of detailed methods , procedures , and routines established or formulated to carry out a specific activity , perform a duty , or solve a problem .

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An organized , purposeful structure regarded as a whole and consisting of interrelated and interdependent elements ( components , entities , factors , members , parts etc.). These elements continually influence one another (directly or indirectly) to maintain their activity and the existence of the system, in order to achieve the goal of the system

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Early system analyses of the school ( Getzels and Guba , 1957) viewed organizations as :

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Sealed off from the outside world. All energy is drawn from within the system, all events occur within the system, and all products are used by and within the system. Nothing is imported or exported. Closed systems

2. Natural System :

2. Natural System 1. Rational System

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Views organization as formal instruments designed to achieve specific organizational goals. Rationality is the extent to which a set of actions is organized and implemented to achieve predetermined goals with maximum efficiency (Scott, 1992) Rational Systems: A Machine Model

Historical Roots:

Historical Roots Scientific Management Focus: Organizational Goals Time Frame: 1900 - 1930 Pioneers: Frederic Taylor Henri Fayol Luther Gulick

Key Concepts of Rational Systems:

Key Concepts of Rational Systems Goals Division of Labor Specialization Standardization Formalization Hierarchy of Authority Narrow Span of Control Control Rationality Formal Organization

Key Assumptions and Principles in Rational Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Rational Systems Organizations exist primarily to accomplish Goals Division of labor leads to specialization Specialization promotes expertise Standardization of tasks produces efficiency Formalization of activities improves efficiency

Key Assumptions and Principles in Rational Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Rational Systems 6. Hierarchy promotes disciplined compliance 7. A narrow span of control improves supervision 8. Administrative control essential for efficiency 9. Rationality in decision making promotes efficiency 10. Formal organization can be designed to maximize efficiency

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task MANAGER worker worker worker A Task, a manager and a pool of workers

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T1 MANAGER worker worker worker Task Analysis, Breakdown, and Job Specialization by Manager T3 T4 T2

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Provides another view of organization that contrasts with the rational – systems perspective. The natural systems perspective had its early roots in the human relations approach of the 1930s; it developed in large part as a reaction to the scientific managers and perceived inadequacies of the rational systems model. Natural System: Organic Model (Human Relation Approach)

Historical Roots:

Historical Roots Human Relations Focus: Individual Needs Time Frame: 1930 - 1960 Pioneers: Mary Parker Follet Elton Mayo Fritz Rothliberger

Key Concepts of Natural Systems:

Key Concepts of Natural Systems Survival Needs Individuals Social Structure Informal Norms Empowerment Broad span of control Culture Teams Informal Organization

Key Assumptions and Principles in Natural Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Natural Systems Organizations are primarily social groups adapting and surviving Individual needs are the primary motivators of organizational performance Individuals are more important than structure in achieving effectiveness Individuals organize themselves informally on basis of interests

Key Assumptions and Principles in Natural Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Natural Systems 5. Unofficial norms and procedures are often more important than formal ones 6. Shared decision making promotes effectiveness 7. A broad span of control enhances teacher autonomy and effectiveness Organizational culture mediates the effects of structure 9. Teamwork is the key to organizational success 10. Informal structures are more important than formal ones

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Open systems

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Refer to the degree of openness, remains exposed to many intervention; for school administrator, marinating a relatively open system involves regulating school enrollment, making learning enjoyable for all, monitoring downstream entry of students into work life, anticipating growth in school populations, and more.

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The open – system model has the potential to provide a synthesis by combining the rational and natural perspectives. Organizations are complex and dynamic.

Historical Roots:

Historical Roots Social Science Focus: Integration Time Frame: 1960 - present Pioneers: Chester Barnard Herbert Simon Max Weber

Key Concepts of Open Systems:

Key Concepts of Open Systems Interdependence of the organization and its environment

Key Concepts of Open Systems:

Key Concepts of Open Systems Integration of a. organizational goals and human needs b. rational and natural features c. tight and loose couplings d. planned and unplanned activities e. formal and informal perspective

Key Concepts of Open Systems:

Key Concepts of Open Systems Contingency Theory

Key Assumptions and Principles in Open Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Open Systems All organizations are open systems that interact with their environment Organizational behavior is a function of the interaction of organizational structure and individual needs. All organizations have both rational and natural features

Key Assumptions and Principles in Open Systems :

Key Assumptions and Principles in Open Systems 4. Organizations need both loose and tight couplings to succeed. 5. Politics pervades organizational life 6. Organizations have two interactive faces: formal and an informal 7. There is no one best way to organize, to motivate, to decide, to lead, or to communicate; the effectiveness of such processes is contingent upon a variety of circumstances

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School Social – System Model: It can be applied to social organizations that are carefully and deliberately planned or to those that emerge spontaneously. The school is system of social interaction; it is an organized whole comprising interacting personalities bound together in an organic relationship.

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