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Understanding the “What” and “Why” of Vertical Alignment : Understanding the “What” and “Why” of Vertical Alignment More than establishing scope and sequence Process of ensuring… A good match between state standards and lessons taught in classrooms on a daily basis Instructional activities are aligned to standards An appropriate amount of time is devoted to instruction Unnecessary repetitions are removed Gaps are identified Assessments are appropriate (Cohen, 1987; English & Steffy, 2001; Moss-Mitchell, 1998; Neidermeyer & Yelon, 1981; Porter et al., 1994; Porter & Smithson, 2001; Price-Braugh, 1997; Wishnick, 1989). What Does the Research Say? : What Does the Research Say? Research indicates… that alignment is a powerful indicator of academic achievement. that an aligned curriculum can increase student-achievement and helps to overcome the usual predictors of socio-economic status, gender, race, and teacher quality variables. (Cohen, 1987; English & Steffy, 2001; Moss-Mitchell, 1998; Neidermeyer & Yelon, 1981; Porter et al., 1994; Porter & Smithson, 2001; Price-Braugh, 1997; Wishnick, 1989). The Cost of Misalignment : The Cost of Misalignment Poor student achievement Under-prepared students Fewer students meeting expectations At-risk populations in jeopardy Teachers working hard but not producing Teachers unclear about responsibilities Simply Stated : Simply Stated A clear target understood by the student, the parent, and the teacher, assessed in a clearly understood manner has the best opportunity of being achieved. Buy In : Buy In Why This? Why Now? : Why This? Why Now? Budgeting and Logistics : Budgeting and Logistics Preparing for Successful Implementation Logistics : Logistics Budgeting : Budgeting Model A: 6-12 Social Studies : Model A: 6-12 Social Studies Initial Process 1.5 School years 8 Sessions 2.5 hours each 3 days – teacher workdays 5 days – half days with substitutes Cost Approximately $15,000 + facilitators, supplies, and refreshments (30) 6-12 Social Studies teachers (30) 6-12 Math teachers Revision/Trial Period 1 School year 4 Sessions 1.25 hours each Quarterly after school meetings Cost $0 + Facilitators, supplies, and refreshments CEUs Initial Process 2.0 CEUs (Content-Area) Revision Period 0.5 CEUs (Content-Area) Model B: K-12 Science : Model B: K-12 Science Initial Process 1.5 School years Initial meetings at each school to begin the process 6 Sessions 2.5 hours each Early Release ½ Days Cost Approximately $0 +facilitators, supplies, and refreshments (60-65) K-12 Science teachers Revision/Trial Period 1 School year 4 Sessions 1.25 hours each Quarterly after school meetings Cost $0 + Facilitators, supplies, and refreshments CEUs Initial Process 1.5 CEUs (Content-Area) Revision Period 0.5 CEUs (Content-Area) Model C: K-5 Math : Model C: K-5 Math Initial Process 1 Week 5 Sessions 9 am – 3 pm Cost Approximately $9,000 + facilitators, supplies ,and refreshments (30) K-5 Math teachers Revision/Trial Period 1 School year 4 Sessions 1.25 hours each Quarterly after school meetings Cost $0 + Facilitators, supplies, and refreshments CEUs Initial Process 2.0 CEUs (Content-Area) Revision Period 0.5 CEUs (Content-Area) Facilitators : Facilitators Overview of the Process : Overview of the Process Things to Remember to Make Alignment Work Before You Begin : Before You Begin Activity #1: Understanding Each Other : Activity #1: Understanding Each Other Resources : Resources Where are we going with all of this? : Where are we going with all of this? Unpacking the Curriculum : Unpacking the Curriculum Why Unpack? : Why Unpack? Food for Thought : Food for Thought Have discussions that include what students will need to understand/ demonstrate in order to achieve mastery in the course : Have discussions that include what students will need to understand/ demonstrate in order to achieve mastery in the course Goals of Unpacking : Goals of Unpacking Tools : Tools NCSCoS EOC/EOG test question breakdown Highlighters, pens, and paper Computer Curriculum Specialists Teacher input and time TOGETHER as a group Textbooks or other course resources** Process : Process Goals for Teachers : Goals for Teachers Reviewing the Unpacked Curriculum : Reviewing the Unpacked Curriculum The assignment… Review all unpacked curricula 6th Grade -- reviewed by Civics and Economics 7th Grade – reviewed by World History 8th Grade – reviewed by US History World History – reviewed by 7th Grade U.S. History – reviewed by 8th grade Civics and Economics – reviewed by 6th grade Questions to Answer : Questions to Answer Do you have a clear understanding of the most important concepts in this content area? If not, what information do you need to clarify the concepts? Is information categorized and “chunked” in a manner that makes sense? If not, explain. (too much content, not enough content, organization, etc.) What are up to three questions you have for the content area teachers? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the “unpacked” curriculum? What are up to three suggestions you can make to help the group in their revisions? **You have 20 minutes to answer these questions. The curriculum for each grade level is found in the green section of your binder. Narrowing the Focus : Narrowing the Focus If you had two weeks of school remaining before the EOG/EOC and you were hired in a position where students had a substitute all year and had not covered any of the curriculum, what would you cover in the two weeks leading up to your test? What information in your course would provide more long-term value for your student? – In other words, what is nice to know as opposed to what is essential? How did you decide which standards are the most important to teach when there is no way to teach all of them effectively in the time you have? Depth over Breadth : Depth over Breadth Questions? : Questions? From Unpacked Curriculum to Creating Power Standards What to Expect : What to Expect Slide 52: Power Standards The Dilemma : The Dilemma Why Power Standards? : Why Power Standards? By collaborating, unpacking the curriculum, developing power standards, and system-wide pacing guides, we can work smarter and more effectively. What is Essential? : What is Essential? What is REALLY Essential? : What is REALLY Essential? Complete Venn Diagram with group by using your resources and share results What was interesting? What was surprising? What questions do you have for other groups? Do you need to make revisions to your unpacked curriculum? Writing Power Standards : Writing Power Standards Repacking the Curriculum Understanding Power Standards : Understanding Power Standards Sample Fourth Grade Power Standards : Sample Fourth Grade Power Standards Students taking Fourth Grade Social Studies in Wayne Township will… Trace the historical periods, places, people, events, and movements that have led to the development of Indiana as a state Explain citizenship rights and responsibilities Use inquiry and communication skills to report findings in charts, graphs, written, and verbal formats Describe the major physical and cultural characteristics of Indiana Compare the characteristics of Indiana’s changing economy in the past and present Analyze the roles and relationships of diverse groups of people contributing to Indiana’s cultural heritage Describe the impacts of science, technology, and the arts on Indiana’s culture Sample Algebra I Power Standards : Sample Algebra I Power Standards Students taking Algebra I in Hickory Public Schools will… Demonstrate how to write, graph, and create equations of lines based on data. Collect, organize, and interpret data using matrices. Solve systems of equations algebraically and using matrices. Demonstrate and solve problems with exponents, polynomials, radicals, and rational expressions. Explore the concepts of length, midpoint, parallel and perpendicular lines, and Pythagorean Theorem. Writing Power Standards : Writing Power Standards Students taking _____________ in (YOUR) Public Schools will… Statements will be verb phrases that will complete this statement What should our limit be for this content area? Strong Verbs for Power Standards : Strong Verbs for Power Standards Apply Create Identify Utilize Analyze Demonstrate React Understand Share Judge Answer Explore Use Explain Design Conduct Follow Deliver Evaluate Research Evaluate Calculate Organize Write Determine Distinguish Goals for Teachers : Goals for Teachers Gallery Walk : Gallery Walk Looking for Vertical Flow Gallery Walk Tools and Directions : Gallery Walk Tools and Directions Questions to Consider : Questions to Consider As you complete the gallery walk of each standard, consider the following questions: Is each standard clear? Do there seem to be any major omissions, gaps, or overlaps? Is there a particular standard or indicator that is likely to be state tested that is completely missing? Do you see any standards that seem redundantly taught in two or three grades that could be thoroughly taught in one? (Not sure? Leave a question for the grade level teachers.) What comment should I leave? : What comment should I leave? Reviewing Comments : Reviewing Comments Refining Our Understanding : Refining Our Understanding Content-Area Vocabulary Course Descriptions The Process : The Process Bring what you think are the twenty to twenty-five most important vocabulary words in your curriculum This is NOT a group activity – choose the words YOU think are the most important for students to know The Process : The Process The Big Picture : The Big Picture Quality Vocabulary Instruction : Quality Vocabulary Instruction Working with the Lists : Working with the Lists Peruse all lists to gain a greater understanding of what is taught at each level Upper levels, pay particular attention to any concepts, key terms, or words that are being taught in previous courses What observations can you make from what you have seen? What questions do you have? Prioritizing and Revising Lists : Prioritizing and Revising Lists What is your goal in creating a content-area vocabulary resource? How did you choose your key words/terms? How do you want to organize these terms? How do you want them presented on the curriculum map? Should we determine a maximum number of words? (Consider Purpose and Audience) Writing Course Descriptions : Writing Course Descriptions Proofing/Revisions Session : Proofing/Revisions Session Coming Full Circle : Coming Full Circle Creating Shared Agreements McREL’s Definition : McREL’s Definition Shared Agreements : Shared Agreements Goal of Creating Shared Agreements : Goal of Creating Shared Agreements Why Shared Agreements? : Why Shared Agreements? Lipsey and Wilson (1993) – academic goal setting – effect size of 0.55* Range from 18-41 percentile points Why Shared Agreements : Why Shared Agreements Through shared agreements, teachers create… : Through shared agreements, teachers create… High School Science Shared Agreements : High School Science Shared Agreements We agree that all of our students will… Read and interpret articles on science in popular and professional magazines through summaries and presentations four times per year. Explore and understand the scientific process by creating their own experimental investigations, and by interpreting and critiquing the experimental designs of others, at least once a month Apply their understanding of scientific concepts by designing investigations and community-service projects at least twice per year. Conduct inquiries into ethical issues in the practice of science, and its limitations and powers as a discipline at least twice per year. Strong, R, Silver, H, & Perini, M (2001). Teaching what matters most: Standards and strategies for raising student achievement. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Shared Agreement Preparation : Shared Agreement Preparation Resources from Notebook : Resources from Notebook Philosophy, Purpose (p. 2-3) Program Description (Scope), Legal Requirements (p. 4-6) History, Geography (p. 7-8) Economics, Political Science (p.9-10) Skills, Foundation for Skills Development (p.12-13) Social Studies Competency Goals 1-2 (p. 14) Social Studies Competency Goals 3-5 (p. 15) Other Resources : Other Resources Power Standards 21st Century Learning Goals (p. 22) ACRE Reform standards (p. 36) EOG/EOC Information (p. 39-53) English I Shared Agreements (Notebook) Science Shared Agreements (Handout) Five Standards of Authentic Instruction Higher-order thinking Depth of knowledge Connectedness to the world beyond the classroom Substantive conversation Social support for student achievement Preparing to Work : Preparing to Work Strategies to Establish Shared Agreements : Strategies to Establish Shared Agreements Establish WHAT is to be done Outline WHEN and HOW OFTEN tasks or actions will be completed Consider different environments (grades, content areas) Establish a sense of PURPOSE for each activity Creating Shared Agreements : Creating Shared Agreements Have a professional dialogue in your groups. You have 30 minutes together. Input from Everyone is essential to success Create 3-5 shared agreements in your group Type the agreements E-mail them to facilitator for compilation Print 10 copies to share with other groups. Amending Agreements : Amending Agreements As a content area/grade level look at everyone’s agreements Mark agreements that address the same concept/idea/theme , circle, *, other symbol to mark like items Group Discussion Can last up to 2 hours Semantics, discussions, confusion, etc. Shared Agreements – Social Studies : Shared Agreements – Social Studies Students will interpret and evaluate various sources, including text, primary historical documents and media sources, through summaries and/or presentations at least four times throughout the course. Students will engage in a content-appropriate project based on research and the evaluation of source materials in each course. Students will interpret and apply appropriate tools, including maps, charts, graphs, tables, timelines, political cartoons, etc., within each unit. Students will use technology to access, share, present, and/or demonstrate knowledge and skills in each course. Creating District-Wide Curriculum Maps : Creating District-Wide Curriculum Maps Making it Real Working on the Work Mirror, Mirror : Mirror, Mirror I teach the textbook from one chapter to the next. I know ________ is not a part of my curriculum, but it is in my textbook, and I enjoy it. So, I always cover it. The kids love it too, so I don’t see the problem. I never get to ______________ because it is at the end of the book, but I plan to cover this topic every year. I am unsure as to whether or not I cover the entire curriculum. I teach as hard as I can so that I can get through the curriculum. I know some of my kids don’t “get it all,” but I have to keep on moving for the ones who can make a 3 on the EOG/EOC.” Required Elements : Required Elements Timeline : Timeline Semester/Yearlong Timeline Discuss the SCoS in your grade level Iron out a timeline for your course Unit/Theme Chronologically Geographically 30 minutes (Include a Break at Your Leisure) Record Information on Chart Paper Consider… Your NCSCoS Your Resources Really taking a hard look at what you do and if changes needed Being open minded Your EOC question breakdown Sequencing Year Before – Year After Timeline Review and Reflection : Timeline Review and Reflection Essential Questions : Essential Questions Quality Training Half to Full Day Process Frustrating for Teachers in some Content Areas Optional Elements : Optional Elements Sample Drafts : Sample Drafts Share models/exemplars Improves quality Reduces anxiety Increases time on task One-Year Review : One-Year Review Implementation and Revisions Food for Thought : Food for Thought Creating/Revising/Reviewing District-Wide Benchmark Assessments : Creating/Revising/Reviewing District-Wide Benchmark Assessments A Process Unique to Each District Process : Process What district-wide assessments are already in place? What where are you in this process? District-Wide Questions : District-Wide Questions Crucial Conversations with Teachers : Crucial Conversations with Teachers What makes a good benchmark assessment? : What makes a good benchmark assessment? See your responses from our last session ACRE is changing the way we approach assessments Reforming both standards and assessments Open-ended, upper-level Bloom’s Developing Benchmark Assessments: A Teacher Perspective Are we truly going to develop benchmarks that will embrace the ACRE reform or are so influenced by the current culture of NCLB that we cannot envision assessment in other ways? Options for Benchmark Delivery : Options for Benchmark Delivery What we know about Benchmarks… : What we know about Benchmarks… Cannot stand alone Must be a part of a whole system Used to adapt teaching to meet each learner’s needs And to evaluate student knowledge and skills relative to a specific set of academic goals – typically within a limited time frame Cumulative benchmarks are imperative Should be aligned with content standards Designed to inform decisions at both the classroom and beyond the classroom level Credit Recovery, Tutoring, Remediation, Portfolios Should be delivered using various modes Task : Task Teachers work together to plan your benchmark assessments. As you plan, consider the following: EQ’s Power Standards Timeline Concerns about two textbooks? (middle school) Prepare a hard copy or electronic copy to share. Will you need… : Will you need… Question-writing sessions for your teachers? To pull items from an item bank? To compare current benchmarks to curriculum maps? Etc. Other Considerations : Other Considerations Collaborative Online Workspace Feedback Opportunities Aligning Remaining High School Courses Posting Options Important Trainings to Consider Reasons to Use an Online Collaborative Workspace : Reasons to Use an Online Collaborative Workspace Making the Most of your Wiki : Making the Most of your Wiki Adding Folders for Units Assignments Graphic Organizers Information Notes Etc. How do we keep the lines of communication open between middle and high schools after we have completed the alignment sessions? Update message Feedback Opportunities : Feedback Opportunities High School Course Completion : High School Course Completion Posting Options : Posting Options Where will you post? Individual teacher pages Curriculum/Instruction page For Parents/For Students Other Options Review: From Start to Finish : Review: From Start to Finish Climate Survey (T-chart) Unpacking the Curriculum Power Standards Content Area Vocabulary Course Descriptions Shared Agreements Grades Timelines Curriculum Maps with Required and Optional Elements Various Revisions and Gallery Walks Create/Design/Review Benchmark Assessments Year-long implementation, review, and revisions process Final Thought : Final Thought Slide 134: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License. For more information, visit http://creativecommons.org. Visit our presentation at http://hpswatercooler.ning.com/ Credit info: Heather Mullins, Jennifer Griffin, and Donna Murray Hickory Public Schools Curriculum Specialists / Instructional Technology Specialist firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org References : References Academic excellence framework RISD strategic plan. . (n.d.). Rock Island School District #41. Retrieved November 24, 2009, from curriculum.risd41.org/committee/aef/04-05/AEF.ppt Ainsworth, Larry (2006). Making standards work series: power standards. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from Center for Performance Assessment Web site:http://www.makingstandardswork.com/professional.development/power_standards.htm Ainsworth, Larry (2003). Power standards: Identifying the standards that matter the most. Englewood, CO: Advanced Learning Press. Allen, J. (1999) Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12. ME: Stenhouse. Beck, M., McKeown, and Kucan. (2002) Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford. Becker, W. C. (1977) Teaching Reading and Language to the Disadvantaged: What We Have Learned From Field Research. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 511-543. Beers, K. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. New Hampshire: Heinemann. Blanchowicz, C., and Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Independent Learners. New York: Guildford Press. Checkley, Kathy (2008). Priorities in practice: The essentials of social studies, grades K-8. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Cobuild New Student’s Dictionary: Helping Learners with Real English. Harper Collins. Cox, Kathy. (2006). Georgia performance standards: days 4 and 5. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from Georgia Department of Education Web site:http://www.georgiastandards.org/DMGetDocument.aspx/gps_redelivery_45_science.ppt?p=4BE1EECF99CD364EA5554055463F1FBBF5D074D5FB1F2CAEB3B63B3ECB220CDD26C2114F3C57D8D2E02406F764128C53&Type=D Create shared agreements . (n.d.). McREL: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. Retrieved November 24, 2009, from http://www.mcrel.org/SuccessInSight/Default.aspx?tabid=2394 References : References Dean, Ceri B. (2003). A report documenting the process for developing an integrated standards-based instructional unit. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from McRel Mid-Continental Research for Education and Learning Web site: http://www.mcrel.org/PDF/Standards/5031TG_DevelopingaStandards-basedUnit.pdf Developing benchmark assessments. (n.d.). California Department of Education. Retrieved November 25, 2009, from pubs.cde.ca.gov/TCSII/documentlibrary/developbenchmark.aspx Gaskins, I. W. (2005) Success with Struggling Readers. New York: Guilford Press. Graves, M. (2006) The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction. New York: Teachers College Press. Harmon, J. M., Wood K.D., and Hedrick W.B. (2006) Instructional Strategies for Teaching Content Vocabulary Grades 4-12. Ohio: National Middle School Association. Marzano, Robert J (2006). Classroom assessment and grading that work. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Marzano, Robert J, Pickering, Debra J., & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Marzano, Robert J (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. McEwan, E.K. (2004) Strategies of Highly Effective Readers. California: Corwin Press. Pasquier, Myra & Gomez-Zwelp, Susan. (2006). Developing benchmark assessments: A teacher perspective. Retrieved May 6, 2009, from Center for Assessment and Evaluation of Student Learning Web site: http://www.caesl.org/conference2006/Benchmark_poster.pdf Strong, R, Silver, H, & Perini, M (2001). Teaching what matters most: Standards and strategies for raising student achievement. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The standards-based instructional planning process: Backwards mapping from standards to instruction . (n.d.). The California State University Website. Retrieved November 24, 2009, from www.calstate.edu/CAPP/projects/Module_2.pdf You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.