logging in or signing up Achieving a dyslexia friendly classroom candoSpLDtutors Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 5737 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (3) Dislike it (0) Added: January 15, 2010 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 3 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript Achievingthe Dyslexia Friendly Classroom : Achievingthe Dyslexia Friendly Classroom A Practical Guide Index : Index Foreword Dyslexia Definitions Practically speaking Assessment and Intervention - the Dyslexic pupil. Assessing Behaviour Dyslexia Friendly Teaching Marking Modifying Homework Doing Homework Numeracy and Dyscalculia Revision How to adapt teaching in the various subjects – Modern Languages – History – Geography – Science ICT applications http://www.teachers.tv/search/node/dyslexia+friendly Foreword – Why Dyslexia Friendly Schools? : Foreword – Why Dyslexia Friendly Schools? The philosophy underpinning the Quality Mark is that changing practice to accommodate dyslexic individuals often results in good practice for everyone. The BDA recognises that the majority of moderately dyslexic students will be taught in mainstream classrooms. Therefore it is important that, as well as employing appropriate teaching methods, all environments are dyslexia friendly. This is what the Quality Mark strives to be. Swansea Experience : Swansea Experience Where schools have implemented the dyslexia friendly schools charter…there are wide benefits, including improvements in literacy across the curriculum, better teaching for all pupils, greater awareness of individual needs and the use of more varied teaching strategies. Forward - SEN Code of Practice : Forward - SEN Code of Practice Dyslexia is identified as a difficulty in (i) Communication and Interaction and (ii) Cognition and learning. However, pupils with dyslexia may also have difficulties identified in (iii) Behaviour, Emotional and Social Development (due to possible withdrawn or disruptive behaviour). Certain teaching arrangements are suggested as being appropriate for pupils whose difficulties fall into theses categories, including: Flexible teaching arrangements Help in acquiring, comprehending and using language Help in acquiring literacy skills Help in using alternative means of communication Help in organising and co-ordinating oral and written work Help in sequencing and organisational skills Help with processing language, memory and reasoning skills Provision of a safe and supportive environment Help with adjusting to the school’s expectations and routines Dyslexia : Dyslexia BDA definition of Dyslexia : BDA definition of Dyslexia as "a combination of abilities and difficulties which affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling and writing. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short term memory, sequencing, auditory and /or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills. It is particularly related to mastering and using written language, which may include alphabetic, numeric and musical notation". Adult Dyslexia Organisation in the U.K. : Adult Dyslexia Organisation in the U.K. "Dyslexia may be caused by a combination of phonological, visual and auditory processing deficits. Word retrieval and speed of processing difficulties may also be present.” http://www.dyslexia-information.com/what_is_dyslexia.htm Learning Differences not difficulties? : Learning Differences not difficulties? Dyslexia can be viewed as a 'A Specific Learning Difference which is constitutional in origin and which may cause unexpected difficulties in the acquisition of certain skills.' (Neil McKay). He made a case for Dyslexia to be placed on the continuum of learning styles and preferences and so prefers to use the word 'difference' rather than 'difficulties,’ arguing that children with dyslexia process information in a different way from non-dyslexic children. The dyslexic child may be articulate, creative and full of ideas, but may experience difficulties when he is expected to express his knowledge when writing it down. : Children with dyslexia can have different way of processing information – difference does not mean deficit! What is DYSLEXIA in practical terms? : What is DYSLEXIA in practical terms? It is difficulty in learning to read printed or written text, despite normal or superior intelligence and conventional instruction. Dyslexia is a learning disability whose first symptoms are: difficulty in learning to read, later erratic spelling, lack of facility in manipulating written as opposed to spoken language. The term dyslexia refers to a spectrum of problems: some can read but not write, others can write but not read, most are somewhere between these extremes, although some can neither read nor write. Difficulties Encountered by Pupils with Dyslexia : Difficulties Encountered by Pupils with Dyslexia Memory Recording Time Direction Sequencing Self-esteem Organisation Homework Did you know? : Did you know? The layout and presentation of worksheets are as important as the content and the tasks Identification and Intervention : Identification and Intervention How do we identify the Dyslexic pupil? : How do we identify the Dyslexic pupil? Some general aspects relating to the purpose of assessment include some of the following Written work. : Written work. Has a poor standard of written work compared with oral ability Has poor handwriting with badly formed letters Has neat handwriting, but writes very slowly indeed Has difficulty with punctuation and/or grammar Confuses upper and lower case letters Writes a great deal but 'loses the thread' Writes very little, but to the point Has difficulty taking notes in lectures Difficulty with organisation of homework Finds tasks difficult to complete on time Appears to know more than committed to paper Slow writing speed and perhaps a reluctance to write a lengthy piece Unusual writing grip or sitting position Reading. : Reading. Is hesitant and laboured, especially when reading aloud Omits, repeats or adds extra words Reads at a reasonable rate, but has a low level of comprehension Fails to recognise familiar words Misses a line or repeats the same line twice Loses his place - or uses a finger or marker to keep the place Has difficulty in pin-pointing the main idea in a passage Finds difficulty with dictionaries, directories, encyclopaedias Letter combinations that make sounds like ‘ph’ and ‘th’ can be difficult Pattern of error e.g. predujice, nessicty Substitution of words with similar meanings when reading aloud Difficulty with rhyming and the sequence of the rhyme Reverses, omits or adds letters or words Difficulty with the sequence of the alphabet Poor word attach skills – particularly with new words Reading speed slow and hesitant and often with little expression Reluctance to read for pleasure Reading comprehension better than single word reading Confuses words which have the same or similar sounds – ‘their’ and ‘there’ Omits words or lines when reading or writing. Omits punctuation and capital letters. Letters and numbers appear to move, grow, shrink, or disappear. : Reading As a dyslexic student you may: Read slowly, and need to read things many times. Quickly forget what you've read. Add words or miss them out. Lose your place and have to start again. Find that it is very hard to focus on the page. Writing Spelling : Spelling Produces badly set out or messily written work, with spellings crossed out several times Spells the same word differently in one piece of work Makes phonological errors e.g. ‘f’ for ‘ph’ Letters out of sequence Inconsistent use of some letters with similar sound e.g. ‘s’ and ‘z’ Difficulty with work endings ‘ie’ for ‘y’ Confusion or omission of vowels Difficulties with words with double consonants e.g. ‘commission’ Some examples of problems: : Some examples of problems: fingers as fringe. omitting short words: s/he might omit function words (opposed to content words) e.g.: articles participles conjunctions prepositions long words: s/he might abbreviate, e.g. walk for walking Some examples of problems: : Some examples of problems: mirror-opposites: s/he might see p instead of q, d instead of b, 127 instead of 721 saw instead of was lion instead of loin guessing: s/he might read officer as official -approximate as appropriate. Other areas. : Other areas. Confuses direction - left/right Has difficulty in learning foreign languages Has indeterminate hand preference Has difficulty in finding the name for an object Has clear processing problems at speed Misunderstands complicated questions Finds holding a list of instructions in memory difficult, although can perform all tasks when told individually Other areas : Other areas Numeracy – Difficulty remembering tables and or basic number sets Finds sequencing problematic Confuses signs such as + for x Can think at a high level in Maths but needs a calculator for basic facts Finds mental arithmetic at speed very difficult Other areas : Other areas Difficulty in reading clocks, especially manual clocks. Difficulty being on time or keeping track of time Difficulty remembering what they’ve been told Unable to proof read Unable to organize thoughts coherently for story or essay writing Simplistic writing compared to oral ability Take longer copying form board Have sort concentration span and be easily distracted by other sounds in the classroom Feelings of low self-esteem and expresses feeling, "I am stupid." Easily frustrated with academic work. Uses avoidance techniques with school work. Tests too high to qualify for extra help at school, but does not succeed well at academic work. In General : In General Dyslexia relates to how information is processed Children with dyslexia can have difficulty displaying knowledge and understanding in written work Children with dyslexia can have problems learning through listening and have difficulties remembering and organizing information – they need more time to process information Children with dyslexia usually have difficulty reading and spelling fluently They have difficulty with co-ordination (there can be an overlap with dyspraxia) Have poor long-term and organisational memory as well as short term and working memory ASSESSING BEHAVIOUR - translating difficulties in classroom behaviour : ASSESSING BEHAVIOUR - translating difficulties in classroom behaviour You may think: : You may think: S/he's not listening S/he may have difficulty in remembering a list of instructions. S/he may have problems getting thoughts together coherently for story or essay writing. S/he may have sequencing problems and may need to be taught strategies to cope/alternative ways of remembering. S/he's lazy S/he may have difficulty in organising work and need specific teaching to help her/him. S/he may be able to answer the questions orally but can't write them down. The child may have found that the less s/he writes, the less trouble s/he gets into for making mistakes S/he's not concentrating S/he may have difficulty in copying accurately. This is often because s/he cannot remember chunks but needs to look at each letter, write it, then look at the board again, find the place, and so on... You may think: : You may think: S/he's careless S/he may have very poor handwriting as s/he hasn't sufficient hand skills to control the pencil. S/he's not checking work S/he may spell the same word several different ways if s/he doesn't have the visual memory to know what is right or the kinaesthetic memory for it to feel right as s/he is writing. S/he doesn't look carefully S/he may have a visual memory deficiency and therefore experience difficulty when interpreting symbols. S/he's being awkward / impossible on purpose S/he may be able to produce very good work one day and the next "trip up over every word". "Off days" are quite common and require extra encouragement and understanding. : doesn't always participate in class, frequently comes up with excuses for not having done homework, has 'creative', reversed or phonetic spelling. In grammar s/he has problems with analysis and synthesis His/her sentence structure is poor. Most important of all, there is a big gap between her/his oral and written abilities. If you see a cluster of difficulties together with abilities in specific areas, the young person may be dyslexic. Is disorganised or forgetful e.g. over sports equipment, lessons, homework, appointments Is immature and/or clumsy Has difficulty relating to others: is unable to 'read' body language Is often in the wrong place at the wrong time Is excessively tired, due to the amount of concentration and effort required Task-related behaviours to be aware of : Task-related behaviours to be aware of The child becomes worried about making mistakes or take a guess getting things wrong, or just being unsuccessful YET AGAIN. An adaptive strategy therefore is to avoid the risk of error by avoiding making guesses. Sometimes it is much less painful to fail without effort than to put in a lot of effort and then fail. Reluctance to re-check work - This strategy helps to avoid the pain, fear and worry of finding that the last effort was incorrect. It also holds the possibility of bringing the activity to an end more quickly. Pupil may ‘lose’ essential equipment / books. This can be a good strategy for avoiding the stress of failure by reducing the likelihood of having to do the task, or by reducing the time available for the task. These potential failure experiences are not only embarrassing (which is painful), but can also lead to further loss of self esteem (which can be even more painful). The child may adopt a variety of other strategies, feigning avoidance feeling unwell, seeking to go to the toilet, sharpening strategies pencils, finding ways to bring the task to an end quickly (i.e. gives up very easily and quickly), talking to other children etc. Task-related behaviours to be aware of : Task-related behaviours to be aware of Distractibility - The child may be highly distractible during literacy activities or activities that require a written or reading response. Such a strategy may be pure avoidance, or may simply reflect a belief that success on the task will not be possible. Poor listening - The child may demonstrate poor listening skills. One possible explanation is that the child finds it hard to listen to instructions because he is worrying about the outcomes of the activity. It is hard to take in information when preoccupied with something else. The child may look for immediate solutions, which often lead to superficial solutions. This means that the child does solutions not fully scan the task initially. The child may have developed an absence of a basic expectation of success and solving tasks which would be necessary for developing the confidence needed to scan, to persevere or to re-check initial hypotheses. Acting-out behaviour : Acting-out behaviour Attention seeking The child may seek higher levels of attention, e.g. seeking guidance more often, talking and laughing with others, shouting out answers and not taking turns. Clowning The child may seek a role as the class joker or character, by way of obtaining positive feedback from peers. Aggression A child experiencing high levels of failure who may, coincidentally, also have poor relationship skills, may resort to aggressive behaviour, especially when frustrated or feeling threatened by a task. Withdrawal A child may adopt a strategy of withdrawal or of ‘disappearing’, in order to avoid the stress of failure experiences. Self-esteem : Self-esteem The child may worry about how other children and adults view him/her. This may show by way of the child making more negative comparisons between himself and others, ‘putting himself down’ etc. He may express more doubts about his ability or competence. The child may also seek high levels of reassurance, feedback or attention. Common reactions are ‘feeling stupid’, ‘feeling different’ and ‘feel embarrassed’. How to recognise Low Self Esteem : How to recognise Low Self Esteem Non-verbal communication – absence of smiles, whining or sarcastic tone of voice Frequent self-criticism – “I can’t do that!” Negative expectations of outcomes Criticism or denigration of others’ achievements Unwillingness to accept blame Eagerness to point out the failure of others An inability to praise Low motivation, refusal to try Poor social adjustment Difficulty in owning or personalising feelings How we can diminish a pupil’s self esteem : How we can diminish a pupil’s self esteem Not listening to their concerns When the ratio of criticism to praise is high When we base grades on the basis of comparison with others When we fail to provide choices or opportunities for pupils to take on responsibilities for themselves When we communicate that being brainy makes one more important than others When we fail to encourage pupils to set goals for themselves When we treat pupil with indifference When we fail to identify virtue When we relate to pupils according to stereotype When then emphasis is on teaching rather than helping pupils to learn When we give answers rather than help pupils solve their own problems Dyslexia Friendly Teaching : Dyslexia Friendly Teaching Dyslexia Friendly Teaching : Dyslexia Friendly Teaching A survey of 138 severely dyslexic pupils was carried out to seek their views on what helps them learn – these were some of their responses: An enthusiastic and patient teacher who provides: Clear instructions Clear information Clear explanations Checks to make sure pupils understand Gives examples related to teaching both orally and visually Has important points/spelling/cues on display Uses pictures in lessons Gives handouts rather than copying from the board Allows for rehearsal and review Allows time for listening and completing work Gives time and encouragement for questioning Teacher-pupil relationship : Teacher-pupil relationship A survey by South Cumbria Dyslexia Association and Manchester Metropolitan University revealed that both primary and secondary pupils place more importance on a teacher’s personal characteristics than on the provision of support materials. They rated teachers who get angry, teachers who rush them, teachers who don’t encourage them to answer questions, teachers who shout, as ‘difficult to learn from’ After analysing comments from dyslexic children about what they found difficult or positive in class, one researcher on the Manchester study concluded: ‘It is interesting that the underlying theme is the emotional climate in the classroom, rather than any specific techniques or special methodology. They want calmness and security, the feeling that teachers might actually like them…’. The usual way of communicating these things may not be perceived by dyslexic children as being supportive enough.How important tone of voice, facial expressions and body language can be.These things cannot be taken for granted with pupils who are highly sensitive to success and failure. Each learning experience represents a significant extension of trust to the adult. This must be recognised.Supportiveness, friendliness and nurturance can all be communicated by tone of voice (soft, relaxed, calm) and warm and gentle ‘eye contact’ (not staring, nor avoiding focus). Frequent encouragement and supportive comments are necessary and always tied in to real efforts or success, and not patronising or false.‘Special time’This is where a teacher contrives to allow a child to spend time with the teacher in a one-to-one context, engaged in a neutral activity, e.g. putting up a class display together, helping to put out equipment for a lesson, etc. : The usual way of communicating these things may not be perceived by dyslexic children as being supportive enough.How important tone of voice, facial expressions and body language can be.These things cannot be taken for granted with pupils who are highly sensitive to success and failure. Each learning experience represents a significant extension of trust to the adult. This must be recognised.Supportiveness, friendliness and nurturance can all be communicated by tone of voice (soft, relaxed, calm) and warm and gentle ‘eye contact’ (not staring, nor avoiding focus). Frequent encouragement and supportive comments are necessary and always tied in to real efforts or success, and not patronising or false.‘Special time’This is where a teacher contrives to allow a child to spend time with the teacher in a one-to-one context, engaged in a neutral activity, e.g. putting up a class display together, helping to put out equipment for a lesson, etc. Exploring Dyslexia Teaching Tips in more detail : Exploring Dyslexia Teaching Tips in more detail Relieving some of the pressure : Relieving some of the pressure The dyslexic child does not cope well with stress. Provide photocopies or transcripts to minimise copying from the board. A dyslexic child will miss out words, lines, misspell words, muddle numbers- copied notes will often be illegible or useless due to mistakes. Praise for asking. If a child plucks up the courage to ask or answer a question, thank the child for responding, even if the answer is wrong. If a child is embarrassed in front of the class by being made to feel stupid for giving a wrong answer, s/he is unlikely to volunteer an answer again. Dyslexic children take longer to process information. Give them “take up time” to answer. If a Dyslexic child offers to answer, do not keep them waiting or they will forget their response. Developing a structure for identifying successes and progress : Developing a structure for identifying successes and progress Strategy for handling errors / feedback from adults As mentioned, a child with dyslexia may be extremely sensitive to what he perceives to be errors and failures in his work (in all areas of the curriculum). Therefore how errors are handled or marked is vitally important. It will continue to be important, of course, to provide encouragement for what the child does know, and so a specific strategy for handling errors is very important. This involves firstly, praising effort, drawing attention to the aspects of his ‘guess’ that were correct, then helping him to focus on where to make an improvement. In this way, mention of ‘mistakes’ or ‘errors’ can be avoided, and attention is focused on what he does know. Thus, ‘errors’ can come to be seen as hypotheses that lead to learning, rather than as failure. This approach also focuses the child’s attention on the fact that he has acquired many skills already. For example, take Spelling: If the child spells ‘chair’ as ‘chere’, the word ‘chair’ has five letters and five positions. This makes ten features, each representing 10% accuracy. The child could firstly be routinely praised for effort, then the child’s attention can be drawn to the fact that three of the letters are correct, and two positions are correct, making 50% of this spelling correct. The child can then be asked to focus on the word again to work on the rest of the 50%. Memory tips : Memory tips Where a child in the class has a poor short-term memory, limit the number of verbal instructions. Back them up visually by writing on the board. Notes to parents should be written rather than verbal, as should homework tasks. The child will switch off. Give instructions and information in small chunks and check that the child has understood before another chunk is given. Avoid rote learning. Teach strategies to support memory e.g. headings/rehearsal/sequencing. Give direct, explicit instructions to increase chance of retention, recall and understanding. Reading and Writing : Reading and Writing Check the readability of a text to ensure that the child is not given reading with which they cannot succeed. The child should be able to read accurately 80% of the text. Only mark 'target spellings'- avoid 'death by deep marking'. There is no point correcting spelling mistakes of difficult words if the child cannot spell the simplest words. Paired reading or peer tutoring will help the dyslexic child cope with understanding written questions, comprehensions and instructions. A scribe can copy notes accurately, allowing the dyslexic child to concentrate on what the teacher is saying. As 'multi-sensory' as possible. The more senses the child uses to remember a piece of information; the more likely the information will be retained. Simple worksheets- large print/ clear spacing. Ideally use cream/pastel coloured paper, sans serif font and a large font size. A dyslexic child will be able to show their knowledge more easily if they have to 'tick the correct box' rather than write out information. Reading and Writing : Reading and Writing Avoid lengthy dictation and copying – provide photocopies where possible. Encourage pupils to proof read written work Train pupils to plan written work using headings and subheadings ahead of time Mind mapping is an effective way to plan, extend and revise written work Do not ask pupil to read aloud unless he volunteers, highlight difficult words in text. Useful concentration tips : Useful concentration tips Poor concentration span can be helped by asking the child to sit at the front of the class. Ensure that your writing is clear both on the board and on worksheets. Give out work in manageable amounts. Check the child's writing position, pencil grip, paper angle and general balance. If children sit side-by-side, ensure that left-handers are correctly placed so as not to crowd out their right-handed neighbours. Useful Hints on Writing : Useful Hints on Writing Encourage the child to survey each task and to think what has to be done, before starting to write. It will help if they tell you what they have to do. Encourage a cursive writing style, linked to the printed form, so that a movement memory can be established. Other Useful Hints : Other Useful Hints Use multisensory techniques to link all the pathways to the brain in the learning situation. Encourage them to use alternative ways of recording their work: tapes, diagrams, flowcharts, computers. Teach spelling by showing them how to build up regular words and use the look, say, name letters, write, check, routine. The child's problems may well apply to all subjects. Maths in particular may need to be taught in small steps SMILE : SMILE Support Motivate Include Like Empathise Slide 51: Pointers to help in day to day teaching: Ask yourself the following questions: • Is your teaching as multisensory as it could be? • Are as many of the learner’s senses as possible being stimulated? • Are you interspersing ‘listening’ times with ‘seeing and doing’ activities? • Is the learner using a variety of different learning methods, for example, speaking out loud, writing on cards or talking about a topic with a friend? Pointers to help in day to day teaching: : Pointers to help in day to day teaching: Are you making the best use of the learner’s strengths and learning styles? Are you making the most of the fact that the ridiculous/humorous is retained in the brain better than anything else? Are you encouraging the use of pocket notebooks and personal checklists to remind pupils of equipment needed every day. Slide 53: Do you display a large timetable in the classroom with illustrations showing the days they need to bring particular items? • Are you making the best use of registration times to encourage self-organisation, such as ensuring that the learner has sharpened pencils and a pen that works? • Are you labelling equipment to help with spelling and displaying key words in the classroom? • Are your worksheets written simply, in large print with clear spacing? • Do you hand out revision sheets with a time structure to follow? • Do you remind the learner of the best methods of active revision, taking account of their individual learning styles? Slide 54: • Do you ask yourself whether they are sitting next to the right person for maximum concentration? Will you allow the learner to move if necessary? • Are you encouraging the child to wordprocess their work? • Do you begin every lesson by outlining its content? Do you end with a summary of what has been covered? • Are the learners given short breaks in examinations if needed? Slide 55: ‘Don’ts’ to be aware of: • Don’t overload the learner, either with too many oral instructions or demanding too much written work. • Don’t ever ridicule errors – very easy to do, even unintentionally – “Not you again ....” • Don’t make the learner completely rewrite their work. • Don’t ignore the signs that the learner is not understanding or losing concentration. • Don’t make the learner work for too long without a break. • Don’t make the learner copy from the blackboard. Slide 56: Talk through the task so they understand how to start again. • Don’t always expect an immediate answer. • Don’t be afraid to use ‘tough love’ – in other words, if you know the learner can do better, don’t allow them to get away with a poor standard of work whereby they let themselves down. Slide 57: Techniques which help dyslexic learners play a full part in the classroom, for instance, by encouraging them to answer questions! Speed of processing can be a problem for dyslexic learners. As one young person expresses it: “When the teacher is looking at me I can’t always get the answer out – even though I know it when I put my hand up.” A helpful tip is to have a previously agreed signal, which tells the dyslexic learner that the question is theirs to answer, but not necessarily straight away. Slide 58: Special methods for giving instructions Speed of processing also affects a dyslexic learner’s ability to take in instructions. They say: “I really do try to listen to the teacher, but I forget. When I ask for help I get shouted at for not paying attention.” • Try teaching an active listening strategy to dyslexic pupils – “Stop, Look and Listen” every time the teacher speaks. By practising responding in this way dyslexic learners may find that they recall and understand more. Remember however, that they will not be able to take notes at the same time as listening. Special methods for giving instructions : Special methods for giving instructions Make certain the learner is listening before giving instructions. You may need to use the learner’s name so that they are focused. Don’t move around too much and make sure you have eye contact. Talk in close proximity to the learner to minimise distraction. Give one instruction at a time, until there is evidence they can deal with more. Slide 60: Consider whether the learner needs to be given an instruction verbally and in writing or whether a visual representation is helpful. • Bear in mind that a weak short-term memory is usually accompanied by a reduced capacity for processing sentences. This may mean that complex instructions need to be broken down, with each part understood before the next is given. Keep sentences short and grammatically simple. • Be prepared to repeat instructions and clarify them by changing or redefining words and terms. Link previous knowledge with new information. Making Use of Learning Styles in Teaching : Making Use of Learning Styles in Teaching Possible strengths. Innovative thinkers.Excellent trouble shooters.Intuitive problem solving.Creative in many different ways.Lateral thinkers. Positive Dyslexic Attributes: Often very creative/ great problem solvers for a given level of ability. Holistic/ big picture thinkers. Often great drive and determination. : People with Dyslexia respond well to: · Kinaesthetic, hands on approaches. A child will remember information far more readily if they have had a go at doing something. If the lesson involves teaching how to separate salt and sand, take a list of instructions, cut up the list so there is an instruction on each slip of paper. The children have to work together in a group to sort the instructions into the correct order and carry out the experiment. · Visual, colour based information processing. Colour coding subjects or topics help a child remember facts. More Strengths : More Strengths Creativity 3 dimensional thinking Seeing the 'whole picture' Pictorial thinking Divergent thinking Problem solving Making unexpected connections Learning Styles – The Dyslexic Cognitive Style : Learning Styles – The Dyslexic Cognitive Style The Spatial Thinker – can use 3D in a creative way The inductive Thinker – learns through practical experience and over learning as opposed to rules and regulations Concrete learner – Good at practical skills, a “hands-on approach” Intuitive thinker – Uses own personal knowledge, hunches and makes associations as part of a process of holistic thinking, rather than working through a systematic approach Visual – Spatial – can use “a form of thought in which images are generated or recalled in the mind and are e.g. manipulated or associated with other similar forms. Holistic learning style – Uses a global approach to problem solving. Will find it necessary to have the overall picture as a guide to leaning from the start and then will add detail. Will use individual ‘props’ to aid understanding Multi-Sensory Teaching : Multi-Sensory Teaching Multi-sensory teaching involves the simultaneous input from the visual, auditory, kinaesthetic (muscular/motion) and tactile channels (referred to as V.A.K.T) Multi-sensory teaching uses all or selected sensory channels to make the necessary connections. It makes particular use of the oral channel with pupils being encouraged to verbalise as they learn. Each channel provides an unique way of perceiving and interpreting information. Am example of MS teaching is the teaching of the Alphabet Visual – shape of letter Auditory – Sound of letter Oral – Saying the letter sound and name Tactile – feeling the shape of the letter Kinaesthetic – writing the letter, word, sentence Then approach combines the left and right hemispheres of the brain and therefore the pupil is able to utilise his strengths and develop weaker ones. MS teaching should be seen as an important feature within lessons, not as something that is added on as an extra. Multi-Sensory Teaching – different types of learner and approaches : Multi-Sensory Teaching – different types of learner and approaches The visual learner – well laid out handouts, practical demonstrations, video, mind map, pictures, diagrams, colour coding and highlighting. The Auditory learner – poems, stories, dialogue, drama, mnemonics, tapes, repetition, discussions, explanations and presentations. The Kinaesthetic learner – working in 3D, making things, drawing things, developing ideas using concrete aids – excursions, tactile experience, making things, exploration, practical activities, demonstrations, explaining to another pupil. Slide 67: Multisensory We use multisensory methods for teaching and our students use multisensory ways for practising and learning. This means using as many senses as possible at a time to make learning easier - looking, listening, saying and doing. In this way strong channels of learning are used, helping to build up weaker but essential ones. Teaching for dyslexic children should be: : Cumulative Skills are built up gradually. Each part of the programme leads on to the next and the student can be confident that s/he is only expected to do work for which s/he has been well prepared. ThoroughVaried and interesting activities are used for essential practice. Students must have regular revision and 'overlearn' until they automatically use sounds, letters and rules in reading and writing. ActiveLessons are purposeful and given in friendly surroundings. Short, varied activities throughout the lesson help effective learning. UsefulEvery effort is made to help the child see the relevance of the lessons to her/his success in school-work and the classroom. : Structured Our teaching is highly structured, with progress made in small steps, building on what has gone on before. Our literacy programme introduces letters and groups of letters, strategies for tackling long words, 'tricky' words and spelling rules, in specific order. At each stage the student is working only with the part that has been covered during lessons. This builds confidence to tackle longer words and passages. Multi sensory teaching : Multi sensory teaching examples http://www.teachers.tv/video/2847 Geography lesson : Geography lesson Tips on Marking Pupils’ Work : Tips on Marking Pupils’ Work Useful Hints - marking and self esteem : Useful Hints - marking and self esteem Marking work - when marking work with very poor spelling, tick what is correct rather than draw attention to errors. Help older children to proof-read by ticking lines with no errors and placing a dot for each mistake in the margin. Marking : Marking · Identify a maximum of two issues - carefully chosen to make the next piece better. Marking : Marking Feed forward. When marking a child's homework, look at the overall text and assess the positive aspects. Do not correct every mistake with red pen. Be positive and the child will not be discouraged. Mark with a green pen and use dots in the margins rather than ticks in the main part of the page. Celebrate a maximum of two successes (do not gush!). Pick out two positive comments about the child's work. E.g. If a child has produced a descriptive, atmospheric essay full of spelling mistakes, compliment the child on specific successes within the piece. If the child's handwriting is very poor, compliment the child on the letters that have been shaped correctly, or that are written on the line may encourage the child to try to make more letters a better shape or put more letters on the line in the next piece of writing. Positive marking : Positive marking Positive marking When marking a pupil’s work it is important to try to do so in as positive a way as possible. Try to concentrate on what is correct. It is soul-destroying for a pupil to be handed back a script which is covered in red marks. (Research has found this to be of very little educational benefit.) Some useful hints for correcting Minimise the amount of mistakes you highlight – concentrate on THREE mistakes and give TIPS on how to avoid these in the future. Acknowledge THREE successful / positive aspects of the pupil’s work. Classwork and Homework : Classwork and Homework Differentiation Modify homework: : Modify homework: reduce length and number of pieces of work avoid unnecessary writing of questions set a maximum time to be spent on each subject ask parents to monitor and record time spent on homework in journal have pupils time themselves and draw a line across the homework page at the end of the specified time. Modify homework format: try oral or audio taped homework allow use of mind maps, illustrations, projects allow homework to be done using a computer. GIVING HOMEWORK : GIVING HOMEWORK Use short Write in block letters and larger assignment terms and always the same terms. Position the assignments in the same place on the board everyday. This will help the dyslexic students feel confident that they are copying the right thing down. Asking to see all the students assignment sheets before they leave for the day would be a way of checking to make sure it was copied correct. Students could pull the assignment out and lay it on their desk. You wouldn't be asking only the dyslexic student to do this, but at the same time you would be able to check the work. GIVING HOMEWORK : GIVING HOMEWORK Put daily assignments on the morning board. Some dyslexic students seem to function better in the mornings. They might not have a problem transcribing from the board when school first begins. (There also might be less on the board at the beginning of the day.) Try to keep the board clear from several days work and only do one day at a time. The extra clutter seems to be very distracting and frustrating. It is hard to distinquish Yesterdays work, from tomorrow or todays. Leave the assignments on the board for the entire day. This not only prepares the students for the day, but also allows adequate time for copying from the board. Dyslexic students like being informed ahead of time about what will be expected of them. This would be an excellent way for the student boy to know the days agenda. GIVING HOMEWORK : GIVING HOMEWORK Be careful how much homework is assigned. These children are usually working twice as hard as their peers all day long. As is common with some teachers, don’t burden them with huge amounts of homework as well as all uncompleted assignments from school that day. Co-morbid? : Co-morbid? A checklist for the Dyslexia Friendly Classroom : A checklist for the Dyslexia Friendly Classroom Classroom Management : Classroom Management Key Words/subject related words could be displayed Worksheets should be simple with large print and clear spacing Build up a resource bank for you pupils as this will not be your last dyslexic pupil Employ visual stimuli in the classroom Provide opportunities for individual, small group and whole class work Outline content of lesson at start of lesson and summarize at the end. List main learning points orally and in written form If notes have to be taken from the board – write in clear script, use different coloured chalk/coloured pens, number lines at each end and list bullet points at the beginning of the lesson, giving time for pupil to copy them down. Have pupil sitting near you to avoid distraction and offer discreet help Photocopied summary notes are useful. Hand out at the end as pupils will listen instead of trying to read as you speak Practical Help : Practical Help Resources The classroom toolkit : The classroom toolkit 1. Coloured markers/pens/highlighters – draw attention to key points in a text, main information. Highlighters may be used to identify key words. 2. Coloured paper. 3. Colour transparencies 4. Dyslexia friendly dictionaries – the ACE dictionary is an aurally coded dictionary 5. Spellcheckers 6. Stress balls 7. Triangular pens/grips 8. Other materials – coloured notebooks and exercise books, keyword displays, reading pens, tracing paper. Dyslexics and Numeracy : Dyslexics and Numeracy Tips on Dyscalculia Numeracy : Numeracy Mathematics and dyslexia Traditionally, dyslexia has focused very much on literacy – the learning of the reading and writing processes. For some dyslexic children and adults difficulties also transfer into the learning of mathematics. Research results vary considerably and a conservative estimate, Research suggests that 40-50% of dyslexics show no signs of dyscalculia. They perform at least as well in maths as other children, with about 10% achieving at a higher level. The remaining 50-60% do have difficulties with maths. Not surprisingly, difficulty in decoding written words can transfer across into a difficulty in decoding mathematical notation and symbols. Typical symptoms of dyscalculia. : Typical symptoms of dyscalculia. Counting: Dyscalculic children can usually learn the sequence of counting words, but may have difficulty navigating back and forth, especially in twos and threes. Calculations: Dyscalculic children find learning and recalling number facts difficult. They often lack confidence even when they produce the correct answer. They also fail to use rules and procedures to build on known facts. For example, they may know that 5+3=8, but not realise that, therefore, 3+5=8 or that 5+4=9. Numbers with zeros: Dyscalculic children may find it difficult to grasp that the words ten, hundred and thousand have the same relationship to each other as the numerals 10, 100 and 1000. Numeracy : Numeracy based on initial studies (Joffe, 1981), would suggest that about 60% of dyslexics have some difficulty with school maths. Of the 40% of dyslexics who don’t seem to have maths difficulties, about 11% of dyslexics excel in mathematics. The rest (29%) do as well as children of the same age, who have no learning difficulties. : Measures: Dyscalculic children often have difficulty with operations such as handling money or telling the time. They may also have problems with concepts such as speed (miles per hour) or temperature. Direction/ orientation: Dyscalculic children may have difficulty understanding spatial orientation (including left and right) causing difficulties in following directions or with map reading. Slide 93: Dyscalculia is like dyslexia for numbers, but very little is known about its prevalence or causes. Most dyscalculic children and adults will have cognitive and language abilities in the normal range. They may excel in non mathematical subjects. It is well known that dyslexic people are as able as many others but that they need to learn in ways which suit them best. Too many dyslexic children are put in low sets for mathematics where they receive “more of the same”. Such methodology is of little value to them. As a result, frustration and tension grow. Many highly able dyslexic children are in these sets through misdiagnosis. Both teachers and student teachers need to be trained in the recognition of dyslexia within the area of mathematics as well as literacy. Slide 94: People often have difficulty with aspects of numeracy, for example, learning times tables facts, yet they can be successful in mathematics. Mathematics is made up of many varied topics such as shape and space. It is not just numeracy. Mathematics begins with numeracy and it is these early experiences of numbers that can be so influential in setting the attitudes to learning mathematics. If these initial problems can be addressed then there are no reasons why a dyslexic pupil cannot achieve good grades in GCSE and beyond. Why should there be difficulties in numeracy? Why should there be difficulties in numeracy? : Why should there be difficulties in numeracy? It is not surprising that those who have difficulty in deciphering written words and learning patterns involving symbols should also have difficulty in learning the various facts, notations and symbols which are used in mathematics. If teachers are aware of the potential learning barriers and if they can present the work in ways which minimise these effects, then the dyslexic pupil can succeed in numeracy. Possible pointers – Speed of working • Is the person slower in doing simple + - x ÷ calculations than might be expected from his/her age and intelligence? Slide 96: DYSLEXIA AND NUMERACY Addition and subtraction facts and multiplication tables • Does the person use finger counting (because recall from memory is slow, unreliable or not available)? • Does the person have difficulty recalling times table facts other than 2 x, 10 x and 5 x? • If asked for 7 x 2 does he/she start at 2 x 2 and count up to 7 x 2? Counting backwards and counting from a different starting point • If the person is asked, say, to count backwards in twos or threes from 30 or to say which number is back 5 places from 21, does he/she have any difficulty? • Is he/she slower and more hesitant when counting on in tens from, say 13 (instead of 10)? Ways of Helping : Ways of Helping Concrete examples are often very helpful if used in conjunction with the written symbols they represent. For example if base ten blocks or coins are used the operations of adding, taking away, etc. can be demonstrated in concrete terms, and this is easier for dyslexics than having to deal with 2-dimensional symbols on a blackboard or paper. As with the teaching of literacy the approach should be multisensory: the blocks should be examined visually, touched, and moved about in space. DYSLEXIA AND NUMERACY : DYSLEXIA AND NUMERACY Adding up a column of numbers • Is there a preference for doing several small sums rather than adding up the whole column? • Does he/she lose track of the addition and keep re-starting? • Does he/she use tallies? Direction • Does he/she find the second of these questions harder or slower to do: From 76 take away 35. Take away 42 from 85. • Is there a general tendency to start in the wrong place? Slide 99: Understanding the language of mathematics Numeracy has a broader and more varied range of language than, say algebra. For example, there are several words that can be used to imply add or subtract. In addition to this, these words may also have everyday meanings such as ‘take away’. Even worse for those learners who seek the security of consistency, the same word can be used to imply more than one operation. For example, it is possible to use ‘more’ to imply subtraction as well as addition. Understanding the language of mathematics : Understanding the language of mathematics Dyslexic learners may show these confusions. Memorising the order in which to carry out operations • Dyslexic pupils may show more difficulty than non-dyslexics in sequencing a procedure such as long division (though many people find this particular procedure bewildering). Understanding place value • Some dyslexics do not readily pick up the idea of place value, particularly when there are zeros in a number (20,040). • They may also take longer to absorb the patterns of multiplying and dividing by 10, 100, 1,000 etc. Slide 101: Problems with copying • When under pressure to work too quickly, dyslexics may have problems in copying accurately from a board or paper. • They may mix up lines of work, by taking part from one line and part from another line. • This problem will be exacerbated by work which has been poorly designed or written. Notation • Some dyslexics may have difficulty if a new piece of notation is introduced, for instance: • an algebraic symbol, such as ‘x’ • a geometric term such as ‘obtuse angle’ • a trigonometric term such as ‘cosine’ • the use of a colon to express ratio • the use of the symbols > and < to mean ‘greater than’ and ‘less than’. • Fractional and decimal notation may also prove difficult. Slide 102: Ways of Helping The suggestions which follow are not intended as firm guidelines but should be adapted in the light of individual needs. Not all dyslexics have the same pattern of difficulties, nor the same ways of absorbing information. • Some older dyslexics may be interested in the origins of the number system and some may enjoy discussing why numbers are important in ordinary living. They can be shown that the decimal system is more convenient than the Roman system (I,II, III, IV, V etc.) and that there can be systems which use base 2, base 3, etc. instead of base 10. Slide 103: For example, it is unnecessary to memorise separately: • 7 x 8 = 56 • 8 x 7 = 56 • 56 = 8 x 7 • 56 = 7 x 8 They can be encouraged to make use of regularities in the number system, in particular those which are found in the 2 x, 5 x and the 10 x tables facts. Work from what the learner knows to take him/her to what they do not know. For example: • if 2 x 6 = 12, then 3 x 6 = 12 + 6 • 4 x 7 is 2 x 7 x 2 (2 x 7 = 14 then 14 x 2 = 28) • 9 x facts can be estimated as 10 x facts and then adjusted to be the accurate answer (10 x 7= 70 : 70 – 7= 63 : 9 x 7= 63. This is a good pattern to learn). Ways of Helping : Ways of Helping • Dyslexics need to know enough about how the number system works to enable them to estimate the approximate order of magnitude that is needed in a given sum. Once they can do this, there is every reason for encouraging them to use calculators. They should be good enough at estimating to know if they have entered something into the calculator wrongly. Slide 105: • When they are given mathematical problems they need practice in being able to tell which operation is needed (addition, multiplication, etc.). For example: • If 4 boys have 5 sweets each and it is asked how many sweets there are altogether, they need to be aware, before doing any calculation, that multiplication is what is needed. • If John walks for 8 metres and Jane walks 6 metres more than John and it is asked how far Jane has walked they need to be aware that this is a matter for addition. The skill of interpreting the special language of maths word problems needs to be taught carefully. The Numeracy Strategy suggests that learners be allowed to make up their own word problems from number statements. Doing this can help the dyslexic understand how the language is structured. • They should not be discouraged from using their own special strategies. For example, if no calculator is available, or to check that one has used the calculator correctly, it is appropriate to think as follows: • ‘9 x 7, don’t know: but 10 x 7 = 70, so 9 x 7 = 70 – 7, that is 63’. • ‘17 – 9, don’t know: but 17 – 10 = 7, so 17 – 9 is 7 + 1, that is 8’. Slide 106: • Anxiety has a huge effect on learning maths. Dyslexics (and indeed many non-dyslexics) can feel that maths exposes them to failure. A typical reaction is not to attempt a question rather than try and possibly get it wrong. Dyslexics tend to be slower at maths (though not all) due to contributing factors such as poorer short term memory, slower writing speeds and weaker knowledge of basic facts. Modern Foreign Languages : Modern Foreign Languages Language learning strategies are specific to Modern Foreign Languages, and will help tackle some of the difficulties that may be encountered. These are noted below: Using flash cards (3 x 5 is a good size) to help you to memorise vocabulary. It will be useful to add pictures, colours and anything else that aids memory. Colour-coding grammatical devices will help the student to remember things: for example, orange for male, purple for female, green for plural. If the student is colour-blind avoid red and green. If remembering the word order is difficult, put the words onto card, cut up the card into separate phrases, mix them up and put them back together again to practice. Modern Foreign Languages : Modern Foreign Languages In order to remember vocabulary, try to practice it in many different ways; reading, writing, speaking, and listening. It may take more time to begin with, but it will stop the student having to learn the same word over and over. If pronunciation is a source of difficulty, ask the teacher to record some of the words on tape so that practice at home is possible. If listening is difficult, ask the teacher to put some practice exercises onto a tape to listen to. Many people find it easier to remember a word if they associate it with a visual image or picture. Try putting pictures next to the words, and the picture may be recalled faster than the actual word. Modern Foreign Languages : Modern Foreign Languages The key is breaking down what has to be learnt into small, achievable chunks. Small successes lead to overall success. For example, if there is a long list of vocabulary to learn, it can be done by breaking it down into five words a day. These can be practised by speaking, reading and writing, and even listening if it is put onto tape. When this is achieved, the next set of five can be learnt. If there is something it is not clear how to break down, for example, a complex grammatical sequence, ask the teacher how to break it down. If the student explains that this is a learning technique, the teacher should be willing to help. At the same time, remember that a dyslexic strength is the ability to see the overall picture: this is a right-brained skill, and dyslexics are often called ‘right-brained thinkers’. It is a good idea to ask the teacher for an overall plan of the term’s lessons. Then the student can understand why some things are learnt and not others, and where the lessons are ultimately leading. History : History Geography : Geography Physics : Physics Supporting pupils with dyslexia : Supporting pupils with dyslexia Write any homework assignments in students’ planners to make sure they are noted down accurately Carry a mini whiteboard and pen with you to enable students to practise spellings and to make corrections easily A laminated timetable can make a good memory-aid for dyslexics. Encourage them to write notes on the timetable as a reminder of what to bring in for lessons Focus on the positive points of dyslexics’ work so that they don’t feel too discouraged http://www.teachers.tv/video/3370 A selection of the software programs available to support students with dyslexia tendencies : A selection of the software programs available to support students with dyslexia tendencies Slide 115: can be extremely helpful. However it should be remembered that many computer programmes available under the title of ‘mathematics’ aim at reinforcing numeracy skills; fewer are designed for mathematical concepts. For example, at a simple level, a child may repeatedly perform multiplication correctly (by remembering the answers), which is a numeracy skill, but not know what multiplication is or does and what he/she achieves by doing it, which would be to understand the concept. Many programmes, e.g. adventure programmes, provide multiplication practice but fewer attempt to illustrate and explain multiplication. Computers Computers : Computers Generally, the computer can help in the following ways: It is associated with enjoyment. It provides a welcome change in presentation. It does not criticise, nor condemn. It has endless patience. It can provide extensive practice in numeracy skills. It can do many basic calculations, especially using spreadsheets, graph and statistics programmes. It can improve presentation. Slide 117: Transition Tips for secondary school teachers The transition from primary to secondary education is a worrying time for many 11 year-olds, but particularly for those who are dyslexic: • They know it will take them longer than their peers to get used to a new routine. • They may be embarrassed by their limited literacy and/or numeracy skills, poor memory skills • They may also be worried that their new teachers and classmates will think they are stupid. Slide 118: REVISION Teach active revision skills. Children have to be shown how to revise and organise their studies. Revision is not an innate skill. Secondary school pupils will obviously have to face more exams than younger children. The following are useful tips: Active revision is one tried and tested way to help children who have short-term memory difficulties associated with dyslexia: Read the work – this is the visual channel. • read it aloud onto tape (someone else may need to do this) so it can be played back. Slide 119: • Reduce it – this requires thinking skills. • highlight the key words and note the associated ideas – try Mindmapping® or drawing a diagram • invent mnemonics, rhymes, acronyms or word associations – use coloured pens or arrows to link ideas • list key facts and number them. • Write it – this is the kinaesthetic channel. • writing down the main points helps commit them to memory. If a week later the notes are not sufficient to enable the pupil to remember all the facts then they need to go back to the text. • when good enough notes can be transferred to large sheets of paper and hung on bedroom walls. Slide 120: • Say it – this is the auditory channel. • reading notes aloud helps to reinforce memory. • Check it – again, this is using the thinking channel. • Teach someone else. • Encourage pupils to write a summary at the end of each topic throughout the year. This provides ready made revision material. • Practise exam techniques, for example accurate reading of questions and planning answers. Dyslexic pupils will always tend to read more slowly than their non-dyslexic peers of equal ability and be more prone to misreading, especially under stress. They will usually qualify for extra time in public examinations, but only if such access arrangements have been made prior to the examination. Parents : Parents DOING HOMEWORK : DOING HOMEWORK Develop a daily homework routine. A written or visual plan put in a prominent place is ideal. It should include a particular place set aside for homework and an agreed plan as to what happens after arrival home from school. It should also be flexible enough to take into account after-school activities. The homework place needs to be as quiet as possible, with a cleared space for work and items required at hand e.g. pens, pencils, rubber, books, etc. The kitchen table is suitable if close supervision is required at busy times.Work out the best time for your child to do their homework. Keep in mind that your child may be very tired after school - they have had to work harder than their peers because of their dyslexia. They may need a break before starting homework.. DOING HOMEWORK : DOING HOMEWORK Daily reading is essential, as lots and lots of practice is required for students with dyslexia to develop and master literacy skills. Read aloud with your child when they are becoming frustrated. This helps them to understand and enjoy what they are reading and it still helps them to learn. Your child can also read along with books on tape or CD.Chunk homework tasks into manageable parts. Give breaks between tasks. Encourage your child to produce quality work rather than rushing tasks. The dyslexic student can become discouraged when faced with large amounts of work. Doing Homework : Doing Homework Go over homework requirements to ensure your child understands what to do. Read instructions aloud when you know it is hard for them to decode accurately. If necessary, practise the first example or two with them.Help your child to generate ideas for writing tasks and projects before they start work. If necessary, revise vocabulary that they may need. Sometimes you may help to develop a writing plan.Encourage them to present work using their personal strengths - for example, they could use pictures if they are good at art. When necessary and appropriate, scribe for your child so that they can get their ideas on paper more accurately. Doing Homework : Doing Homework Help your child to learn editing, self-monitoring and checking skills so they can go over their own work more independently as they get older. For example, a simple process like COPS can be helpful when proof reading work: C = Capitals.O = overall appearance.P = punctuation.S = spelling Doing Homework : Doing Homework Teach your child to use the computer for work as they get older. Show them how to use a spell checker and encourage them to learn touch typing skills on a suggested Typing Tutor program. If they are slow to complete work, encourage them to use a timer and see how much work they can complete in five minutes. But remember that if homework is regularly taking too long or is too difficult, you should discuss this with the teacher.Give your child lots of praise as they complete homework tasks. Be specific about what they have done well. Doing Homework : Doing Homework Help them develop a comprehensive, written homework plan. Include revision of subjects as well as set homework tasks. Monitor time spent on homework and results.Encourage your child to keep their school notes and work together in folders so they don’t get lost or damaged. Organise notes into subjects, and ensure that they are filed regularly. Colour coding of subjects can greatly assist organisation and planning.If students are not getting their homework down accurately, arrange for them to check with someone in the same class at the end of the day. Or ask teachers to give them written homework instructions for more complex tasks. Doing Homework : Doing Homework Liaise with teachers regularly to check that students are completing homework tasks and classwork correctly and are handing in work at school.Check that your child is bringing correct books and equipment to school each day. Develop a visual or written plan if this is an area of difficulty.Make sure that your child has effective plans for approaching tasks like essay writing, coursework, study for examinations. Talk to the school's Special Education Needs Coordinator or subject teachers about these. Doing Homework : Doing Homework Build up independent work skills in your child and problem solving strategies when they are “stuck” or not sure of how to go about homework. For example, get your child to think about several different ways they could complete the task correctly. They can also think about who they can ask for help when they have tried other strategies.Revise work with your child before examinations. Encourage them to make notes, underline key words, draw pictures, etc. when studying to aid their memory. What it feels like – simulation websites : What it feels like – simulation websites http://www.webaim.org/simulations/dyslexia-sim.html http://www.wvstateu.edu/collegiate_support_counseling/disability_services/learning_disabilities http://www.angmail.fsnet.co.uk/jumbltxt.htm http://www.techdis.ac.uk/resources/sites/2/simdis/Autism/overload.htm http://www.etni.org.il/etninews/inter2d.htm Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Athletes: Carl Lewis Muhammad Ali, World Heavyweight Champion Boxer Ann Bancroft, Arctic Explorer Duncan Goodhew, Olympic Swimmer Bruce Jenner, Olympic Decathlon Gold Medalist Magic Johnson Greg Louganis Bob May, golfer Steve Redgrave, Olympic Gold Medalist (rowing) Jackie Stewart, race car driver Inventors & Scientists: Thomas Edison Michael Farady Film Makers: Walt Disney Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Leonardo DaVinci who had reversals in his manuscripts. W. Woolworth "who did not have sense". George Patton who had spelling, writing, reading problems. Auguste Rodin who had math, spelling, and language problems. Winston Churchill. Harvey Cushing, a brain surgeon, who had spelling, and other language problems Fred Astaire Enrico Caruso Albert Einstein was not accepted at college, because he failed his EFL entrance exam. Actors & Entertainers: Harry Belafonte George Burns Tom Cruise Harrison Ford Danny Glover Whoopi Goldberg Susan Hampshire Jay Leno River Phoenix Oliver Reed. Robin Williams Henry Winkler Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Artists, Designers, & Architects: Ansel Adams Photographer David Bailey Photographer Leonardo da Vinci Ignacio Gomez Muralist Pablo Picasso Robert Rauschenberg Auguste Rodin Bennett Strahan Robert Toth Jørn Utzon (architect, designed Sydney Opera house) Andy Warhol Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Political Leaders King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden Michael Heseltine Andrew Jackson Thomas Jefferson John F. Kennedy Nelson Rockefeller Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator Woodrow Wilson George Washington George Bush Entrepreneurs & Business Leaders: Richard Branson, Founder of Virgin Enterprises Henry Ford William Hewlett, Co-Founder, Hewlett-Packard Steve Jobs & Craig McCaw, Telecommunications Visionary Paul J. Orfalea, founder of Kinko's Charles Schwab , Investor Ted Turner, President, Turner Broadcasting Systems F.W. Woolworth Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Military Heroes: Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson George Patton Musicians & Vocalists: Ozzy Osbourne Cher Brad Little John Lennon Nigel Kennedy, Violinist Bob Weir, Grateful Dead Guitarist Writers: Hans Christian Andersen Agatha Christie Fannie Flagg (Author of "Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe") Gustave Flaubert W.B. Yeats Useful Websites : Useful Websites You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.