Slide 1: Dyslexia Workshop Dyslexia Workshop What is it like to have Dyslexia? : What is it like to have Dyslexia? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwZLFTW4OGY Literacy and Dyslexia : Literacy and Dyslexia A practical guide Our Learning Journey : Our Learning Journey Defining Dyslexia
What is it like?
How can we be aware of learners in our teaching?
What do dyslexics know?
Linking assessment to teaching strategies
Case Studies Defining Dyslexia : Defining Dyslexia BDA definition of Dyslexia : BDA definition of Dyslexia as "a combination of abilities and difficulties which affect the learning process in one or more of reading, spelling and writing. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed of processing, short term memory, sequencing, auditory and /or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills. It is particularly related to mastering and using written language, which may include alphabetic, numeric and musical notation". Which means….. : Which means….. Dyslexic learners may show evidence of difficulties in some or all the following: : Dyslexic learners may show evidence of difficulties in some or all the following: Phonological awareness (the ability to break words into speech sounds and the basis of phonics). Some dyslexic learners will have little awareness of rhyme, syllabication or natural breaks in speech and written language. They may also have difficulty with recognising and processing sounds (e.g, vowels, blending and segmentation).
Auditory discrimination (recognising the difference between sounds - for example, 'hearing' the difference between mush/much or p/b/v). This may affect auditory sequential memory.
Language-based tasks, rather than concepts. This can include the language of maths. Visual identification (recognising letters or numbers). The dyslexic learner may confuse letters or number orders. They may also have difficulty with recognising familiar words in print or remembering how they are spelt.
Sequencing (as in the alphabet or times table). The dyslexic learner may confuse or lose track of the order of letters, words or digits.
Organisation (as in, for instance, planning written work) - may suffer from directional confusion. AND…. : AND…. Short-term memory - inability to remember instructions, listen or/concentrate for longer periods of time.
Motor difficulties (poor pen grip, clumsiness or poor co-ordination) - may have problems with forming letters and controlling the pen.
Automaticity the ability to carry out a learnt task without having to think about it.
(So not just Reading then.) Dyslexia : Dyslexia …is evident when accurate and fluent word reading and / or spelling develops very incompletely or with great difficulty, despite appropriate learning opportunities. This focuses on literacy learning at the ‘word level’ and implies that the problem is severe and persistent despite appropriate learning opportunities. It provides the basis for a staged process of assessment through teaching.
Division of Educational and Child Psychology 1999 Dyslexic Learners : Dyslexic Learners three types of dyslexia that are not mutually exclusive:
auditory or phonological (the ability to process sound) Biological theories : Biological theories The cerebellum - motor
A recent theory is that a difference in structure or dysfunction in the cerebellum (the ‘hind brain’, thought to be responsible for dexterity and automaticity) offers an explanation for all the manifestations of dyslexia.
It affects speech processing, as well as more general motor control processes including time estimation and balance. Information from the language area of the brain and the magnocellular regions of the brain is processed through the cerebellum, and weaknesses in any or all of these areas could account for the different types and degrees of dyslexia. Magnocellular Systems : Magnocellular Systems Literacy difficulties may be a result of the impaired development of a system of large neurones in the brain (magnocells) that is responsible for timing sensory and motor events.
The visual demands of reading draw on the visual magnocellular system and any weakness can lead to visual confusion of letter order and poor visual memory for the written word.
There may also be an auditory equivalent that is essential for meeting the phonological demands of reading. A weakness here can lead to difficulties such as the confusion of letter sounds. Cognitive Theories : Cognitive Theories Phonological processing difficulties
Although dyslexia can manifest itself in many ways, there may be a single cause: a phonological deficit. Some researchers assert that phonological processing difficulties are fundamental to dyslexia and can be found in all individuals with dyslexia. Other researchers accept the phonological deficit theory but see phonological problems as a symptom of dyslexia, while the cause is related to brain structure.
Dyslexic people may be unable to process fast-incoming sensory information adequately. This could explain visual difficulties such as unstable binocular vision and unsteady fixation when reading. It might result in visual confusion of letter order, which can lead to poor memory of the visual form of words. Again, this may be a symptom of a deeper cause.
Temporal or timing difficulties
Phonological, visual, or motor difficulties may all be indicative of an underlying temporal or timing difficulty, rather than alternative explanations for dyslexia. These timing difficulties may also have their origin in brain structure. Cognitive Theories(cont) : Cognitive Theories(cont) Automaticity (?)
Some tasks may be less ‘automatic’ for dyslexic individuals and may take up more of their concentration and attention than is the case for non-dyslexic individuals. Lack of automaticity in basic skills such as literacy and numeracy could mean that dyslexic people are more likely to experience processing overload when they are required to carry out new or complex tasks. They may need far more practice at any skill before they achieve automaticity. This condition is linked with differences in the structure of the cerebellum.
Working memory is used to hold new information in the mind for a short time before it is rejected or transferred into long-term memory. Some theorists regard inefficient working memory as being a key underlying factor in dyslexia. Theories of Dyslexia - what they agree on : Theories of Dyslexia - what they agree on There is a general agreement that dyslexia is the result of brain differences that lead to cognitive difference in processing the information that the brain is receiving from the senses. There is a dominant view that phonological processing difficulties are fundamental to dyslexia and can be found to a greater or lesser degree in all individuals with dyslexia. The Dyslexic Brain – Auditory/Phonological : The Dyslexic Brain – Auditory/Phonological A Closer Look (Not compulsory!) Reading Difficulties : Reading Difficulties Reading difficulties involve a weakness in the part of the brain that decodes the sounds of written language.
The area lights up brightly on brain scans as non-dyslexic readers sound out words
In poor readers, it is much less active.
As readers become more skilled, an area further back in the brain, next to the visual processing area, starts to show greater activity - the "word form" area.
As readers learn more and more words on sight, without having to sound them out, this area takes on an ever greater share of the reading task. Reading Difficulties : Reading Difficulties The neural system (word-form area) for automatic, rapid reading is impaired in dyslexia; other areas provide compensation for accuracy, but not for speed. : Phonological processing is the process in which words are identified by identifying individual sounds (called phonemes) that make up the words Learners with dyslexia are not able to process sensory input that enters the nervous system rapidly in the same way as a non-dyslexic learner. : After a word is read a certain number of times, nerve endings in the brain come together and are stored in the word-form area.
In many learners with dyslexia, however, the word-form area stays largely dormant. For them, every word can remain a puzzle that needs to be unravelled.
The right kind of intensive instruction can start to rewire the brain and help overcome reading deficits, even if it can't eliminate them. : The brain learns to read the same way it learns to talk, one sound at a time. When babies first learn to talk they may slowly say one sound at a time. Once they get the hang of it, they speed up. Our brain becomes adept at processing and our experience is that of hearing words but actually our brain is processing sounds (phonemes) and putting them together so we hear words.
When we read the same process is in operation. Our brain is processing one sound at a time but we perceive it as a whole word. In good readers, the process is so fast it appears that they are reading whole words but in fact they are converting the letters on the written page into sounds. The brain then recognizes groups of sounds as words. : Reading is not automatic but must be learned. The reader must develop a conscious awareness that the letters on the page represent the sounds of the spoken word. To read the word "cat," the reader must parse, or segment, the word into its underlying phonological elements. Once the word is in its phonological form, it can be identified and understood. In dyslexia, this processing is not automatic. In READING the word (for example, "cat") is first decoded into its phonological form ("kuh, aah, tuh") and identified. Once it is identified, higher-level cognitive functions such as intelligence and vocabulary are applied to understand the word's meaning ("small furry mammal that purrs"). In people who have dyslexia, a phonological deficit impairs decoding, thus preventing the reader from using his or her intelligence and vocabulary to get to the word's meaning. : Dyslexics are very frustrated by the fact that they can understand what they hear but not what they read. Dyslexics have average or above average intelligence. Once they can properly decode words they can understand the concept. Decoding skills are the key to learning from written material. Years of educational research has shown that the use of intensive phonics is the best way to teach many dyslexics how to read. The new brain research shows why intensive phonics is also the best way for everyone to learn to read. Putting ourselves in the Dyslexic learners shoes? : Putting ourselves in the Dyslexic learners shoes? Please copy down the following text using the opposite hand to which you usually write with. You should complete the task within two minutes. : Please copy down the following text using the opposite hand to which you usually write with. You should complete the task within two minutes. 本系统接入通信通道由北京移动与北京联通提供，发送信息可覆盖全国移动、联通用户，如果你初次使用本系统发现对 What we see… : What we see… The first example of text shown here has all of the words shown clearly. Link awoke one day to find himself deep in a strange forest. As he started to walk through the woods, he heard cries for help coming from just up ahead of him. Link hurried toward the voice, only to find a group of monsters surrounding the woman who was screaming. When the monsters saw Link, they immediately fled. What dyslexics don’t see… : What dyslexics don’t see… Link awoke one day to find himself deep in a strange forest. As he started to walk through the woods, he heard cries for help coming from just up ahead of him. Link hurried toward the voice, only to find a group of monsters surrounding the woman who was screaming. When the monsters saw Link, they immediately fled. The second section of text is identical to the first section, however certain words are etched back so they are not clearly visible.
As dyslexics are generally picture thinkers, they will tend to see words that they can place a picture to. What dyslexics see.. : What dyslexics see.. Some dyslexics are prone to see the finer detail and in this example, they are drawn to the spaces between the words rather than the words themselves.
If they were to look at each word individually, they can read, however the distraction of the rivers hinders their reading ability. Are you having trouble trying to concentrate on the second section of text?
Are the lines causing you problems? Slide 30: I susgect th at thechil b wi tha learn ing disadility mu stfre quent lyex ger i e n o e an alicein won berl an bex is ten ceof the wef in b tba tthe ymu st co ge wi tha n unsta dlew or lb in consistentabul tsa nd haphaza r b gerceg tio nsthey rec on Fuseb dyth erca zys ym dols we piv them gress ureb dy t he leng tho ft imei nwic hto b oi tamb frus tra ted dy regea teb fa ily resth eybo no tlear no hetra bit lon alw ayamb sow ern u stte achth embif Fere ntly. Think about some of your "perception problems" as you read the passage:
What were some of the things that made your reading task more difficult?
What were some of the things you did that helped you to read this passage?
What were your reactions or thoughts while attempting to read this? Slide 31: ACTUAL PASSAGE: LEARNING
I suspect that children with learning disabilities must frequently experience an "Alice in Wonderland" existence. Often we find that they must cope with an unstable world, inconsistent adults and haphazard perceptions. They're confused by crazy symbols we give them, pressured by the length of time in which to do it and frustrated by repeated failures. They do not learn the traditional way, so we must teach them differently. I susgect th at thechil b wi tha learn ing disadility mu stfre quent lyex ger i e n o e an alicein won berl an bex is ten ceof the wef in b tba tthe ymu st co ge wi tha n unsta dlew or lb in consistentabul tsa nd haphaza r b gerceg tio nsthey rec on Fuseb dyth erca zys ym dols we piv them gress ureb dy t he leng tho ft imei nwic hto b oi tamb frus tra ted dy regea teb fa ily resth eybo no tlear no hetra bit lon alw ayamb sow ern u stte achth embif Fere ntly. Role Play in pairs : Role Play in pairs Talk about your hobbies for 1 minutes
You are not allowed to use words with the letter E in.
NOW SWAP Over
Talk about your hobbies for 1 minutes
You are not allowed to use words with the letter S in. Difficult word selection : Difficult word selection It makes you sound and feel sound stupid!
It also shows what word finding difficulties is like & how difficult it is to process thought. : Generally, people with dyslexia have difficulty dealing with phonological information (speech sounds) in short-term memory so any task that requires processing of verbal information will prove difficult.
Literacy deficits are often accompanied by poor presentation of work, and deteriorating performance under time pressure.
Moreover, problems in dyslexic working memory make it difficult for pupils to hold information in mind whilst they manipulate it, thus leading a further range of difficulties. The analogy of driving in a foreign country is apt – it is possible but it takes greater resources and for dyslexic pupils it may be as if they continually live in a foreign country! Dyslexic Difficulties Did you know? : Did you know? Dyslexic learners can work up to five times harder to keep up in class than non-dyslexic learners. (You wouldn’t fancy much homework after that!) How to accommodate working memory/learning difficulties. : How to accommodate working memory/learning difficulties. Brainstorm What Works? : What Works? Some suggestions Helping children understand complex Instructions
Chunking – one instruction at a time
Cut down the amount you say
Give visual support: use gesture, thinking/concept maps, demonstrating, quick sketches
Avoid idioms, sarcasm, double meanings
Simplify the grammar
Pausing after you have asked a question
Commenting Layout of worksheets : Layout of worksheets Simple worksheets- large print/ clear spacing. Ideally use cream/pastel coloured paper.
If the paper is white - have colour layovers.
Font size is also important, and should not be too small. It is suggested that Sassoon and Comic Sans are the most dyslexia-friendly fonts, with Times New Roman being one of the least.
Layout is very important and should not be visually overcrowded.
A dyslexic child will be able to show their knowledge more easily if they have to 'tick the correct box' rather than write out information. Use spidergrams and bullet points. Boxes – help too! Boxes – help too! Did you know? : Did you know? The layout and presentation of worksheets are as important as the content and the tasks Other Teaching Tips – (Dyslexia Unfriendly Slides Ahead) : Other Teaching Tips – (Dyslexia Unfriendly Slides Ahead) Where a child in the class has a poor short-term memory, limit the number of verbal instructions. Back them up visually.
Give instructions and information in small chunks and check that the child has understood before another chunk is given.
Teach strategies to support memory e.g. headings/rehearsal/sequencing.
Give direct, explicit instructions to increase chance of retention, recall and understanding.
The more senses the child uses to remember a piece of information; the more likely the information will be retained.
Encourage a cursive writing style, linked to the printed form, so that a movement memory can be established.
Give out work in manageable amounts. Use multisensory techniques to link all the pathways to the brain in the learning situation.
Encourage them to use alternative ways of recording their work: tapes, diagrams, flowcharts, computers.
Teach spelling by showing them how to build up regular words and use the look, say, name letters, write, check, routine.
Train pupils to plan written work using headings and subheadings ahead of time
Mind mapping is an effective way to plan, extend and revise written work
Paired reading or peer tutoring will help the dyslexic child cope with understanding written questions, comprehensions and instructions.
A scribe can copy notes accurately, allowing the dyslexic child to concentrate on what the teacher is saying. More Teaching Tips – : More Teaching Tips – Are you making the best use of the learner’s strengths and learning styles?
Consider whether the learner needs to be given an instruction verbally and in writing or whether a visual representation is helpful.
Bear in mind that a weak short-term memory is usually accompanied by a reduced capacity for processing sentences. This may mean that complex instructions need to be broken down, with each part understood before the next is given. Keep sentences short and grammatically simple.
Be prepared to repeat instructions and clarify them by changing or redefining words and terms. Link previous knowledge with new information
Don’t make the learner completely rewrite their work.
Don’t ignore the signs that the learner is not understanding or losing concentration.
Don’t make the learner work for too long without a break.
Don’t overload the learner, either with too many oral instructions.
Do you begin every lesson by outlining its content? Do you end with a summary of what has been covered? And what about the pupils? : And what about the pupils? A survey of 138 severely dyslexic pupils was carried out to seek their views on what helps them learn – these were some of their responses:
An enthusiastic and patient teacher who provides:
Checks to make sure pupils understand
Gives examples related to teaching both orally and visually Uses pictures in lessons
Gives handouts rather than copying from the board
Allows for rehearsal and review
Allows time for listening and completing work
Gives time and encouragement for questioning Forward - SEN Code of Practice : Forward - SEN Code of Practice Dyslexia is identified as a difficulty in (i) Communication and Interaction and (ii) Cognition and learning. However, pupils with dyslexia may also have difficulties identified in (iii) Behaviour, Emotional and Social Development (due to possible withdrawn or disruptive behaviour). Certain teaching arrangements are suggested as being appropriate for pupils whose difficulties fall into theses categories, including:
Flexible teaching arrangements
Help in acquiring, comprehending and using language Help in acquiring literacy skills
Help in using alternative means of communication
Help in organising and co-ordinating oral and written work
Help in sequencing and organisational skills
Help with processing language, memory and reasoning skills
Provision of a safe and supportive environment
Help with adjusting to the school’s expectations and routines : It is crucial that responsibility for assessment should not rest with one individual but should be a whole-school responsibility. Identifying Pupils with
Dyslexic tendencies Informal Assessment - Areas to be aware of in reading, writing and
spelling (among others!) Reading Difficulties – (Do you want to write these down? – didn’t think so.) : Reading Difficulties – (Do you want to write these down? – didn’t think so.) Is hesitant and laboured, especially when reading aloud
Omits, repeats or adds extra words
Reads at a reasonable rate, but has a low level of comprehension
Fails to recognise familiar words
Misses a line or repeats the same line twice
Loses his place - or uses a finger or marker to keep the place
Has difficulty in pin-pointing the main idea in a passage
Finds difficulty with dictionaries, directories, encyclopaedias
Letter combinations that make sounds like ‘ph’ and ‘th’ can be difficult
Pattern of error e.g. predujice, nessicty
Substitution of words with similar meanings when reading aloud
Difficulty with rhyming and the sequence of the rhyme Reverses, omits or adds letters or words
Difficulty with the sequence of the alphabet
Poor word attack skills – particularly with new words
Reading speed slow and hesitant and often with little expression
Reluctance to read for pleasure
Reading comprehension better than single word reading
Confuses words which have the same or similar sounds – ‘their’ and ‘there’
Omits words or lines when reading or writing.
Omits punctuation and capital letters.
Letters and numbers appear to move, grow, shrink, or disappear. Writing : Writing Has a poor standard of written work compared with oral ability
Has poor handwriting with badly formed letters
Has neat handwriting, but writes very slowly indeed
Has difficulty with punctuation and/or grammar
Confuses upper and lower case letters
Writes a great deal but 'loses the thread'
Writes very little, but to the point
Has difficulty taking notes in lectures
Difficulty with organisation of homework
Finds tasks difficult to complete on time Appears to know more than committed to paper
Slow writing speed and perhaps a reluctance to write a lengthy piece
Unusual writing grip or sitting position (Too much Info!) Spelling Problems : Spelling Problems Produces badly set out or messily written work, with spellings crossed out several times
Spells the same word differently in one piece of work
Makes phonological errors e.g. ‘f’ for ‘ph’
Letters out of sequence
Inconsistent use of some letters with similar sound e.g. ‘s’ and ‘z’
Difficulty with work endings ‘ie’ for ‘y’
Confusion or omission of vowels
Difficulties with words with double consonants e.g. ‘commission’ fingers as fringe.
omitting short words: s/he might omit function words (opposed to content words) e.g.:
articles participles conjunctions prepositions
long words: s/he might abbreviate, e.g. walk for walking Other Characteristics : Other Characteristics Difficulty in reading clocks, especially manual clocks.
Difficulty being on time or keeping track of time
Difficulty remembering what they’ve been told
Unable to proof read
Unable to organize thoughts coherently for story or essay writing
Simplistic writing compared to oral ability
Take longer copying form board
Have sort concentration span and be easily distracted by other sounds in the classroom
Feelings of low self-esteem and expresses feeling, "I am stupid."
Easily frustrated with academic work.
Uses avoidance techniques with school work.
Tests too high to qualify for extra help at school, but does not succeed well at academic work. Confuses direction - left/right
Has difficulty in learning foreign languages
Has indeterminate hand preference
Has difficulty in finding the name for an object
Has clear processing problems at speed
Misunderstands complicated questions
Finds holding a list of instructions in memory difficult, although can perform all tasks when told individually No MORE Slides!!!! : No MORE Slides!!!! Linking Assessment to Teaching : Linking Assessment to Teaching Formal
Informal Individuals not labels : Individuals not labels Rather than stating a person “has dyslexia” or “is dyslexic” it could be considered more helpful to indicate that the person displays specific learning difficulties of a dyslexic nature and then identify exactly how and in what specific areas those difficulties are occurring For example - Miscue analysis : For example - Miscue analysis Miscue analysis is an analytical procedure for assessing a learner's reading comprehension, based on samples of oral reading.
Miscue analysis is predicated on the belief that learners' mistakes when reading are not random errors but actually their attempt to make sense of the text with their experiences and language skills. Therefore, close attention to what learners
can become a rich source of information on what he or she is capable of, where he or she may need to go next and what the most appropriate intervention might be. Some teaching methods that can help. : Some teaching methods that can help. Input
Output INPUT - Learning Styles : INPUT - Learning Styles The Dyslexic Cognitive Style : The Dyslexic Cognitive Style The inductive Thinker – learns through practical experience and over learning as opposed to rules and regulations
Concrete learner – Good at practical skills, a “hands-on approach”
The Spatial Thinker – can use 3D in a creative way
Intuitive thinker – Uses own personal knowledge, hunches and makes associations as part of a process of holistic thinking, rather than working through a systematic approach Visual – Spatial – can use “a form of thought in which images are generated or recalled in the mind and are e.g. manipulated or associated with other similar forms.
Holistic learning style – Uses a global approach to problem solving. Will find it necessary to have the overall picture as a guide to leaning from the start and then will add detail. Will use individual ‘props’ to aid understanding COGNITION - Multi-Sensory Teaching – different types of learner and approaches : COGNITION - Multi-Sensory Teaching – different types of learner and approaches The visual learner – well laid out handouts, practical demonstrations, video, mind map, pictures, diagrams, colour coding and highlighting. The Auditory learner – poems, stories, dialogue, drama, mnemonics, tapes, repetition, discussions, explanations and presentations.
The Kinaesthetic learner – working in 3D, making things, drawing things, developing ideas using concrete aids – excursions, tactile experience, making things, exploration, practical activities, demonstrations, explaining to another pupil. Multi-Sensory Teaching : Multi-Sensory Teaching Multi-sensory teaching involves the simultaneous input from the visual, auditory, kinaesthetic (muscular/motion) and tactile channels (referred to as V.A.K.T)
Multi-sensory teaching uses all or selected sensory channels to make the necessary connections. It makes particular use of the oral channel with pupils being encouraged to verbalise as they learn.
Each channel provides an unique way of perceiving and interpreting information. Am example of MS teaching is the teaching of the Alphabet
Visual – shape of letter
Auditory – Sound of letter
Oral – Saying the letter sound and name
Tactile – feeling the shape of the letter
Kinaesthetic – writing the letter, word, sentence
The approach combines the left and right hemispheres of the brain and therefore the pupil is able to utilise his strengths and develop weaker ones. Teaching for dyslexic learners should be: : Teaching for dyslexic learners should be: Multisensory
We use multisensory methods for teaching and our students use multisensory ways for practising and learning. This means using as many senses as possible at a time to make learning easier - looking, listening, saying and doing. In this way strong channels of learning are used, helping to build up weaker but essential ones. Multi-Sensory Teaching : Multi-Sensory Teaching Cumulative
Skills are built up gradually. Each part of the programme leads on to the next and the student can be confident that s/he is only expected to do work for which s/he has been well prepared. Multi-sensory Teaching:- : Multi-sensory Teaching:- ThoroughVaried and interesting activities are used for essential practice. Students must have regular revision and 'overlearn' until they automatically use sounds, letters and rules in reading and writing.
ActiveLessons are purposeful and given in friendly surroundings. Short, varied activities throughout the lesson help effective learning.
UsefulEvery effort is made to help the child see the relevance of the lessons to her/his success in school-work and the classroom. Teaching for dyslexic children should be: : Teaching for dyslexic children should be: Structured
Our teaching is highly structured, with progress made in small steps, building on what has gone on before. Our literacy programme introduces letters and groups of letters, strategies for tackling long words, 'tricky' words and spelling rules, in specific order. At each stage the student is working only with the part that has been covered during lessons. This builds confidence to tackle longer words and passages. OUTPUT : OUTPUT And again - what about the pupils? : And again - what about the pupils? A survey of 138 severely dyslexic pupils was carried out to seek their views on what helps them learn – these were some of their responses:
An enthusiastic and patient teacher who provides:
Checks to make sure pupils understand
Gives examples related to teaching both orally and visually Has important points/spelling/cues on display
Uses pictures in lessons
Gives handouts rather than copying from the board
Allows for rehearsal and review
Allows time for listening and completing work
Gives time and encouragement for questioning
Overlearning until learning becomes automatic Case Studies : Case Studies Visual processing difficulties (Susan) : Visual processing difficulties (Susan) Difficulties - has now improved her literacy levels and is able to read and write. However, she continues to have problems with recognising words, spelling, planning and organising written work (especially with written expression), despite her intellectual grasp of subjects. She has visual-processing difficulties and continuing problems with reading, comprehension, spelling and written expression. Print appears unstable and she has problems with recognising words and losing her place when reading. Her preferred learning style is based on a right brain preference. - she needs a holistic overview of topics. She needs frequent oral and visual explanations and enjoys discussing her ideas before she begins her assignments. Also needs handouts printed on green paper Auditory and visual processingdifficulties (Cliff) : Auditory and visual processingdifficulties (Cliff) was becoming increasingly frustrated with his poor literacy skills. He wanted to understand why he found reading and writing so difficult.
'I have a great understanding of words and language and yet I can find it impossible sometimes to spell a word that has only three letters in it.’ Cliff's spelling score, as measured on the Wide Range Achievement Tests was below the first percentile. His spelling was often bizarre. He confused b and d and some mathematical symbols.
Described reading as 'intense work'. His working memory and phonological awareness were very weak and his ability to remember visually presented material was unreliable. In order to improve his literacy skills, and particularly his spelling, he needed to develop his phonological awareness and to enhance his rather stronger ability to visualise. He also needed to learn how to utilise his even stronger motor memory to support those two weaker modalities. He needed a highly structured, multi-sensory language programme that would provide the basis of his learning. He required extensive overlearning. Auditory/visual/motor processing difficulties (Natalie). : Auditory/visual/motor processing difficulties (Natalie). Her skills are at post-literacy level, but she has a very limited sight vocabulary and difficulties with decoding. Her writing is restricted by poor spelling and confused syntax. She desperately wants to read and write fluently, and is frustrated by her inability to access skills that others take for granted. Natalie's poor auditory discrimination means that she confuses words that sound similar, although her hearing is good. She finds it difficult to categorise words and word patterns and often misuses them when speaking or writing. She cannot read new words due to an inability to use a phonic attack. She has a poor visual memory for patterns of letters within words so that she often misplaces letters when writing. Her writing is very slow and laborious because of her poor fine-motor skills. Natalie's preferred learning style is visual; she enjoys concrete examples, patterns to internalise spelling groups and imagery to embed concepts within grammar and spelling. The main aim of Natalie's support programme is to improve her word recognition through a spelling programme and phonics. British Rail Symbol : British Rail Symbol Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Athletes:
Muhammad Ali, World Heavyweight Champion Boxer
Ann Bancroft, Arctic Explorer
Duncan Goodhew, Olympic Swimmer
Bruce Jenner, Olympic Decathlon Gold Medalist
Bob May, golfer
Steve Redgrave, Olympic Gold Medalist (rowing)
Jackie Stewart, racing driver Inventors & Scientists:
Walt Disney Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Leonardo DaVinci who had reversals in his manuscripts.
W. Woolworth "who did not have sense". George Patton who had spelling, writing, reading
problems. Auguste Rodin who had math, spelling, and language problems. Winston Churchill. Harvey Cushing, a brain surgeon, who had spelling, and other language problems Fred Astaire
Enrico Caruso Albert Einstein was not accepted at college, because he failed his EFL entrance exam.
Actors & Entertainers:
Henry Winkler Famous Dyslexics Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Political Leaders
King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
John F. Kennedy
Paul Wellstone, U.S. Senator
George Bush Entrepreneurs & Business Leaders:
Richard Branson, Founder of Virgin Enterprises
William Hewlett, Co-Founder, Hewlett-Packard
Steve Jobs & Craig McCaw,
Paul J. Orfalea, founder of Kinko's
Charles Schwab , Investor
Ted Turner, President, Turner Broadcasting Systems
Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Military Heroes:
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson
Musicians & Vocalists:
Nigel Kennedy, Violinist
Bob Weir, Grateful Dead Guitarist Writers:
Hans Christian Andersen
Fannie Flagg (Author of "Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe")
W.B. Yeats Famous Dyslexics : Famous Dyslexics Artists, Designers, & Architects:
Ansel Adams Photographer
David Bailey Photographer
Ignacio Gomez Muralist
Jørn Utzon (architect, designed
Sydney Opera house)
Andy Warhol What it feels like – simulation websites : What it feels like – simulation websites http://www.webaim.org/simulations/dyslexia-sim.html
http://www.angmail.fsnet.co.uk/jumbltxt.htm http://www.techdis.ac.uk/resources/sites/2/simdis/Autism/overload.htm http://www.etni.org.il/etninews/inter2d.htm Other Useful Websites : Other Useful Websites Olchfa/whatsthedifference?/org.uk