Slide 1: THE REPORTED SPEECH DIRECT SPEECH : DIRECT SPEECH Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech)
Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.
"I'm going to the cinema", he said. Indirect Speech : Indirect Speech Indirect speech is also called as reported speech because it is used by a person to report someone’s speech in his/her own words.
He said he was going to the cinema. CHANGING SPEECH : CHANGING SPEECH GRAMMAR GRANNY TELLS YOU THE RULES !! RULE 1 : RULE 1 Check the tense of the reporting verb to decide whether the corresponding tenses will change or not. When reporting speech, the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs, therefore, usually have to be in the past too. : When reporting speech, the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs, therefore, usually have to be in the past too. RULE 2 : RULE 2 If the reporting verb is in the present tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change. Thus,
Example: He says he is unwell. RULE 3 : RULE 3 When the reporting verb is in the past tense, all present tenses of the Direct Speech are changed into the corresponding past tenses. RULE 4 : RULE 4 Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance in case of both rule 2 and rule 3. REPORTING QUESTIONS : REPORTING QUESTIONS The Indirect Speech is introduced by verbs such as asked, enquired, questioned etc.
When the question is not introduced by an interrogative word, the reporting verb is followed by whether or if. REPORTING COMMANDS AND REQUESTS : REPORTING COMMANDS AND REQUESTS In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing command or request, and the imperative mood is changed into the Infinitive.