Comparative Study of the System of Education of the Philippines and Japan : Comparative Study of the System of Education of the Philippines and Japan About Japan : About Japan A small nation in the eastern part of Asia, Japan, today has emerged as the second largest economy of the world and subsequently a member of the United Nations, G8 and APEC. Lying to the east of China, Japan is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk in the north and the East China Sea on the South. The name Japan itself signifies “sun-origin” and that is precisely the reason why it is called the “Land of the Rising Sun” across the globe. With a conglomeration of about 3000 islands, and a mountainous and volcanic geography, Japan is presently the10 th most populated country in the world. Map of Japan : Map of Japan Flag of Japan : Flag of Japan Geography of Japan : Geography of Japan ContinentAsiaRegionEast AsiaCoordinates36°N 138°E / 36°N 138°ECoordinates: 36°N 138°E / 36°N 138°EArea377,835 kmland: 374,744 km²water: 3,091 km²notes: Includes the Bonin Islands, Daitō-shotō, Marcus Island, Okino-tori-shima, the Ryukyu Islands, and the Volcano Islands. Ownership of the Liancourt Rocks
Land boundaries: none
Coastline: 29,751 km (18,486 mi)
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 67%
Other: 19% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 27,820 km² (1993 est.) 73% of Japan is mountains. Population of Japan : Population of Japan The population of Japan as per June 2008 stands at 127.7 million. Japan the 10th most populous country of the world, contributes 2% of the total global population. Population density in Japan is 339 persons per square kilometer and ranks 32nd in the world in respect to country population density. Economy of Japan : Economy of Japan The economy of Japan is the second largest in the world after the United States at around $5 trillion USD in terms of nominal GDP and third after the United States and China when adjusted for purchasing power parity. The workers of Japan rank 18th in the world in GDP per hour worked as of 2006. The Big Mac Index shows that the wages in Tokyo are the highest among principal cities in the world. The Japanese Education System - Education in Japan : The Japanese Education System - Education in Japan The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system. Gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time period is 9 years, 6 in shougakkou (elementary school) and 3 in chuugakkou (junior high school). Slide 9: Japan has one of the world's best-educated populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory, high school (koukou) enrollment is over 96% nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. High school drop out rate is about 2% and has been increasing. About 46% of all high school graduates go on to university or junior college.
The Ministry of Education closely supervises curriculum and textbooks, and classes with much the same content are taught throughout the country. As a result, a high standard of education becomes possible. Slide 10: Japan has one of the highest standards of education and one of the highest literacy rates in the world. About 93% of children enter high school, and nearly all of them graduate. At over 40% in 2000, Japan also has one of the highest university enrolment rates in the developed world, and a huge number of state and private universities to serve the population. The stages of the education system of Japan : The stages of the education system of Japan Kindergarten and nursery school
Early childhood education begins at home, and there are numerous books and television shows aimed at helping parents of preschool children to educate their children and to "parent" more effectively. Much of the home training is devoted to teaching manners, proper social behavior, and structured play, although verbal and number skills are also popular themes. Parents are strongly committed to early education and frequently enroll their children in preschools. Elementary school : Elementary school Elementary schools in Japan
More than 99% of children are enrolled in elementary school. All children enter first grade at age six, and starting school is considered a very important event in a child's life.
Virtually all elementary education takes place in public schools; less than 1% of the schools are private. Private schools tended to be costly, although the rate of cost increases in tuition for these schools had slowed in the 1980s. Some private elementary schools are prestigious, and they serve as a first step to higher-level private schools with which they are affiliated, and then to a university. Junior high school : Junior high school Secondary education in Japan
Lower secondary school covers grades seven, eight, and nine, children between the ages of roughly 12 and 15, with increased focus on academic studies. Although it is still possible to leave the formal education system after completing lower secondary school and find employment, fewer than 4% did so by the late 1980s.
The junior school curriculum covers Japanese language, social studies, mathematics, science, music, fine arts, health, and physical education. All students are also exposed to industrial arts and homemaking. Moral education and special activities continue to receive attention. Most students also participate in one of a range of school clubs that occupy them until around 6pm most weekdays (including weekends and often before school as well), as part of an effort to address juvenile delinquency. High school : High school Secondary education in Japan
Even though upper-secondary school is not compulsory in Japan, 94% of all lower-secondary school graduates entered upper secondary schools as of 2005. Private upper-secondary schools account for about 55% of all upper-secondary schools, and neither public nor private schools are free.
The most common type of upper-secondary school has a full-time, general program that offered academic courses for students preparing for higher education as well as technical and vocational courses for students expecting to find employment after graduation. More than 70% of upper-secondary school students were enrolled in the general academic program in the late 1980s. A small number of schools offer part-time programs, evening courses, or correspondence education.
Vocational-technical programs includes several hundred specialized courses, such as information processing, navigation, fish farming, business English, and ceramics. Business and industrial courses are the most popular, accounting for 72% of all students in full-time vocational programs in 1989.
Training of disabled students, particularly at the upper-secondary level, emphasizes vocational education to enable students to be as independent as possible within society. Vocational training varies considerably depending on the student's disability, but the options are limited for some. It is clear that the government is aware of the necessity of broadening the range of possibilities for these students. Advancement to higher education is also a goal of the government, and it struggles to have institutions of higher learning accept more disabled students. Universities and colleges : Universities and colleges Higher education in Japan
As of 2005, more than 2.8 million students were enrolled in 726 universities. At the top of the higher education structure, these institutions provide four-year training leading to a bachelor's degree, and some offer six-year programs leading to a professional degree. There are two types of public four-year colleges: the ninety-six national universities (including the Open University of Japan) and the thirty-nine local public universities, founded by prefectures and municipalities. The 372 remaining four-year colleges in 1991 were private.
The overwhelming majority of college students attend full-time day programs. In 1990 the most popular courses, enrolling almost 40 percent of all undergraduate students, were in the social sciences, including business, law, and accounting. Other popular subjects were engineering (19 percent), the humanities (15 percent), and education (7 percent). Teaching Methods : Teaching Methods Teaching in Japan is sometimes considered rigid and unchanging. Although the curriculum is set by the State to the point where content and times to spend on each subject are clearly laid down, the actual teaching method itself is completely up to individual teachers. However, it is often considered that cultural factors and particularly the teacher training schools encourage standard methods of teaching, reducing the ability of teachers to develop individual methods. This is another area on which the present overhaul of the education system is focusing.
Japan has one of the world's best-educated populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory, high school (koukou) enrollment is over 96% nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. High school drop out rate is about 2% and has been increasing. About 46% of all high school graduates go on to university or junior college.
The Ministry of Education closely supervises curriculum and textbooks, and classes with much the same content are taught throughout the country. As a result, a high standard of education becomes possible. Education in the Philippines : Education in the Philippines During the period of colonialization by the United States, Education in the Philippines changed radically, modeled on the system of Education in the United States of the time. After the Second World War, changes in the US system were no longer automatically reflected in the Philippines, which has since moved in various directions of its own. Slide 18: Filipino children may enter public school at about age four, starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. At about seven years of age, children enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This may be followed by secondary school (4 years). Students may then sit for College Entrance Examinations (CEE), after which they may enter tertiary institutions (3 to 5 years). Slide 19: Elementary schooling is compulsory, but 24% of Filipinos of the relevant age group do not attend, usually due to absence of any school in their area, education being offered in foreign languages only, or financial distress. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue based learning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades.
Secondary schooling is recommended, but is not compulsory, and is of four years duration only. Levels of educationin the Philippines : Levels of educationin the Philippines Primary school is also called Elementary school (Filipino: Mababang Paaralan). It consists of six levels, with some schools adding an additional level (level 7). The levels are grouped into two primary subdivisions, Primary-level, which includes the first three levels, and Intermediate-level, which includes the last three or four levels.
The teaching medium in the vast majority of all local schools is English. Filipino is considered only as a second language, and is used only in the Makabayan, and Filipino subjects.] Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine constitution mandates that regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
The NEAT was changed to National Achievement Test (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). Both the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a school's competency Secondary school : Secondary school Secondary education in the Philippines is largely based on the American schooling system. It consists of four levels. Secondary schooling is compartmentalized, meaning, each level focuses on a particular 'theme or content'
Secondary students traditionally sit for the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which is originally tailored as a counterpart of the American SAT, and is administered by the Department of Education (DepEd). Technical and Vocational School : Technical and Vocational School Technical/Vocational school is school offering courses practically to enhance skills. Schools and their curriculum were accredited and approved by TESDA. They offer short program or two year - course on technology courses like automotive technology, electronic technology, nursing aide, hotel and restaurant management, computer technology, drafting, etc. Upon graduation of these courses, students take a licensure examination from TESDA to obtain a certificate or diploma. Tertiary education : Tertiary education Tertiary education in the Philippines is increasingly less cosmopolitan. From a height of 5,284 foreign of students in 1995-1996 the number steadily declined to 2,323 in 2000-2001, the last year CHED published numbers on its website. In 2000-2001, 19.45% were from the US, 16.96 from South Korea, 13.00 % from Taiwan, and the rest from various other countries. Many Korean students come to the Philippines to study English for 6 months or more, and then transfer abroad to Australia, the United States, or other countries for degrees. Some Koreans complete their tertiary education in the Philippines, especially in the temperate climate of Baguio, in the Cordillera highlands. Comparison in formal education of Japan and the Philippines : Comparison in formal education of Japan and the Philippines In Japan, educations are compulsory at the elementary and lower secondary levels. Virtually all students progress to the upper secondary level, which is voluntary. Most students attend public schools through the lower secondary level, but private education is popular at the upper secondary and university levels. Japan's education system played a central part in Japan's recovery and rapid economic growth in the decades following the end of World War II. Slide 25: The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system. Gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time period is 9 years, 6 in shougakkou (elementary school) and 3 in chuugakkou (junior high school).
Japan has one of the world's best-educated populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory, high school (koukou) enrollment is over 96% nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. High school drop out rate is about 2% and has been increasing. About 46% of all high school graduates go on to university or junior college. The Ministry of Education closely supervises curriculum and textbooks, and classes with much the same content are taught throughout the country. As a result, a high standard of education becomes possible. Slide 26: Formal education in the Philippines follows the educational ladder of 6+4+4 structure, (i.e., six years of elementary education, four years of secondary education, and four years of higher education for a degree program), except for some higher education programs which require a longer period of study to complete a degree, covering a total of 14 years for elementary, secondary, and tertiary education.
However, there are some perennial issues in Philippine education the foremost of which is poverty wherein some parents stop sending their children to school even in the elementary level causing high drop-out rates in the elementary and high school level.
Lack of facilities in public schools – with insufficient budget and large numbers of students, public schools lack classrooms, books, and supplies for their students. The lack of classrooms leads to prohibitively large class size, as many as 60 students in some schools, making for an undesirably high student-teacher ratio. In some schools it also translates to the shortest possible class periods, to allow for morning, afternoon, and even evening sessions so that as many students as possible may be accommodated.
Number of years - (not counting Pre-school,) The required number of years of basic education was reduced over the years to 6 in the elementary level. With 4 years of high school, the total number of years of basic education in the Philippines is 10, one of the lowest in the world and generally considered to be one of the factors in the inadequacy of basic education in the Philippines.
Concerning the standard of education in the Philippines, in June 2009 the president of the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP) cited the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) lamenting 'a continuing decline in the quality of education in this country'. He said this was due to four main factors: 'a) mismanagement of the educational system, b) not investing wisely in education, c) lack of management competencies, d) systemic corruption'.
Drop-out rate – Many students drop out due to poverty before completing basic education, even at the elementary level. Though schooling is free, there are other expenses which poor families have difficulty in meeting, such as school supplies, uniforms, and transportation. Philippine girls at all levels have been found to be more persistent in their schooling, whereas boys tend to drop out of school earlier. More than half of college students are female and larger numbers of women than men finish advanced degrees. Slide 27: In comparison to Philippine educational system, Japan’s system of education is almost the same as ours since their schooling starts the same age bracket as what we do from the age of 3-6 classified as pre-school, age 7-12 as elementary schooling, although at the secondary level Japan’s a little bit longer than our educational system since the secondary school of Japan is divided into two levels, the Lower secondary school or Middle school which is compulsory from age 12-15 which covers grades 7,8 and 9 with increased focus on academic studies. Japanese language is the medium of instruction and all students are exposed to industrial arts and homemaking. Most students participate in school clubs that occupy their time up to 6 pm on weekdays so as to prevent juvenile delinquency. In our country, this junior high school is equivalent to our high school of 4 years and each level is compartmentalized which focused on particular theme or content which includes five core subjects Math, Science and Technology, English, Filipino and Makabayan subject such as Aralin Panlipunan, MAPEH, T.L.E. (e.g. agriculture, baking,
Culinary arts, bar tending, in preparation for students who will already land jobs after graduation in high school) and Values Education for values formation. Industrial arts and homemaking although taken as a subject are not well focused as Japan. Slide 28: Japan has Upper Secondary school after three years of Junior high school from age 16-18. The general program offered academic courses for students preparing for higher education as well as technical or vocational courses expecting to find employment after graduation. Differences in ability are first publicly acknowledged in the first year and course content and course selection are far more individualized in the second year. A vocational and technical program includes several hundred specialized courses such as information processing, navigation, fish farming, business English and ceramics to name a few. In the Philippine educational system, we lack this upper secondary school where students are further trained in the course or degree or trained to perform technical or vocational jobs making them expert in this line of work while our own students are either enrolled in universities , colleges for four more years to obtain a bachelors degree or another 6 years for medicine or law as professional degrees, or vocational or technical programs under Tesda to enhance skills in short courses ranging from 6 months to 2 years such as automotive technology, electrical technician, nursing aide, Hotel and restaurant management, computer technician, drafting etc. Upon graduation students take licensure exam to obtain certificate or diploma.
Japan’s educational system prepare their students to become productive in their field of specialization because they undergo longer period of schooling compared to our country to shorten the financial burden in sending our students to school but nevertheless, we can boast of quality outputs in our own students. Conclusion : Conclusion Japan’s economic success makes them superior in educating its youth. Japan does a better job of educating its nation and the Philippines should follow in Japan’s footsteps. The Philippines should change its system of education to produce more productive and smarter citizens. However, there is a link to education and national prosperity. It is believed that educating children and make them smart can solve the nation’s problems and invent machinery to bring in more capital. The smarter the children, the less time it takes them to get a job done, thus decreasing the time and money needed for certain jobs. Japan maintains a hard curriculum that pushes the student to his optimum efficiency. Our country should put in competent and honest officials to head the Department of Education, erase graft and corruption in all its dealings and transactions, manage and implement an effective educational system and produce more productive and smarter individuals who will become asset to our country and to the whole world. Recommendation: : Recommendation: To become as industrialized as Japan, where students are trained in specialized technical and vocational jobs, I recommend that we adopt the 6 years secondary school to train our students at this stage in their youth to become productive and they can already help their parents augment their family income since these students can be employed at this early age of 16-18 unlike our students the same age who are still dependent and yet cannot stand on their own feet. However, since our economy cannot anymore support another two years of high school and our parents cannot anymore support additional two years of high school education, we can adopt vocational and technical programs of wider variety and give more importance and focus on this subjects to prepare our students to become independent and can help parents augment the family income and can still support themselves to continue studying for a bachelor’s degree or professional degree. Slide 31: Thank You and Godbless.
Mayette C. Calo