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Chapter 3: Infancy:

Chapter 3: Infancy Module 3.1: Physical Development in Infancy

Looking Ahead:

Looking Ahead

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Growth and Stability

An Interesting Head Count:

An Interesting Head Count

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Are there gender and ethnic differences in infant weight and length? ? ? ?

Principles of Growth:

Principles of Growth Cephalocaudal principle Proximodistal principle Principle of hierarchical integration Principle of independence of systems

Nervous System and Brain:

Nervous System and Brain Nervous system comprises the brain and the nerves that extend throughout the body Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system

Quick Check:

Quick Check

How great brains grow!:

How great brains grow! Birth: 100-200 billion neurons Relatively few neuron-neuron connections During first two years: Billions of new connections established and become more complex

Use it or lose it!:

Use it or lose it! Synaptic pruning Unused neurons are eliminated Allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neurons Development of nervous system proceeds most effectively through loss of cells Myelin

Form and Function: Brain Growth:

Form and Function: Brain Growth Neurons reposition themselves with growth, becoming arranged by function Cerebral cortex Subcortical levels

Environmental Influences on Brain Development:

Environmental Influences on Brain Development

What do babies do all day?:

What do babies do all day? Life Cycles of Infancy

Rhythms and States:

Rhythms and States State One of major body rhythms Degree of awareness infant displays to both internal and external stimulation Change in state alters amount of stimulation required to get infant’s attention

Sleep: Perchance to Dream:

Sleep: Perchance to Dream Major state 16-17 hours daily (average); wide variations Different than adult sleep 2 hour spurts; periods of wakefulness Cyclic pattern By 16 weeks sleep about 6 continuous hours; by 1 year sleep through night (See table 3-2)

REM Sleep:

REM Sleep Period of active sleep Closed eyes begin to move in a back-and-forth pattern Takes up around one-half of infant sleep May provide means for brain to stimulate itself through autostimulation

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Do babies dream? ? ? ?

Did you find examples in the text that suggest that cultural practices affect infants’ sleep patterns?:

Did you find examples in the text that suggest that cultural practices affect infants’ sleep patterns? ? ? ?


SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome Leading cause of death in children under 1 year of age Back-to-sleep guidelines (AAP) Differential risk Boys African American infants Low birthweight Low APGAR scores Mother’s smoking Some brain defects Child abuse

Declining Rates of SIDS:

Declining Rates of SIDS

SIDS is found in children of every race and socioeconomic group and in children who have had no apparent health problems:

SIDS is found in children of every race and socioeconomic group and in children who have had no apparent health problems Back-to-sleep is important!

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The major principles of growth are the cephalocaudal principle, the proximodistal principle, the principle of hierarchical integration, and the principle of the independence of systems. The development of the nervous system first entails the development of billions of neurons and interconnections among them. Later, the numbers of both neurons and connections decrease as a result of the infant’s experiences.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Infants integrate their individual behaviors by developing rhythms—repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior . The sleep of infants often comes in fits and starts initially coming in spurts of about two hours, followed by periods of wakefulness. Because of this, infants are “out of sync” with the rest of the world, for whom sleep comes at night and wakefulness during the day.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY What evolutionary advantage could there be for infants to be born with more nerve cells than they actually need or use? How might our understanding of synaptic “pruning” affect the way we treat infants?

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Motor Development

Reflexes: Inborn Physical Skills:

Reflexes: Inborn Physical Skills

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? ? ? Why do reflexes come and go?

Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes:

Ethnic and Cultural Differences and Similarities in Reflexes Reflexes Genetically determined Universal Cultural variations in ways displayed Moro reflex Serves Diagnostic tool Social function Survival function

Motor Development in Infancy:

Motor Development in Infancy Milestones of Normal Motor Development

Motor Development in Infancy:

Motor Development in Infancy Fine Motor Skills

Developmental Norms:

Developmental Norms Comparing Individual to Group Norms: Represent the average performance of a large sample of children of a given age. Permit comparisons between a particular child’s performance on a particular behavior and the average performance of the children in the norm sample. Must be interpreted with caution. Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS)

Nutrition in Infancy:

Nutrition in Infancy Fueling Motor Development

So what is a healthy caloric allotment for infants?:

So what is a healthy caloric allotment for infants? About 50 calories per day for each pound of weight Most infants regulate caloric intake quite effectively on their own If allowed consume as much they seem to want and not pressured to eat more , they will be healthy


Malnutrition Children living in many developing countries Slower growth rate Chronically malnourished during infancy = lower IQ score later

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Are problems of malnourishment restricted to developing countries? ? ? ?

When Malnutrition Is Severe:

When Malnutrition Is Severe

Nonorganic Failure to Thrive:

Nonorganic Failure to Thrive

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? ? ? “A fat baby is a healthy baby”?


So… If you were to advise new parents on the right and wrong foods to offer their newborn child, what would you tell them?

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? ? ? Is breast best?

Introducing Solid Foods: When and What?:

Introducing Solid Foods: When and What? Solids can be started at 6 months but are not needed until 9 to 12 months (AAFP) Introduced gradually, one at a time Cereal  strained fruits

Cultural Dimensions:

Cultural Dimensions Among the Ache people of South America, infants spend nearly all their time in direct physical contact with mothers. Study found that differences between cultures that restrict early motor movement and Western cultures fade by age six. Cultural factors help determine the time at which specific motor skills appear.

Review and Apply :

Review and Apply REVIEW Reflexes are universal, genetically acquired physical behaviors. Among the major reflexes are the rooting reflex, the Moro reflex, and the startle reflex

Review and Apply :

Review and Apply REVIEW During infancy children reach a series of milestones in their physical development on a fairly consistent schedule, with some individual and cultural variations Goss motor skills include rolling over, sitting, and walking. Later, fine motor skills appear, such as grasping

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Nutrition strongly affects physical development. Without proper nutrition infants cannot reach their physical potential, and may suffer cognitive and social consequences as well. The advantages of breast-feeding are numerous.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY What advice might you give a friend who is concerned that her infant is still not walking at 14 months, when every other baby she knows started walking by the first birthday?

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The Development of the Senses

Learning the World:

Learning the World

Visual Perception: Seeing the World:

Visual Perception: Seeing the World Newborn’s distance vision ranges from 20/200 to 20/600 By 6 months, average infant’s vision is already 20/20 Other visual abilities grow rapidly Binocular vision Depth perception

Infant Visual Preference:

Infant Visual Preference Preferences that are present from birth Genetically preprogrammed to prefer particular kinds of stimuli Prefer to look at patterned over simpler stimuli

Auditory Perception: The World of Sound:

Auditory Perception: The World of Sound Infants Hear before birth and have good auditory perception after they are born Are more sensitive to certain frequencies Reach adult accuracy in sound localization by age 1 Can discriminate between groups of different sounds React to changes in musical key and rhythm Can recognize many language-related sounds

Smell and Taste in a Small World:

Smell and Taste in a Small World Smell Well developed at birth Helps in recognition of mother early in life Taste Have innate sweet tooth Show facial disgust at bitter tastes Develop preferences based on what mother ate during pregnancy

The Power of Touch:

The Power of Touch

Multimodal Perception: Combining Individual Sensory Inputs :

Multimodal Perception: Combining Individual Sensory Inputs New area of study in infant research Some researchers argue that sensations are initially integrated with one another in the infant Others maintain that the infant’s sensory systems are initially separate and that brain development leads to increasing integration

What are affordances?:

What are affordances? Perceptible affordances Exist where information on actions that are afforded are perceptible These are dependent on language, culture, context, and experience and vary for different individuals

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Exercising Your Infant’s Body and Senses Attempts to accelerate physical and sensory-perceptual development yield little success (yet) Infants need sufficient physical and sensory stimulation

How can this be accomplished?:

How can this be accomplished?

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Infants’ sensory abilities are surprisingly well developed at or shortly after birth. Their perceptions help them explore and begin to make sense of the world. Very early, infants can see depth and motion, distinguish colors and patterns, localize and discriminate sounds, and recognize the sound and smell of their mothers. Infants are sensitive to pain and touch, and most medical authorities now subscribe to procedures, including anesthesia, that minimize infants’ pain.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY If you were selecting a mobile as a gift for a young infant, what features would you look for to make the mobile as interesting as possible for the baby?

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