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Chapter 2: The Start of Life:

Chapter 2: The Start of Life Module 2.2: Prenatal Growth and Change


Fertilization Moment of conception Joining of sperm and ovum = zygote

Stages of Prenatal Development:

Stages of Prenatal Development

Germinal Stage:

Germinal Stage Fertilization  two weeks Shortest stage Fertilized egg now called blastocyst Travels to and implants in uterus Characterized by methodical cell division With division comes cell specialization

Embryonic Stage:

Embryonic Stage 2 weeks  8 weeks Organism firmly secures to uterus and is called an embryo Development of major organs and basic anatomy Three distinct layers that ultimately form different sets of structures: Ectoderm Endoderm Mesoderm

Embryonic Stage:

Embryonic Stage

Fetal Stage:

Fetal Stage 8 weeks  Birth Formally starts when differentiation of major organs has occurred Organism now called fetus Characterized by rapid development Organs become more differentiated and begin working Interconnections between body parts become more complex and integrated Brain becomes more sophisticated

Pregnancy Problems:

Pregnancy Problems

Threats to Development:

Threats to Development Prenatal environment Teratogen (See Figure 2-12 or the next slide for a teratogen sensitivity timeline)

Teratogen Sensitivity Timeline:

Teratogen Sensitivity Timeline

Mother’s Prenatal Influence :

Mother’s Prenatal Influence

Father’s Prenatal Influence:

Father’s Prenatal Influence Relatively little research Tobacco use Drug use Alcohol use Treatment of mother

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development:

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development Optimizing the Prenatal Environment Avoid X-rays and birth control pills; get rubella vaccination Eat well and take prenatal vitamins Avoid alcohol use and other drugs Monitor caffeine intake. Avoid smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke Exercise regularly

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW The prenatal environment significantly influences the development of the baby. The diet, age, prenatal support, and illnesses of mothers can affect their babies’ health and growth. Mothers’ use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine can adversely affect the health and development of the unborn child. The behavior of fathers and others also affect the child.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply REVIEW Eating well and nutritiously, exercising regularly, avoiding alcohol and tobacco, and controlling caffeine intake are sound strategies for averting threats to the fetal environment.

Review and Apply:

Review and Apply APPLY Studies show that “crack babies” who are now entering school have significant difficulty dealing with multiple stimuli and forming close attachments. How might both genetic and environmental influences combined to produce these results?

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