Chapter #5

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Chapter #5

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Module 5.1 Classical Conditioning: Learning Through Association Module 5.2 Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences Module 5.3 Cognitive Learning Application Module 5.4 Putting Reinforcement into Practice

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Module 5.1 Classical Conditioning: Learning Through Association

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (NS) Neutral Stimulus (NR) No Response

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (US) Unconditioned Stimulus (UR) Unconditioned Response

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (NR) No response (NS) Neutral Stimulus (UR) Unconditioned Response (US) Unconditioned Stimulus Repeated pairings

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (CS) Conditioned Stimulus (CR) Conditioned Response

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 NS (tone) (c) Phase 2: During Conditioning UR (salivation) US (food in mouth) US (food in mouth) (a) Phase 1: Before Conditioning UR (salivation) NS (tone) (b) (no salivation) CS (tone) (d) Phase 3: After Conditioning CR (salivation) +

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Classical Conditioning at BGSU Video courtesy of David Johnson If movie doesn ’ t play when clicked in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Acquisition (CS-US pairings) 0 15 10 5

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Extinction (CS alone) 0 15 10 5

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Extinction (CS alone) 0 15 10 5 24-hour rest Spontaneous Recovery (CS alone)

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 John Watson

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Little Albert If movie doesn ’ t play when clicked in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (CR) (UR) Fear (CS) White Rat (US) Loud Gong

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 CS A large black dog CR Child displays fear Stimulus generalization The child cringes when a small, black dog appears Stimulus discrimination The child shows no fear ofa small, brown dog X

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 (CR) (UR) Nausea Conditioned Stimulus (Taste of Poisoned Berries) Unconditioned Stimulus (Illness)

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Snake Phobia If movie doesn ’ t play when clicked in Slide Show Mode CLICK HERE

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Module 5.2 Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Skinner and Operant Conditioning

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Behavior Consequence Patronize Elmo ’ s Diner Response Rewarding Stimulus Presented Tendency to tell jokes increases

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Speaker Signal lights Lever To food dispenser Food pellet Electric grid To shock generator

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Recorder Drum Pen Series of rapid responses Reinforcement slash Not responding One response

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Tendency to press lever increases Behavior Response Press lever Consequence Rewarding Stimulus Presented Food delivered

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Tendency to press lever increases Behavior Response Press lever Consequence Aversive Stimulus Removed Shock turned off

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Positive or Negative Reinforcement? A toddler begins to cry in a toy store. The toddler ’ s mother gives her a toy to quiet her down. Next time they go to the store, the child starts crying again. Positive Reinforcement

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Child brushes teeth before sleep Parent praises child Likelihood of tooth-brushing increases You take an aspirin when you have a headache The headache pain dissappears You become more likely to take asprin in the future when you have a headache Behavior Reinforcer Effect: Frequency of Behavior Increases Type of Reinforcer Positive Reinforcer Negative Reinforcer

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Water Light Glass Food pellet dispenser Food tray Lever

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Responses Time Response extinguished High rate Rate decreasing Rate increasing

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 You bite into a hot red pepper Your tongue burns You avoid biting hot peppers in the future Child hits another child in the playground Child is removed from the playground or is required to sit out for a period of time Child no longer hits other children in the playground Behavior Punishment Effect: Frequency of Behavior Declines Type of Punishment Presentation of unpleasant stimulus Removal of reinforcing stimulus

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Drawbacks of Punishment Does not teach new behaviors Can have undesirable consequences May become abusive May represent a form of inappropriate modeling Occasional use of mild punishment may sometimes be appropriate Verbal reprimands Removal of a reinforcer Time-outs

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Continuous Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Reinforcer Response Response Response Reinforcer Response Response Response Reinforcer

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Responses Time Fixed-ratio (FR) Lower resistance to extinction Rapid responding Short pause after reinforcement

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Responses Time Variable-ratio (VR) Higher resistance to extinction High, steady rate without pauses Note: Higher ratios generate higher response rates

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Responses Time Fixed-interval (FI) Lower resistance to extinction Long pause after reinforcement yields “ scalloping ” effect Note: Short intervals generate higher rates overall

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Cumulative Responses Time Variable-interval (VI) Higher resistance to extinction Low, steady rate without pauses Note: Short intervals generate higher rates overall

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Escape

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Avoidance

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Module 5.3 Cognitive Learning

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs – the “ Aha! ” phenomenon Classic Example: Wolfgang Köhler ’ s experiment with Sultan the chimp

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Mean number of errors 10 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 11 12 14 16 Days 6 8 Group C Reinforced on day 11 Group B Never reinforced Group A Reinforced on each trial

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Albert Bandura

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Application Module 5.4 Putting Reinforcement into Practice

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Be specific Use specific language Select a reinforcer Explain the contingency Apply the reinforcer Track the frequency of the desired behavior Wean the child from the reinforcer

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5.1 5.2 5.4 5.3 Make eye contact with the child and smile when giving praise Use hugs Be specific Avoid empty flattery Reward the effort, not the outcome Avoid repeating yourself Don ’ t end on a sour note

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