Bhagvad-Gita Treatise of Self-help

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The spiritual ethos and the philosophical outlook that the Bhagvad - Gita postulates paves the way for the liberation of man, who, as Rousseau said, ‘being born free, is everywhere in chains’. But equally it is a mirror of human psychology, which enables man to discern his debilities for appropriate redressal. All the same, the boon of an oral tradition that kept it alive for over two millennia became its bane with the proliferation of interpolations therein. Besides muddying its pristine philosophy, these insertions affect the sequential conformity and structural economy of the grand discourse. What is worse, to the chagrin of the majority of the Hindus, some of these legitimize the inimical caste system while upholding the priestly perks and prejudices. This rendition seeks to restore to the Gita, its original character by ridding it of hundred and nine interpolations, which tend to keep the skeptics away from it. And ironically these muddle the understanding as well. In the theatre of man as nothing surpasses the drama of war, the stage for unveiling the Gita’s unrivalled philosophy was set on the battleground of Kurukshetra at the threshold of the battle of Mahabharata.

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2 Bhagvad-Gita: Treatise of self-help in contemporary verse sans 110 interpolations BS Murthy ISBN 81-901911-0-1 Copyright © 2006 BS Murthy Cover design by GDC creative advertising p ltd. Hyderabad –500 080 Dedicated to: Grand parents Paternal Bulusu Thimmaiah - Lakshmi Narasamma Maternal Challa Kameswara Rao - Suramma And parents Peraiah Sastry and Kamakshi In whose care my destiny So favorably placed me. F-9 Nandini Mansion 1-10-234 Ashok Nagar Hyderabad – 500 020 Other books of BS Murthy - Benign Flame A Novel Jewel-less Crown A Novel Glaring Shadow A Novel Prey on the Prowl Crime Novel Onto the Stage – Slighted Souls and other stage plays Puppets of Faith: Theory of communal strife Sundara Kãnda - Hanuman’s Odyssey A translation in verse Onto the Stage – ‘Slighted Souls’ and stage and radio plays

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3 Introduction The spiritual ethos and the philosophical outlook that the Bhagvad - Gita postulates paves the way for the liberation of man who as Rousseau said ‘being born free is everywhere in chains’. But equally it is a mirror of human psychology which enables man to discern his debilities for appropriate redressal. All the same the boon of an oral tradition that kept it alive for over two millennia became its bane with the proliferation of interpolations therein. Besides muddying its pristine philosophy these insertions affect the sequential conformity and structural economy of the grand discourse. What is worse to the chagrin of the majority of the Hindus some of these legitimize the inimical caste system while upholding the priestly perks and prejudices. This rendition seeks to restore to the Gita its original character by ridding it of hundred and ten interpolations which tend to keep the skeptics away from it. And ironically these muddle the understanding of the adherents as well. In the theatre of man as nothing surpasses the drama of war the stage for unveiling the Gita’s unrivalled philosophy was set on the battleground of Kurukshetra at the threshold of the battle of Mahabharata. Awe Unfounded The Bhagvad Gita popularly known as Gita with its twin tracks of spiritual ethos and philosophical outlook helps man commute to the destination of human excellence on the broad gauge of life. The unsurpassed art of living that the Gita expostulates paves the way for the ‘liberation of man’ and that’s what makes the Gita which probably is around for over two millennia now the treatise of self-help.

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4 Nonetheless all along its spiritual track has come to acquire primacy what with its protagonists being the religiously inclined men and women for most part. Even Mahatma Gandhi the most famous and ardent advocate of Gita of our times was eloquent about the spiritual solace that it afforded him. Needless to say the innumerable commentaries on the Gita that appear in print or get voiced in discourses invariably come from people with religio-spiritual orientation. Insensibly all these led to the public perception of the Gita as a spiritual tome and that has brought about a situation where everyone swears by it but few venture to approach it. That is due to either the general lack of spiritual inclination in man or his palpable apprehension that anyway it might be beyond one’s comprehension. And those who attempt to read any of the commentaries give up soon enough – bowled either by the spiritual spin in theological jargon or tired of those lengthy commentaries. Oh don’t these texts tend to exhibit the commentator’s own scholarship in Vedanta In the bargain hardly any reach the end which would have helped them understand themselves better. What an irony in that having been bogged down in the semantics one fails to grasp Krishna’s message that’s tailor made for him And it is all about realization made difficult. The public or private discourses on the Gita relatively fare better for they enthrall the audience by the eloquence of the speaker besides the interest the interspersed anecdotes elicit. However amidst all this verbiage the profundity of Krishna’s message would seldom register in the minds of those who try to seek it. Of course the commentary-discourse route misses on the essential ingredient of understanding - contemplation. After all Krishna himself recommends to Arjuna at the end of his talk s63 ch.18 ‘That thee heard of this wisdom / For task on hand now apply mind’. If only Sanskrit the deva bhaasha the language of the gods for the Hindus and for the 18 th Century British intellectual Sir William Jones ‘is of wonderful structure more perfect than Greek more copious than Latin and more exquisitely refined than either’ were in currency now it would have been a different proposition. Thus the average person needing no interpretative crutches might have read the Gita in its pristine beauty speculating about the profound wisdom lying in the sophisticated philosophy it postulates. That would have afforded one to view human nature including his or her own in that contemplative mirror enamelled by the Gita. But that might be if and when Sanskrit by the will of the gods becomes a language of the masses in times to come.

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5 But for the present English which many proud British linguists humbly held as the second best language in the world is the right medium for contemplating the Gita even in the native land of Sanskrit. Of course in verse sans commentary and this is an attempt with that objective needless to say with divine inspiration. What is the Gita all about that made many western intellectuals though alien to the Hindu philosophy sing its praises It is owing to its emphasis on human emancipation as opposed to the religious conditioning of man. Thus its universal appeal jells with the hearts and minds of people irrespective of their religious beliefs and cultural sensitivities. Simply put the philosophy the Gita portrays is meant to help one imbibe the right attitude to lead life but not to buttress his religious dogma of God. How this was achieved is the wonder that is Gita cast in the Hindu mould but shaped into the secular form After all it might have been in the realms of human genius aided by some divine metallurgy. The stage chosen for unfolding the grand philosophy is in itself reflective of the brilliance of the Gita. Nothing ever surpasses the drama of war in the realms of life and so is the case with the accompanying debate about its rights and wrongs. At the threshold of the epic battle of Mahabharata on the sacred grounds of Kurukshetra Arjuna the Pandava Prince suffers from qualms at the prospect of killing kith and kin in the Kaurava camp besides all those whom he adores therein. It has always been in the nature of man to worry about the prospect of his death besides that of his near and dear. Thus Lord Krishna a friend of the Pandavas who happened to be Arjuna’s charioteer opens this classic discourse in s11 ch..2 by chiding his disciple and setting its trend as well Averring as knowing / Worried over trivia / Reckon never wise / Dead and alive both. What follows in the best part of the remaining 643 verses spread over 17 chapters can be summarized thus: The Supreme Spirit through Nature causes the birth of all beings. Thus the indwelling spirit in the beings is a divisible part of the same Indivisible Supreme Spirit. The spirit lying within beings is subject in degrees to virtue passion and delusion the three attributes of Nature. It should remain the human endeavour to free the indwellig spirit from these nature-induced influences. This however is not possible for any in a single birth and indeed it would take the sustained effort of lot many births for that. Thus in the end the soul could be tended towards that state of purity which matches with that of the Supreme Spirit. As and when this happens the indwelling spirit merges with the Supreme Spirit which is nothing but moksha. Understandably from that state of unison with the Supreme man never returns to be born again. This is about the spiritual goal of man in this

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6 world. In short it’s in the nature of the Supreme Spirit to separate the wheat from the chaff by bringing beings for dalliance in the domain of the Nature. While a pass ensures merger with the Supreme Spirit failure keeps man ever in limbo. It is thus left for man to reach the Supreme and the Gita shows him the way. In the Gita lie the tools that tend one’s spirit to that pristine purity and that makes it the kitbag of moksha. Were it to postulate reaching that state through devotion alone it would have been no more than a Hindu religious scripture though of immense quality. In this it is to be appreciated the one thing that is common with the Oriental as well as the Semitic religions is the stress upon good human conduct. Nevertheless the commonality seems to fork at some length what with the Semitic religious precepts having their own caveat conditional. Well Hinduism and its derivatives Buddhism Jainism etc. advocate virtue per se as the ideal human condition. But at the other end of the religious tunnel Judaism and its siblings Christianity and Islam obliging the faithful to uphold their dogmas provide a religious code to human virtue. It is thus the Gita without any religious dogma deals with all aspects of human nature and what is more proposes corrective approaches for a peaceful purposeful and realized life. And this makes it the Treatise of Self- help for one and all irrespective of his or her religious orientation and social background. Figure it out for yourself as Arjuna could do. Now back to where it all began - the misleading image of the Gita as something that cannot be comprehended even by the spiritually oriented leave alone the mundane minded without the guidance from a guru well versed in the nuances of theology. Nothing could be farther from truth considering what Arjuna averred after having heard Krishna ‘Glad O Lord / Gone are doubts / Sense I gained / With Thy words. s73 ch.18. And consider this. Arjuna was an educated prince and an exemplary warrior but with no specialized knowledge or training in theology. Yet he found no difficulty in grasping the centrality of Krishna’s advice that helped dispel his doubts. After all it could be expected that Krishna who knew his friend’s limitations on that count would have fashioned his discourse suitably. And won’t that bring the Gita into the orbit of average human understanding More so Krishna’s discourse was intended to be a ready reckoner for Arjuna and not an assignment in spirituality to be attended to as homework with reference books and all leaving the battlefield for the day. But then why all this spin of spiritual intricacy on such a straightforward man-to- man talk We must appreciate that the philosophy of the Gita is the apogee of the

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7 Hindu thought process that evolved through the Vedas the Brahmasutras and finally the Upanishads. In a way the Gita is the Seal of the Hindu Wisdom for it separates the ritualistic chaff from the spiritual grain in the granary of sanaatana dharma. For those well versed in these and other such works it is a tempting proposition to delve into the conceptual origins of a given sloka of the Gita in those ancient classics. But to what avail all that and what is sought to be proved after all That the Gita was a plagiarized work of Vyasa Well didn’t Vyasa place the Gita in proper perspective with ‘the end of the chapter averment that it is the quintessence of the Upanishads and the Brahmasutras’. Yet this futile exercise of backward integration of the Gita with the Upanishads and others continues giving raise to myriad interpretations to what is essentially a simple and straightforward message that Krishna intended for average human comprehension. In modern parlance Bhagvad-Gita is like the Board Note and it does not behove the board members to pore over the relevant files. Though some well-meaning men and women have all along tried to straightjacket the Gita as a ‘Book of Work’ still it is the scriptural tag that sticks to it. Admittedly this is not only detrimental to the Great Gita but also the misfortune of the common man who would have otherwise ventured to read it and benefited as well. Thus this work should be viewed as the outcome of an urge to place the Gita in its proper perspective for the utmost common good. On the degree of its success could depend how it would have served the cause of the Lord and that of man for whose benefit the Gita the Treatise of Self-help was fashioned though not as scripture. It pays to recall the words of Krishna ‘That thee heard of this wisdom / For task on hand now apply mind’. Now it is left for all to deliberate and decide whether the Gita per se was Krishna’s unrivalled divine revelation or Vyasa’s philosophical discourse nonpareil. It is noteworthy that each of the eighteen chapters of the Gita has this post script - this chapter with so and so designation has the bearing of the Upanishads possesses the knowledge of the Brahmasutras and deals with the science of its application. And the Upanishads as we all know were but the works of man though of divine proportion. Thus if we were to concede that the Gita was a divine disclosure then that would suggest that Krishna borrowed from the Upanishadic philosophy to fashion his discourse Won’t that mean Lord Vishnu in His avatar as Krishna relied on the works of man to formulate moksha for him That is an absurd proposition at any rate that is isn’t it Well it’s a matter for man to deliberate and decide.

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8 Last but not the least is the sectarian twist some interpolations give to the Gita to the hurt of the majority of the Hindus. Understandably the offended sections view this secular text with suspicion and thus keep away from it altogether missing so much as a consequence of the same. In ‘All About Interpolations’ that follows this aberration is sought to be corrected and it is hoped that for the general good of the Hindus this aspect of the Gita would be set right for all times to come. All about Interpolations It was long suspected there could be interpolations in the Gita as it was being received down the ages through oral tradition. One way to scent the nature of these if not zero in on every one of them is to subject the text to the twin tests of sequential conformity and structural economy. Sequential conformity is all about uniformity of purpose sans digression and structural economy but represents the absence of repetitiveness. If the body Bhagvad Gita of 700 slokas were to be scanned for possible fault lines on the above lines the result would be but positive. It must be realized that Bhagvad-Gita is the quintessence of the Brahmasutras and the Upanishads themselves the offshoots of the Vedic spiritual roots. Those esoteric portions that relate to spiritual knowledge apart the Vedas contain ritualistic nuances of religious ceremonies. It is the latter that has been the source of the temporal power which the priestly class of Brahmans came to exert on the Hindu religious mind. And these very people happened to be the principal protagonists of the Gita. It is pertinent to note that while postulating nishkaama karma the theory of disinterested action Krishna is critical of the ritualistic aspects of and expectations from the Vedas s42 - 45 and s53 of ch.2.. Indeed the guiding philosophy of the Gita is all about action pure and simple to tend one on the path of duty without attachment. Were the message to be allowed to percolate down wouldn’t it have hurt the Brahmans the gods’ own angels on earth as the Narayana Upanishad proclaims where it hurts most Herein lies the provocation for them to dilute the philosophy and the opportunity was theirs being the repositories of the very message. Won’t the priestly perks associated with the rituals of death do to cite an example If upon its death as Krishna avers the soul were to transmigrate into another body what for are the elaborate rituals for the dead It is against this background that we might appreciate those interpolations that tend to advocate the ritualism on one hand and the Brahman preeminence on the other. However the non application

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9 of mind on part of the Hindus who vouchsafe for these aspects of the Gita is indeed saddening. Nevertheless such interpolative slokas that are at variance with the avowed purpose of the Gita would show themselves up for ready pickings. In a seemingly about turn from s42- s45 and s53 of ch.2 s9-s16 of ch.3 formulate the procedural aspects of the rituals and the divine backing they enjoy. These and such other aberrations highlighted in the prefaces of the chapters in this work were clearly the handiwork of the priestly interests to obfuscate the impact of the anti ritualistic thrust of the Gita. On one hand these interpolations were meant to impart legitimacy to their creed by advocating the same through the revered text. And on the other these were meant to stall the threat the Gita might pose to their calling in the long run. Likewise the sprinkling of slokas that seek to confirm the prominence of the priestly class or affirm their prejudices cannot be anything but interpolations. To cap it all are the s23-s27 of ch. 8 which literally mean that if a person dies when the moon is on ascent he would attain moksha other way round were it in descent and such like. These slokas espousing superstition simply put are out of tune. Nevertheless when interpreted figuratively they jell with the overall message of the Gita as if to prove that the discourse of reason cannot be polluted even by superstitious insertions. Be that as it may there is an uncanny element in these artful interpolations in that they were inserted in the narrative in such a manner that if read casually they effectively merge with the text. More so for the religiously conditioned Hindu whose upbringing conforms to the ritualistic regimen. Next is the aspect of structural economy. One finds similitude of a given content in many a sloka in the same or in a different context throughout the text. Obviously some of them are interpolations but which were the originals and which are the imitations may be impossible to find out for they smugly fit into the overall structure. Be that as it may save lengthening the discourse they do not belittle the same and fortunately not even tire the reader thanks to the exemplary charm of Sanskrit as a language. In this context it is relevant to note that Krishna indicated in s19 ch.10 that he would reveal a few of His Glories but what we have is a twenty- two sloka block of the same s 20-42 in the same chapter and another twenty s15- s31 in the next. One can be certain that many of the slokas in them contain interpolative padding. Nevertheless these slokas make an exciting reading notwithstanding the faux pas in s36 ch.10 where fraud in gambling is described as

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10 the Glory of the Supreme. However s12 -s15 of ch 15 in similar vein are interpolations being digressions. If after deliberating one decides that the Gita is more a work of Vyasa’s genius than any divine revelation by Lord Krishna then he or she might come to the conclusion that the concluding s78 of the last chapter meant to impart divinity to the discourse is an interpolation. However no exercise of this kind would be complete unless the four pairs of slokas that have the same first lines are scrutinized. With the common first line sreyaan sva-dharmo vigunah s35 ch.3 and s47 ch.18 seek to perpetuate caste oriented duties by discouraging any switch over and thus are clear interpolations. S15 and s 28 of ch.6 both open with yunjann evam sadaatmaanam and the message too remains more or less the same though contextually different. Yet it appears that the former could be an interpolation. S34 ch.9 and s65 ch.18 not only start with man-manaa bhava mad-bhakto but also mean same thing. In the ninth chapter as discussed in the introduction therein s32 and s33 are clear interpolations. It also need be noted that s31 has the chapter closing character about it. Now follows this repetitive chapter-concluding sloka after two interpolations s32 and s33. Logically speaking s34 is but an interpolation to help a proper chapter closure by slightly altering s65 ch.18. S7 ch.16 and s30 ch.18 both start with pravrurttim cha nivruttim cha line but are contextually different and thus remain above suspicion. Identified here in this third edition are 110 slokas of deviant nature in the entire text that could be taken as interpolations with reasonable certainty. Be that as it may there naturally arises a hypothetical question - What if the priestly interests of yore had seen to it that the said philosophy defining slokas of the second chapter that are inimical to their creed were omitted altogether In that case we would have been left with no option but to take the perplexing interpolations with a pinch of salt in the absence of any clue to negate them as such.

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11 Chapter – 1: Arjuna’s Dilemma In this opening chapter the grand stage for the discourse nonpareil is set on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Gathered with their armies are the estranged cousins the Pandavas and the Kauravas all set to join the battle. After reviewing the relative strengths of the opposing formations Duryodhana the Kaurava prince fancies his chances. On the other hand Arjuna alias Paartha the spearhead of the Pandava forces is beset with moral indignation. He begins to see the futility of a fratricidal war that would result in the death of kith and kin in numbers. To Lord Krishna who dons the role of his charioteer a distressed Arjuna enumerates the ills that visit society in the wake of wars. Exasperated in the end he expresses his intent to rescind from the impending war regardless. The contrasting attitudes of the principal combatants of the Battle of Mahabharata are illustrative of the dualities inherent in human nature exemplified by man’s proclivities. Duryodhana as well as Arjuna meticulously prepared for the battle ahead and both were bent upon fighting to the finish. But when the chips are down while Duryodhana dreamt of victory Arjuna suffered from qualms. It is this inherent duality of human nature that so prominently figures in Lord Krishna’s discourse in the coming chapters. In popular parlance this chapter comprising 47 slokas verses is known as arjuna vishaada yoga Arjuna’s Grief. However it is worth noting that though Arjuna’s demeanour in the battlefield personifies grief it’s the dilemma of his persona that gives cause to it. Thus there is merit in this chapter being rechristened as Arjuna’s Dilemma. On the other hand it is the supreme irony or in the fitness of things depending on how one views it that this Treatise of Self-help should begin with Dhrutarashtras query whose blind love towards his son Duryodhana brought things to this pass. One might notice the inconsistency in Duryodhana’s assessment of Pandava forces in that while in s3-s6 he considers them formidable in s10 he dismisses them as pygmean. Maybe it has something to do with his state of mind on the eve of war. 1 Thus spoke Dhrutarashtra: Appraise Sanjay as my sons Gathered at the battleground Face the sons of my sibling Eager for the war on hand.

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12 2 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Eyeing Pandavs there lined up So to assess relative strengths Reached Duryodhan Dron in time. 3 Find acharya said the Prince Pandav force thus there arrayed None other than by Drushtadyumn Whom thou taught all tricks of war. 4 Virat ’n Drupad so Yuyudhaana With Bhim ’n Arjun they stand out. 5 Dhrushtaket the one to dread King of Kashi and Purujit Kuntibhoj ’n Saibya too Chekitan their force augment. 6 Uttamouj ’n Yudhamanyu Abhimanyu so Vikranta Draupadi’s offspring not to speak Five-star generals all no less. 7 For thy feel of our own strength Roll-call heroes of ours O revered. 8 Thou with Bhishm Karn ’n Kripa Make all four our Field Marshals Bhurisrav Aswatham ’n Vikarn Our Marshals near Field Marshals. 9 With their lives on line for me Adept at weaponry varied all Abound valorous in our ranks Past masters of group warfare.

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13 10 Nurses Bhishma force our vast Lot it’s Bhima’s tend their small. 11 Let’s close ranks in well laid files Cover we flanks for Bhishma’s guard. 12 Words by these moved Grandsire Bhishm Warrior verily unrivalled War cry he gave with his conch. 13 Egged by Bhishma geared Kauravs War cries their rent those high skies. 14 Krishn ’n Arjun in their turn From chariot of white stallions Gave in kind they with kindred. 15 With Panchajanya Lord Krishna Broke sound barriers with Arjun Who blew to hilt Devadatta As blared Bhima his Paundra 16 Blew conch Yudhisthir full throated Anantavijaya in tandem With his siblings Nakul ’n Sahadev Blew who Sughosh ’n Manipushpak. 17 King of Kashi master archer Sikhandi Marshal their formidable Saathyaki Drushtadyumn ’n Virat Warriors they all never vanquished 18 Drupada as well Draupadi’s progeny With their hero Abhimanyu

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14 Blew O monarch at one go Conchs of theirs to deafening sound. 19 Tumult that ensued shook the ground Bewildered Kauravs as skies roared. 20 When came time to join lines So it happened O my Lord With his Gandiv in harness Hanumaan’s ensign in flutter Arjun stared at Kauravs hard And thus spoke to Lord Krishna. 21/22 Thus spoke Arjuna: Pray posit chariot ours upfront So that I can have a look At those itching for this war. 23 Time I discern those backing Duryodhan the evil minded. 24 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Upfront Krishna took Arjun In their chariot drawn by four. 25 Beseeched Krishna then Arjun That he behold Bhishm ’n Dron As well all those there gathered. 26 Espied Arjun his clansmen Grandads uncles brothers and all Teachers as well friends of note. 27 At the sight of His kinsmen He in distress Spoke worried.

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15 28 Thus spoke Arjuna: Disturb kinsfolk here gathered Feel I parched it nauseates too. 29 Horrify no end prospects war Un-grips Gandiv looks I’m sick. 30 Looks like it’s an illusion Lord I envision bad omens all. 31 Crave I not for power or pelf What’s it worth to kill Kauravs 32 Know not avails what empire What sort pleasures it entails 33 Whom all we wish well in life Here they face us risking same. 34 Us they oppose Dads grandads Sons grandsons so uncles Brothers-in-law ’n teachers too 35 Were the stakes be sky high like Ruling earth ’n heaven as well Let those Kauravs itch for fight I won’t have this war on hand. 36 Set as they on sinful path Why earn sin by slaying them. 37 See I no gain by their end Why then kill our kith ’n kin

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16 38 Blinded by greed bent on deceit Fail they foresee war ruins the race. 39 Wiser for the woes of wars Why not Lord we rescind now. 40 Die aged en masse dharma’s votaries Wont that let go youth ours haywire 41 Sex ratio adverse that war ensues Turns women soft on caste barriers. 42 Fallen women all go to hell What is more their bastards rob Posthumous rites of forebearers. 43 Liaisons low of women wanton Set our race on ruinous course. 44 Is it not said O My Lord Fail who dharma are hell bound. 45 What urge killing kith and kin Why should we sin lusting crown 46 Disarm I now on my own Let them harm me if they deem. 47 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Thus O Raja Despaired Arjun Arms he threw And sat distressed. Ends thus Arjuna’s Dilemma The First Chapter Of Bhagvad-Gita Treatise of self-help.

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17 Chapter -2: All about Life This character defining chapter of the Gita comprising 72 slokas known as saankhya yoga Realization through Knowledge is regarded by many as the peerless part of the great epic. Arjuna’s dilemma meanwhile turns into grief as the horrific prospect of slaying Bhishma his revered granduncle and Drona his venerated guru sinks into his consciousness. Bogged down by sentiment Arjuna appeals to Lord Krishna for guidance. The Lord’s response starting with the epoch making eleventh sloka ‘Averring as knowing/ Worried over trivia /Reckon never wise / Dead and alive both.’ is indeed the curtain raiser to the grand discourse. It is apparent that the sentiment of causing death and destruction plagues Arjuna. Thus Lord Krishna brings the very issue to the fore to dispel the unwarranted fear of death by stressing upon the transmigratory nature of the indwelling spirit of all beings. Then the Lord proceeds to enlighten Arjuna about his duty to fight as a warrior besides touching upon the infamy of surrender. To enable Arjuna overcome the predicament of attachment Lord Krishna elaborates upon the precepts and practices of detached action besides its spiritual and philosophical connotations. As a way of caution the Lord finally explains to Arjuna how his sensual nature hinders man to act in true detachment. This chapter indeed is the spectrum supreme of the kaleidoscope of wisdom that Bhagvad Gita is. 1 . Thus spoke Sanjaya: In pity Krishna Addressed Arjuna Bogged in sorrow With tears profuse. 2 Thus spoke the Lord: Oh what affliction At this juncture Wholly un-Aryan Unholy as well 3 Mind-set impotent that unnerves Strengthen thou for fight on hand.

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18 4 Thus spoke Arjuna: Adore as I how dare I Make Bhishma ’n Dron target 5 Better I go with begging bowl Than earn disgrace slaying them Would the sceptre ever glitter In the bloodstained hands of mine 6 Those us oppose We hate hurting What use war Who victors are 7 . About my duty I’m in doubt Tell me kindly what is right. 8 Beset by doubts Saddled by grief Would I be joyous Were I the king 9 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Bent to rescind Arjun had no more to speak. 10 Make I privy O my Lord Speaks as Krishna to Arjun Stood who there in confusion. 11 Thus spoke the Lord: Averring as knowing Worried over trivia Reckon never wise Dead and alive both.

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19 12 You and Me As well these Have had past Future as well. 13 Wise all realize Embodies selfsame spirit in one From birth to death in every birth. 14 Sensual feelings grief ’n joy Transient are like heat and cold. 15 Weigh who pain ’n pleasure equal Such are those on path freedom. 16 What’s not real it’s never been And that’s true it’s ever there That’s how wise all came to see. 17 Spirit in lay us All-Pervading Given that not to destruction What sense doth it make to think That’s immutable gets destroyed 18 Perish all bodies Spirit not therein Know this truth and take up arms. 19 With no slayer nor one slain Whoso feels that he might kill Its in delusion that he harps. 20 Unbound being ever unborn Ageless since it’s endless too Goes on Spirit beyond life-span.

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20 21 Spirit as entity hath no birth How can thou kill what’s not born 22 Change as men fade if clothes So doth Spirit as frames are worn. 23 Hurts no weapon the Spirit in thee Nor scathe elements wind water ’n fire. 24 Unalterable ’n Eternal Immovable but pervades all Permanent ’n so Everlasting Spirit thus none can ever destruct. 25 Can sans form Spirit get bound Get right answer thou won’t burn. 26 Prima facie if thou feel Subject Spirit is to rebirths Why grieve over end of frame 27 Dies as one For like rebirth Why feel sad Of what’s cyclic. 28 Isn’t thy lament over that Un-manifested to start with Gets manifested just as guest And bids adieu in due course. 29 Seen in wonder spoken in awe Spirit none knows that lies in him. 30 Dies not Spirit as die beings What for man then tends to grieve

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21 31 Being a warrior dharma thine That thee fight with all thy might. 32 . For martyrs of unsought wars Ever open are heavenly gates. 33 If thee back out from duty Imperil thou thy own dharma And that earns thee infamy. 34 What for lead a dishonoured life Why leave legend dubious behind 35 Amiss be taken thine intent Treat thee coward thy friends ’n foes. 36 Count on thou thy detractors Besmirch they thy character Damned be thine obituary By their campaign of slander. 37 If slain heaven alive it’s reign Resolve to fight with right intent. 38 Shed thy sentiment guilt unhinge Eye not gain as wage thou war. 39 Its this knowledge that liberates And helps thee act with no restraint. 40 Goes not waste Effort thine ever Zeal for action Frees from fear.

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22 41 In their resolve Succeed firm Mind as wavers Lose infirm. 42 Unwise use all enticing Flowery language to further Rituals Vedic in their scores Not the knowledge of Vedas. 43 Eyeing heaven with mind mundane Go for ceremonies such in hope Of having best of both the worlds. 44 Pursue if thou wants with zeal Instincts then would spin thy mind. 45 Aspects three of life reveal Vedas four Transcend thou dualities in them as inherent. 46 Well-waters draw Veda-dependent Banks on reservoir dwell all realized. 47 Hold as patent on thy work Reckon thou not on royalty With no way to ceasing work Never mind outcome but go on. 48 It’s but yoga If thou strive Wants without Emotions bereft. 49 Work well greedy with motive Work wise not with result in mind.

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23 50 Wise not sentiment bring to work Thats hallmark of art of work. 51 Freed from bonds with mind even Act wise regardless ever composed. 52 Clears if reason one’s illusion Bothers he not to whats over Or for what might lie in store. 53 Stands as firm mind thy clear Steer thou clear of path rituals. 54 Thus spoke Arjuna: How to spot the yogi true Were he there ever in the crowd 55 . Thus spoke the Lord: Blessed are strong with blissful self Helps them that slight all that tempts. 56 Oblivious of misfortune Not the one to crave for fun Sways not ever by his feelings Stays thus yogi ever even. 57 Unfettered by attachment Compliments to indifferent Adversity by unshaken Wisdom thus is personified. 58 Stimuli those of organs sensory Tortoise like wise draw into shell. 59 Senses reined

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24 Who so abstains Sans he longing Turns he godly. 60 Senses as may tend them rash Wise as well stray from right path. 61 Rein in senses hone thine effort Rely on Supreme that’s true wisdom. 62 Leans man on Lends what charm Brings that want And that’s fault. 63 Despair is what clouds reason Brings that ruin through deeds mindless. 64 Yield to senses sans craving Cap as thou thy wants dubious. 65 Calm that offsets woes of life And that equable makes thy mind. 66 Lacks mind focus as it strays Robs that peace ’n joy thereby. 67 As in seas sans boat rudder So course sensual man loses. 68 With tight leash on their senses Wise with ease lead poised lives. 69 Ignoring all ignorant crave Wise take note what folks not note. 70 Subdues as sea rivers it holds Wise keep cool while wants taming.

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25 71 Freed of ego ’n wants as well Blessed are wise who lack longing. 72 State it’s that of true being With no tenseness of being Life ever in that mode being Makes what one with All-being. Ends thus: All about Life The Second Chapter Of Bhagvad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter -3: Theory of Action This chapter of 42 slokas known as karma yoga Theory of Action covers the whole gamut of action. It is apparent that not all slokas here could be originals. It is pertinent to note that Lord Krishna was unequivocal in s 42- s45 and s53 of the previous chapter about the fallacy of the Vedic rituals and the lack of wisdom in those that clamour for ceremonies which promise rewards here and in hereafter. Given that postulation and going by the contextual nature of this chapter that emphasizes action the s9 -s16 that eulogize the benefits of ritualistic sacrifices should be viewed. In this context it is pertinent to note that while describing the Omnipresence of Supreme Spirit in chapter 10 it is postulated that among the Vedas the Supreme Spirit is Sama Veda symbolizing music s22 and not Rig Veda or Yajur Veda both associated with ritualism. And again in s25 of the same chapter it is averred that among the sacrifices the Lord is tapo yagjna prayer muted and not Asvamedha the horse sacrifice. Thus these eight slokas seem to be clear interpolations. Besides s17s18 and s35 are not only out of context but also break the continuity of the discourse. S24 is but an analogy of s23 and thus is an interpolation. However the readers may note that these slokas if interpreted in the ritualistic sacrificial sense would broadly convey that - 9. Man is not attached to his actions performed in ritualistic sacrifices but all other actions bind him.

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26 10. The Creator wanted mankind to prosper through sacrifices which shall be the milch cow of man’s desires. 11. Foster the gods through sacrifices 12. Fostered by sacrifices gods would bestow desired enjoyments but they are thieves who do not return anything to them gods. 13. Those that partake the remnants of sacrificial food are sinless. 14. Food that sustains mankind comes from rains which are but the outcome of sacrificial ceremonies. 15. Brahma is seated in sacrifice. 16. Who follow the above regimen would attain moksha. To appreciate the background for these interpolations one might refer to ‘All about Interpolations’ of this book. Bypassing these would tend them on the path of sequential thinking outlined by the Lord for the enlightenment of man. 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: Capping wants if betters action How come Thou then push for war 2 Find I hard to grasp all this Thou be forthright what is right. 3 . Thus spoke the Lord: Apply knowledge ’n be freed Or thou make tango with forgo Precepts these yore I fashioned. 4 Work-shy being is no freedom Dormant being makes no living. 5 None like for man non-action Keeps him nature ever engaged. 6 Refrains if one ever craving Restraint it’s but misleading. 7 Reins as carnal tucked in mind

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27 Strive who doth in deeds excel. 8 Lest thee should stake survival Turn thy back not on thy work 19 Ever thee act at par duty Let that be thy goal of life. 20 Lead mankind in Janaka’s route To moksha en route deeds selfless. 21 As and when thou prove thy worth Emulates world then acts all thine. 22 Left with none to gain or prove Keep I Myself ever engaged. 23 Were I to fail to self-exert Man might follow suit as well. 25 Strive as wise to act freely Get bound unwise ever restrained. 26 Waste not breath ill-informed with Wise show ways through their own deeds. 27 Gloat as egotists of their deeds Sourced are acts in one’s nature. 28 Those that see the senses lie Behind the deeds are truly freed. 29 Let go wise who swear by Joys of life that nature tends. 30 Act not with fear or favour Unto Me leave right ’n wrong.

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28 31 Whoso takes this advice Feels no burden ever engaged. 32 Who this lets go mindlessly Gropes in darkness ever in life. 33 Beings as by nature ruled In spite of their self-restraint Wise too tend to lose their way. 34 Pays it to see grips avarice Senses those thine nature tends. 36 Thus spoke Arjuna: Why should one with right intent Stray ever on the wayward ways 37 Thus spoke the Lord: Well its passion lust ’n wrath Drag that man on path painful. 38 Flame ’n mirror as shrouded Without let by smoke ’n dust As well embryo in the womb Wisdom is by wants clouded. 39 Wise all tend to cap all wants Which like fire all burn to core. 40 Veiled off wisdom sees not man Mind and body steeped in wants. 41 Rein in matter with thy mind Thus thou nip thy wants in bud.

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29 42 Score over senses sensuous feelings Betters that mind bettered by knowing But above all Spirit that reins supreme. 43 Let thy Spirit Rule the roost Restrain thou Thy mind mischievous. Ends thus: Theory of Action The Third Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter -4: Practical Wisdom This chapter of 42 slokas known as gjnaana yoga Spiritual Knowledge is replete with practical wisdom as well. So in this chapter as with the previous one there are interpolations galore. Slokas from 24 to 32 that are of religious/ritualistic nature seem clearly out of context and character. Prior to this seemingly interpolated body of eleven slokas the nature of the Supreme Spirit and the conduct of those who realize it are dealt with. Thus the discontinuity in the text brought about by the body of these interpolative slokas would be self-evident. Among these is s24 in which the nature of Brahman is described in terms of sacrificial fire the oblation its ladle and the sacrifice et al an antithesis of the Gita at any rate. And the other slokas of this group that describe states of yogic practices may be enlightening in their own way though out of context. But s34 that advises Arjuna to seek wise counsel is irrelevant in the context of the discourse fashioned to set his fears at rest in the battlefield of Kurukshetra itself. That brings us to the first of the caste-oriented precepts in the Gita - chaatur varnyam mayaa srustam s13. The plain reading of this sloka would have us believe that the Lord Himself created the four-caste system of Brahman Kshatriya Vaisya and Sudra to suit the inclinations of a given soul towards certain earmarked calling of social and spiritual life in this world. And then as a rider that is vague at the very

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30 best Lord Krishna says that though He is the author of it all He should not be deemed as the doer. These so-called caste characteristics and duties as well figure in s 41-s48 of the concluding chapter which are discussed therein. It is imperative that we try to see whether these solkas belong to the original text or are mere later day insertions meant to sanctify the Aryan caste credo with the underpinning of exclusivity of duties through the venerated Gita. It should not be lost on one that s11’s return of favour by the Lord is juxtaposing to the stated detachment of His as espoused in s14. On the other hand s12 that is akin to s20 ch.7 itself an interpolation and s13 do not jell with the spirit of the philosophy. Just the same one school of thought tends to view chaatur varnyam as a way of general differentiation amongst men. However this would not cut much ice since common sense suggests that Lord Krishna would have been aware that this turn of phrase is likely to be viewed in caste colours rather than in general terms. That being the case the Lord would have been circumspect in his word choices to convey his scheme of things governing man’s birth if they aren’t as narrow as the Aryan caste system propounds. Or is the chaatur varnyam His real will whether one likes it or not The answer could be found in the Lords averments as one reads on. The four types of beings the Lord identifies by their nature and disposition are - the virtuous the vile the passionate and the deluded. Isn’t the proposition that people of a given nature and disposition could be bracketed into one single caste so absurd After all even a given family provides many shades of human nature in its members won’t it That being the case could Krishna be so naive as not to know about it Above all hasnt He declared in s 29 ch.9 ‘None I favour slight I none / Devout Mine all gain Me true’. Slokas like chaaturvarnyam that would be encountered intermittently in the Gita are but mischievous if not malicious interpolations meant to buttress the Aryan caste prejudices and thus should be dismissed as such. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Advice this to Sun I gave Told he Manu Ikshvaku thus got in turn. 2 Followed world My word for long Lost which mankind in due course.

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31 3 It’s but love I nurse for thee Made Me reveal this Secret Wisdom Supreme I gave Sun. 4 Thus spoke Arjuna: Born of now how come Thou Did Sun advise there for long 5 Thus spoke the Lord: Born all here times umpteen Aware am I but know not thou. 6 Beyond the pale of birth ’n death On My volition I take birth. 7 Wanes if good ’n vile gain reign Know its then that I come forth. 8 It’s thus I from time to time Manifest here to uproot ill And uphold well for public good. 9 Grasp who this true self of Me Are bound to become one with Me. 10 So with who lead poised life Reining in their base instincts. 14 Detached Am from what happens Its this knowledge that frees man. 15 Men of yore all came to know Thats how one can free himself. 16 Aspects action inaction too Wont to puzzle the wise even.

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32 17 Apart actions’ rights ’n wrongs Inaction no less confounds man. 18 Grasping action in non-action Inaction in action discern wise. 19 Whoso privy to this truth Gives up wants all senses seek. 20 He that content leans on none Resigned he lives in thick of things. 21 Mind if keeps thy greed at bay It’s no sin thou meet thy needs. 22 One that truly well realized Happy being with his share Rids of envy from his mind Easy he feels ever engaged Treats he alike grief ’n joy Wins ’n losses not to speak. 23 Acts of man to favour none Grace they have of deeds selfless. 33 Better wise deeds than acts selfless Wise thus strive to better themselves. 35 As ’n when thou this realize In us both then world discern And get rid of thy illusions. 36 Voyage by thy boat knowledge Helps thee cross all seas sinful.

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33 37 Fire as wood to ashes turns So spark wisdom burns thy sloth. 38 None that betters this wisdom Realize thou by striving hard. 39 Hone thy senses steeped in faith And thou be wise ’n freed of all. 40 Besides those who this doubt Here as above suffer uncouth. 41 Doubts at bay with analyzed thought Detached deeds of applied knowledge That’s how regardless wise all work. 42 Thus O Arjun Sever doubts with thy sword wisdom And fight thy foes with all thy strength. Ends thus: Practical Wisdom The Fourth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter -5: Art of Renunciation This chapter of 29 slokas known as karma sanyaasa yoga Renunciation of Action is in response to Arjuna’s plea at the beginning of the chapter ‘Pray be clear as Thee aver / Act ’n give up in selfsame breath’ Lord Krishna sets the tone for self-help in this chapter with the opening statement Give up all ’n thou be freed / So’s the case with selfless work/ But know latter scores much better. S18 avers the Omnipresence of the Supreme in Brahmans cows elephants dogs and dog eaters. This tasteless description could be but an interpolation as it is so ill behoves the Lord’s eloquence and sophistication of expression seen throughout.

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34 Incidentally the succeeding s19 makes it clear that whoever recognizes Him in all beings attains the Supreme State in life itself. It may be noted that s29 and s30 of next chapter also run along the same lines. S27-s28 that deal with yogic practices and s29 which asserts the Supreme as the beneficiary of sacrificial rituals are but interpolation for reasons that bear no repetition. 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: Pray be clear as Thee aver Act ’n give up in selfsame breath. 2 Thus spoke the Lord: Give up all ’n thou be freed So is the case with selfless work But know latter scores much better. 3 Wise neither want nor they shun That’s how they give up ever engaged. 4 Way action ’n path learning Know not ignorant not different. 5 Work highway ’n lane freedom Know the learned are the same. 6 What thou forego if thee cease Deeds selfless make acts forsake. 7 Such one realized Self-willed dutiful Within self remains Without ever engaged. 8 Privy to this will realize On his body as it works Say hath he none to name one.

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35 9 Wise do realize needs physical Urges are they driven by genes. 10 Spreads on lotus leaves as water Sticks none sin of deeds duteous. 11 Wise in selfless work engage Forego while they self-purify. 12 Wise ever stay cool never in want Bog down but naive ever in want. 13 Covetous not ’n ever laid back Wise in tune with Supreme lay. 14 It’s his nature not the Spirit Makes man act by wants induced. 15 Takes not Supreme credit or fault Grasp none have of this uncouth. 16 He that keeps his bias at bay Sun-like he shines being wise. 17 In clear conscience ’n fairness Gives man freedom faith in Him 19 Keeps who equity ever in thought Faultless being attains he Brahman. 20 In state Brahman Gloats never man as smiles fortune Nor loses heart when things go wrong. 21 Joys induced all tire one soon Stay self-joyous all blissful souls.

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36 22 End as in grief joys of flesh Go not wise for pleasures such brief. 23 Subdue lust ’n rein in wrath Leads that to thy state of joy. 24 Live in ease the true knowing Enjoy they all within themselves. 25 With pure intent sans ill-will Realized all reach State Supreme. 26 Unmoved by his mind subdued Stays ever free the self-realized. Ends thus: Art of Renunciation The Fifth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-6: Practice of Restraint This chapter comprising of 47slokas known as aatma samyama yoga Self Restraint deals with all aspects of self-control needed for renunciation in action. Here Arjuna’s queries as to what would be the fate of man were he to fail midway in his efforts at self- control s37. Even if it were the case asures the Lord still one wouldnt come to grief here or hereafter s40. What is more after being born many times over eventually he attains mokshas45. Further in s46 the Lord asserts that such a man is superior to the ritualistic character and concludes in s47 that he remains His most blessed devotee. Seen in this background s 41 and s42 are clearly interpolations not only for affecting the continuity of the text but also for what they contain. S41 would have it that those who perform the asvamedha ritualistic horse sacrifice would reach heaven to be born again rich. Likewise s 42 would have us that or such would be born in learned homes. It would seem that s46-s47 are digressions but in effect they

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37 carry forward the Lord’s discourse from s32 at which point Arjuna interrupted Him with his queries. S10-s17 deal with aspects of ascetic practice and do seem to be interpolations even going by what is stated in the very opening verse besides breaking the continuity in the proposition. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Forego none if forsake chores Eye not gain ’n thou get freed. 2 If thou let go its godly Makes that hard thy self-interest. 3 Uphill though the way forsake As ’n when thou make it there Stay thus put with no more strain. 4 Reining senses sans motive Wise on selfless deeds focus. 5 Noble or naughty it’s thy make Self thus thine but shapes thyself. 6 Mind if reined it’s thy friend Foe it turns let when loose. 7 Overcome if vicissitudes Vibe thee well with Me Supreme. 8 Valuable or be otherwise Treat all alike self-realized Thus they remain ever even. 9 Wise is one folks who treats None the fear ’n sans favour.

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38 18 With no longing freed of want It’s then thou reach yogic state. 19 Rooted in self yogi true Lamp he likens in still air. 20 Restrain mind in self-focus Beatitude of life that makes 21 Transcends senses if thy mind It’s then thou reach state of bliss. 22 Rooted so on peak of bliss Wise not bother lows of life. 23 So to live in yogic state Untie wise from lifes bothers. 24 Wise keep tabs on self-impulse Affects to without are they immune. 25 Wed wise focus with calm mind Makes that life of theirs tranquil. 26 Pulled by wants as trips the mind Gain ground wise by self-leverage. 27 Passions languid mind tranquil Keep man ever on blissful course. 28 Mind thats pure with self-control Leads that man to State Brahman. 29 Espy wise in right outlook Others in self ’n vice versa.

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39 30 Discern Me in what they see Ever they find Me nearby them. 31 Me who sees in all beings He’s the one that dwells in Me. 32 He’s the yogi self-feels who Joys of others ’n grief as well. 33 Thus spoke Arjuna: Frail being man fail I see Yoga Thou espouse lasting in practice. 34 Can one ever tame his mind Like the wind that yields to none 35 . Thus spoke the Lord: Calm ’n custom bring in ropes Tough ask though to subdue mind. 36 Fail keep going unruly Persevere self-willed all the way. 37 Thus spoke Arjuna: What if one Throws up all Lacks who zeal Hath though faith 38 Resolve if dissolves in mid-course Won’t that be like scattered clouds 39 Kindly dispel all my doubts Think I none of else for that.

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40 40 Thus spoke the Lord: Strives if one to enrich self Ends not in grief here or there. 43 Harnessed habit of births past Helps man strive to self-realize. 44 With the reason thus imbibed Realized outwit scholars there. 45 Awareness of births of yore Helps the striving gain moksha. 46 Ahead in protocol comes yogi Learned ascetics as all sticklers for rituals. 47 He’s the yogi of yogis Self-inner who fills with Me. Ends thus: Practice of Restraint The Sixth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-7: Know the Spirit This chapter of 30 slokas known as gjnaana vigjnaana yoga Spiritual knowledge and Secular intelligence is about understanding the nature of the Supreme through knowing and meditation. However s20-s23 besides breaking the continuity in the character of the discourse would advocate worship of gods for boon seeking that Krishna chastises is s42-s44 ch.2. And thus these slokas undoubtedly are interpolations. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: How to retain Me in mind He in yoga comes to know.

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41 2 Make thee privy that knowledge Leaves that no scope for some more. 3 Rarely beings seek their self Of them but a few Me grasp. 4 Earth ’n ether fire ’n air Water mind sense ’n self Elements are of My Nature. 5 It’s this Nature holds all worlds But above ’n apart is My Nature. 6 While My Higher Nature brings Ends all that Low Nature Mine. 7 Better than Me none exists On Me hinges whatever exists. 8 I’m that what is sapid in water I’m the glow of sun and moon I’m the thunder above in skies Verily I’m the virility of males. 9 Odour of this earth is Me Heat of fire ’n life in being As well wisdom in forsake. 10 I’m the seed of all beings Intellect as well man’s valour. 11 It’s Me strength of even life As well ardour of sex in order. 12 Virtue passion so too delusion

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42 Send I forth though all of them Come to dwell in none of them. 13 Spellbound by My these natures Knows not man My true nature. 14 If thee forsake well and true To Me then thou come ’n grasp Natures these Mine illusions. 15 Who in Supreme hath no faith Gripped are by these illusions And thus go on path wayward. 16 Distressed desirous ’n knowing Such pious are those Me worship. 17 Of these but the steadfast man With pure intent gets My nod. 18 Noble as all worship Me The knower true is selfsame Me. 19 Once in a while Births after many Born who knows I pervade worlds. 24 . Unmanifest Am State Supreme But saddle Me with form uncouth. 25 Dull in delusion won’t perceive Me that’s unborn veiled from them. 26 Am privy to what goes on But man hath no grasp of Me.

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43 27 Illusions dual want and wrath Ever in delusion keep they man. 28 Pure minded sans illusions On Me such of virtue lean. 29 Seek all those who My refuge See they Brahman ever in self. 30 Me Be-All ’n End -All grasps Me he ponders on deathbed. Ends thus: Know the Spirit The Seventh Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter- 8: Cycle of Creation This chapter of 28 slokas known as akshara parabrahma yoga The Indestructible Brahman emphasizes the need of un-wavered devotion to the Supreme so as to attain Him. It also describes the science of meditation to reach the Supreme by understanding the nature of the Brahman. And s 22 is a seemingly concluding statement of the Lord that only through un-swerved devotion the Supreme could be reached from which there is no return s 21. Then appear s23 to s28 which if literally taken would imply that if one dies when the moon is on the ascent he would go to heaven and to hell if it’s other way round. Needless to say these slokas spelling superstition in an otherwise thought-elevating treatise are but interpolations. It is worth noting that Sir Edwin Arnold dismissed these as the work of some vedanti and thought it fit justifiably at that not to include them in his ‘Song Celestial’. In this connection it may be noted that the relationship between the state in which a person dies and his imminent rebirth is covered in s 14 and s15 of c14 which seem to be authentic. It can be seen that s5 places the cart before the horse. Besides s9-s14 too are interpolations going by their content that’s out of context. It is worth noting that s1-

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44 s4s6-s8 and s15-s22 if read together would bear an unmistakable continuity of argument that the interpolations deprive. 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: O Lord appraise what’s Brahman Lies what within ’n backs action Nature of deities besides the beings. 2 What is that guides bodily acts What makes yogis realize Thee 3 . Thus spoke the Lord: Self Imperishable is Brahman But dwells it yet there in beings Brings that forth is Act Supreme. 4 Perish as beings all in time Spirit that lasts of them is Me. 6 In the end the way one tends Charts that future course he takes. 7 If thou act with this in mind In the end thou gain Me true By My word now opt for war With thy strength ’n skill I gave. 8 Me they reach whoso keep On Me focus as they work. 15 Having come to stay with Me Get they rid of births and deaths. 16 Journey to Brahman holds return ticket Journeys back none abode from Mine.

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45 17 Wise all realize days Brahman Ages thousands make with nights. 18 By day as He brings beings Un-manifests He all by night. 19 It’s all rebirths through His day But with nightfall cease they all As He wakes up puts He back. 20 My State Supreme that never ends Un-manifested it’s above Brahman. 21 It’s My Abode that Supreme For man to reach not to leave. 22 It’s through devotion that thee gain State Supreme that pervades worlds. Ends thus: Cycle of Creation The Eighth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-9: The Sacred Secret This chapter of 34 slokas known as raja-vidyaa raja-guhya yoga Supreme Knowledge and Supreme Secret describes various ways of attaining the Supreme that lends itself readily for interpolations. In s13 it is stated that the realized man constantly and single-mindedly remains devoted to the Supreme and in s14 it is averred that such ever remain united with Him in meditation. But it is only in s22 that the protection of the Supreme to those engaged in His service in true devotion is assured. While s23 states that those who worship other gods with faith worship Him only albeit defectively s25 pictures varied outcome of worshipping other gods a contradiction of s3ch.12. And in s24

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46 He is the Enjoyer and the Lord of all Sacrifice an anathema to the philosophy of the Gita. Also s15 is but a digression to facilitate s16-s21 and s23-s25. What is more there could be some omissions from the original given the seemingly incomplete exposition of the promised dharma in s2. Further in s 30 and s 31 it is said that even a reformed sinner is dear and valuable to Him. Then in s 32 it is stated that women Vaisyas and Sudras could win His favour through devotion sounding as if they are all in an inferior league. Leave aside the Lords averment in many a context in this text that the Supreme Spirit lies in all beings it is specifically stated in s34 of ch.10 that He symbolizes all that is glorious in woman. Given this and the background of interpolations s32 surely is a case of trespass. S33 of this chapter is but a jointing medium of the said obnoxious verse and in itself is patronizing in nature towards the virtuous Brahmans. S7 that contravenes s15-s16 of ch.8 and echoes the interolative s18-s19 of this is an interpolation. S34whic falls into a separate category is seemingly an interpolation for reasons explained in ‘All about Interpolations’. 1 Thus spoke the Lo rd: Unenvied as thou I would tell The art of leading fruitful life. 2 Supreme secret that’s sacred Profound dharma for mankind Fair and simple practicable. 3 Fail who follow this dharma Pay they price in recurring births. 4 Whatever is there I pervade In My ambit lay beings Though it’s not the other way round. 5 Fail if thou to grasp it thus Feel as though I’m confined in What I bring forth ’n sustain. 6 Skies in rooted wind as spreads

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47 Dwell in Me though disperse all. 8 It’s I make the Nature bring Beings hapless in their scores. 9 Since I function not in passion Bound Am none by acts all these. 10 Its the Nature ruled by Me Takes the world the way it goes. 11 Though Am Lord of all beings Give Me human form the naive And thus they do belittle Me. 12 Vile in delusion lead their lives In vainness they waste their time. 13 With Me in mind well-meaning See they beings sourced in Me. 14 With right intent ’n focus Such Me worship with true faith. 22 Those as meditate ’n worship Them I take My wings under 26 Hold I dear a leaf even Offered when by pure minded. 27 Act thou throughout in good faith Thus thou make Me feel honoured. 28 Rid be thou of all that binds Freed be thus thou come to Me.

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48 29 None I favour slight I none Devout Mine all gain Me true. 30 Start as wicked My worship Take them all as well realized. 31 Tend I them then turn even Devout Mine none go restive. Ends thus: The Secret Sacred The Ninth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-10: Discern the Divine This intriguing chapter of 42 slokas known as vibhooti yoga Glories of the Supreme characterizes the Omnipresence of the Supreme Spirit.Well for general human understanding Lord Krishna identifies the best in heaven and earth that represent all that is glorious about Him. One might note that His averment that sama veda and tapo yagjna meditative prayer symbolize the glory of the Supreme was cited in the introduction to the third chapter. In the context of what Lord Krishna enumerates as symbolic of the ‘Glory of the Supreme Spirit’ it is interesting to note that He’s the sovereign in humans in s27 but not Rama as one would have expected. However Lord Rama enters the Hall of Fame as the first amongst the archers s31. Going by the dispassionate outlook towards life that Lord Krishna expostulates it is but natural that Lord Rama who personifies attachment to the values of his time is not reckoned as the Glory of the Supreme Spirit. It is another matter that in the Hindu religio-cultural ethos Lord Rama is revered as purushottama the noblest human. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Ear thy lend My words peerless Bound they regale as thee gain.

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49 2 Sourced though gods ’n seers in Me Grasp they have none of My source. 3 Me as Lord of all who sees Turns his back on wrongdoings. 4 Sourced in Me all faculties State of mind of beings too. 5 Varied I made vicissitudes As the case with attitudes. 6 Willed I birth of progenitors all Seven seers great ’n elders four Not to mention sovereign fourteen. 7 Grasps as one the power of Mine Keeps he would his mind then firm. 8 Who this gets in My worship Tends he then to turn to Me. 9 Whoso to Me thus taken Delight he takes in praising Me. 10 Him I help to realize that Which is needed to reach Me. 11 Doubts I dispel his for good Grant I wisdom to his thought. 12 Thus spoke Arjuna: O Lord Thou Supreme Brahman Abode Ultimate Purifier Primordial Indweller Permanent ’n God Primeval.

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50 13 That’s how sages down the ages Narada foremost described Thee Affirmed Asita Devala ’n Vyasa All of that now Thou confirm. 14 None can ever be sure of Thee Hold I true thus what Thou say. 15 God of gods O Lord of all Thou but know Self Thy true. 16 Pray Thee confide Thy nature With which Thou all worlds transcend. 17 How to grasp all aspects Thine How to engage Thee in mind 18 Make me privy O My Lord Forms ’n attributes of Thyself. 19 Thus spoke the Lord: Of all countless Glories Mine Suffice thee knew a few of them. 20 I’m the Self of one and all I’m the beginning as well end Not to speak of in between. 21 Vishnu Am of all deities Sun the luminous of luminous Mareechi Am immortal As well moon the star of stars.

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51 22 I am the Sama of Vedas It’s Me Indra god of gods Of all organs mind is Me And so life in all beings. 23 Shankar Am the Lord of Lords Kubera richest of Yakshas Of the Vasus know Am Fire And Am Meru peak foremost. 24 In those echelons ruled by gods It’s Me Bruhaspathi priest of priests Marshal that great Skand on earth Besides the ocean among the seas. 25 Bhrugur I am the well-realized So Am ‘Om’ that sound supreme Of rituals Am prayer muted Himalayas high that kiss the skies. 26 I’m the fig the tree foremost And so heavenly sage Narad Maestro divine Chitraradh Am Besides Kapila the sage attained. 27 Uchhaisravas Am horse foremost Nectar that was churned in seas Airavat white Indra’s elephant Sovereign whoso crowns mankind. 28 Vajrayudh Am weapon mighty Kamadhenu the cow holy Cupid who aids to sustain life Vasuki the fierce king serpent.

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52 29 It’s Me Ananth of Nagas Varun I am of aquatics It’s Me Aryama mane of manes Yama the ruler of beings. 30 Prahlad Am the demon godly Among the reckoners I’m the Time It’s Me lion of wildlife all As well Garud that rules the skies. 31 I’m the wind that purifies all Among the archers Ram I’m Im the shark that mighty fish And the Ganges ever in flow. 32 Hinge I am that holds all worlds Source is Me of spiritual thought Of Vedanta I’m pro contra. 33 Alpha Am of alphabets all Likeness I’m in like compounds I’m the time of endlessness It’s Me Brahma of four heads. 34 I’m the death that devours all As well brings forth that beings Besides what makes woman’s glory. 35 Am Sama the grand octane Like none metre Gayathri Margasir pleasant month I am As well splendid spring season. 36 I’m the splendour of splendrous Besides fraud in dice as well

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53 Im the goodness in great souls Effort that takes to succeed well. 37 It’s Me Vasudev of Yadavs Of the Pandavs thou art Me Know Am Vyasa of sages Poet Laureate Sukra great. 38 Justice Im in every court Policy Am of all conquest Secret I’m of every mute Wisdom Am of what is wise. 39 I’m the seed of all beings From Me apart none exists. 40 Endless are My attributes This brief is for just thy grasp. 41 All that’s glorious all therein Is but spark of My splendour. 42 O dear friend need there none to delve in full Suffice to say it’s portion Mine that supports all. Ends thus: Discern the Divine The Tenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-11: Nature of Omnipresence This fascinating chapter of 55 slokas known as visvaroopa sandarsana yoga Espial of the Universal Form is about the character of the Supreme Spirit. Lord Krishna enables Arjuna to espy the All-encompassing Universal Form of the Supreme Spirit by granting him the required ESP. The descriptive nature of the State Supreme falls in the realms of Universal Vision.

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54 Owing to the improbability of their being s9-s14 make an amusing reading. S3 states that Krishna grants Arjuna the divine sight required to espy His Universal Form. Of course the ESP that Vyasa granted Sanjaya s75 ch.18 might have enabled him to monitor the goings on at Kurukshetra in order to appraise the blind king Dhrutarashtra about the same. Thus only from Arjuna’s averments Sanjaya could have gathered that he was divining the Universal Form which obviously was beyond his own comprehension. But s10 - s14 have him describe the Universal Form as though he himself was witness to the same even before Arjuna utters a word about it. At the same time the Lord made it clear in s52 ‘Ever craved gods ’n angels too / Just to behold what thee beheld’. Thus the Universal Form that was seen by Arjuna surely was beyond the scope of Sanjayas ESP. Hence s9-s14 that picture beforehand what Arjuna would witness later on are clear interpolations. Contrast this with the parallel situation in s50-s51 when the Lord reassumes His human form but handled differently by Sanjaya. The s29 which seeks to emphasize what was already pictured in s28 albeit with not so appropriate a simile could be but an interpolation. 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: Thy words compelling Spirit about indwelling Uttered in compassion dispelled my delusion. 2 Besides Ive heard about Thy glories Origins of beings and how it all ends. 3 Thou art verily what Thee aver Wish I espied form Thy Divine. 4 If Thou so feel I’m worthy Let me espy Thy True Self. 5 Thus spoke the Lord: Divine I let thee divinity Mine Of hues varied colours ’n kinds. 6 Find Adityas twelve therein Vasus eight and Aswin twins

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55 Rudras eleven ’n Maruts four-nine Wonders umpteen none else seen. 7 May thou discern in My frame Much more than thy thought would take. 8 Bestow thee that ESP Helps which espy form Supreme Beyond the pale of god’s own sight. 15 Thus spoke Arjuna: In Thou find I Brahma on lotus Gods and sages Beings ’n serpents 16 With no beginning End none sighted Boundless find I In Thee universe 17 Find I blinding Light that blazing From Thy diadem Club and discus 18 Thou art Supreme Indweller Ancient Eternal Refuge Dharma’s Guardian. 19 Eyes sun like And oven for mouth How Thou radiate In arms thy manifold

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56 20 Fills Thy Frame The space entire Makes Thy sight The worlds tremble. 21 See in Thee the angelic world Find them all Thou pray in awe Spot I sages in their scores Hear them extol Thee in hymns. 22 Demigods all ’n celestial folk Stand they stunned ’n look at Thee. 23 Makes it awful sight Thine terrible Bear as Thou those weird organs. 24 Perplexed am I by Thy sight Seems I’ve lost my sense of self. 25 Discern I nadir in Thy face Pray assume now Form Normal. 26 See I Bhishma Dron ’n Karn Kauravs ours making way to mouth Thy wide. 27 Nauseates sight of teeth Thine terrible Gnashing heads of theirs in smithereens. 28 Rivers as run towards the seas So these armies towards Thy mouths. 30 Consume worlds as mouths Thy blazing Find I blinding rays those scorching. 31 Who art Thou this Terrible Thing

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57 For what avail mission this Thine Gripped now am with urge to know. 32 Thus spoke the Lord: I’m the time that infolds all It’s all over for most here Doomed are they never mind war. 33 Since I’ve handed them sentence Thou art no more than hangman Finish them all ’n flourish in turn Brings as reign thee power ’n pelf. 34 Take up arms ’n lap up crown For Drona Bhishma and Karna As well Jayadrath with the rest Truly are they doomed by Me. 35 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Stunned as he by what transpired Beseeched Paartha Lord Krishna. 36 Thus spoke Arjuna: Sing Thy praises the rejoiced world Hither ’n thither run wicked in awe Bow to Thee those self-realized. 37 Can one fail to worship Thee Creator’s Creator ’n Universal 38 Thee the Primal All-Dweller Thou All-Knower One to know. 39 God of gods O our Father Thee I salute on and on.

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58 40 One and All who pervades all Thou All-Powerful praise be Thee. 41 Ignorant being of Thy Great Being Owing to contempt familiarity bred Sadly I have been badly behaving. 42 As I took Thee for granted Kindly forgive O Great Soul. 43 Thou art Greater than greatest None Thee in three worlds equal. 44 Treat me kindly ’n forgive All I crave for is Thy grace. 45 Form Thy Current holds dreadful Pray show Divine Grace of Thine. 46 With mace discus ’n diadem Pray assume Thy Form four-armed. 47 Thus spoke the Lord: As thou please Me so I’ve shown Form My Endless none else seen. 48 Take to penance Or pore over four Vedas None that helps to see this Form. 49 Having beheld My bewildering Form Now ease with My Form Normal. 50 Thus spoke Sanjaya: Having said thus Lord assumed

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59 His form normal that calmed Arjun. 51 Thus spoke Arjuna: O Lord now I feel normal With Thy gentle form human. 52 Thus spoke the Lord: Ever crave gods ’n angels too Just to behold that thee beheld. 53 Austerities well Vedic grasp Charity as well ritual regimen Get none to what thou had seen 54 Yet in devotion divines man Attains besides Form this Mine. 55 He that takes Me for Supreme And treats his work as Mine own one Gets who rid of his restraints And keeps his faith in Me always He who bears no ill-feeling Ever on move he comes to Me. Ends thus: Nature of Omnipresence The Eleventh Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-12: Doctrine of Faith This chapter of 22 slokas known as bhakti yoga Doctrine of Faith enumerates the human qualities that are endearing to the Supreme Spirit. In this also are discussed the ways in which one still could win the Lord’s favour yet failing to set store on Him.

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60 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: Pray tell who’s better realized One that devoted as stated Or relies who on God Obscure. 2 Thus spoke the Lord: Me in devotion who worships Him I reckon as well realized. 3 Having said that add I might Looks as one to God Obscure – 4 Doth he fine with senses reined If well disposed towards the world. 5 But it’s tough ask nonetheless For one to realize God Obscure. 6 Whosoever hath faith in Me And leans on Me heart ’n soul - 7 Him I help to cross over Ocean vast of births ’n deaths. 8 If thou develop faith in Me Take for granted I take thee. 9 Were thee to fail develop faith It’s not thou reached blind alley Ever Me having in thy mind Practice lets thee turn the bend. 10 If thou feel that’s hard as well Indulge then in deeds Me please.

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61 11 If thou find that difficult too Give thyself to Me Supreme Act then with thy subdued mind With no thought for what follows. 12 Scores thought over mere roting Betters meditation awareness too What helps man to find moorings Are acts his with no axe to grind. 13 Kind-hearted ’n considerate Friendly natured forgiving too Lays no store on highs and lows Suffers no pride ’n possessive not – 14 Whos patient ’n cheerful Self-willed as well persevering Whos hearty ever at work Makes he devout My beloved. 15 Troubles he none or perturbs It’s such poised I’m proud of. 16 Who’s simple never in want Covets he not in vantage post Shakes him none he keeps his nerve It’s such who Me please the most. 17 He’s My darling who craves not Yet won’t shun the pleasures of life Takes but things all as they come. 18 Treats he equal friends ’n foes Scorn or honour minds he not Keeps he cool in grief and joy

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62 Nurses for none soft centre – 19 Pats ’n slights all in the score Treats as equal score My man Takes he in his stride his lot But won’t put the blame on Me. 20 Who in dharma this engage Them I hold in special esteem. Ends thus: Doctrine of Faith The Twelfth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-13: Field and Farmer This chapter of 35 slokas known as kshetra kshetragjnya vibhaaga yoga Field and Farmer deals with body and spirit in the first half and for the rest about Prakruti Nature and Purusha Supreme Spirit. It may be noted that customarily the first verse that is carried here is either omitted altogether or retained unnumbered for reasons none explained. Thereby to avoid confusion in comparison the same is numbered 0 in this text. One might notice that s10 advocating asceticism to which Lord Krishna is opposed doesnt jell with the rest either contextually or philosophically and thus should be seen as an interpolation. S22 which states that the Supreme Soul lay in beings as a sustainer consenter enjoyer and overseer contravenes its very nature expostulated in s16-s18 ch.15. Besides as can be seen it affects the continuity between s21 and s23 of this chapter. S30 akin to s15 is an irrelevant interpolation too. 0 Thus spoke Arjuna: What is nature ’n its role What is spirit ’n its nature What is frame ’n who lords it What makes feeling ’n sixth sense

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63 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Sees who body his as field Sees he all there is to see. 2 Knows who Spirit One dwells in all Knows he all that’s there to know. 3 Lend thy ear as I reveal Nature of thy frame as well Spirit that tenants as farmer Besides Him and His prowess. 4 In chants validate what Vedas Aspects that well Brahmanas delve Reasoned wise in varied ways. 5 Subject to reason ego as well Steeped is frame in elements five Earth water fire ether and air Organs those ten as well mind. 6 Desire derision pleasure ’n pain Pitch their tents in frames human. 7 Knowing is being - Amiable and humble simple ’n honest Patient ’n decent clean and clear Not to speak of fair and firm - 8 Void of desires egotism devoid Passion none for life and times – 9 With no craving for possessions Fondness none for things of life None the averse all the same.

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64 11 Naive though fail to follow suit Tend all wise to probe nature And strive to see the Spirit in Me 12 Let Me tell thee what’s needed To let thee grasp the State Brahman Which if done would bring in bliss. 13 All-Reaching He’s All-Seeing All Hearing He pervades all. 14 Organs in His likeness made Unlinked though to their senses He that sustains all three worlds Unattached though to goings on. 15 In beings all ’n objects too Within He lies without as well If one comes to grasp this well It’s perception that’s Supreme. 16 It’s how Brahman dwells in all Till He ends all what that keeps. 17 He’s the Light that leaves no shade He’s the One for one to know He’s the Goal of all learning He’s the Tenant in every heart. 18 It’s the knowable of the frame Me who worship come to grasp. 19 Spirit ’n Nature ageless both Nature of beings of Nature born.

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65 20 It’s Nature that tends beings Binding Spirit to one’s own acts. 21 Spirit that lay in beings all Inclines to one’s attitudes With the ethos it imbibes Tends it one to like rebirth. 23 Gets one freed as he grasps Aspects Nature ’n Spirit as well. 24 Indulge who in meditation Find they Supreme Spirit in them Some as divine through wisdom Others do so by deeds selfless. 25 He who finds this all too hard May he obtain wise counsel And be rid of births and deaths. 26 Whatever exists in this world Designs Spirit in Nature’s womb. 27 Sees he well who would see What doth perish is just the frame End there none to Spirit therein. 28 Realize if thou Spirit in thee Same as one that dwells in all Hurt thou never thine own self Thereby attain Me Supreme. 29 Beings act per their nature Thus the Spirit that lay in them Hath no hand in deeds of theirs.

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66 31 Having none its attributes Apart being from nature Spirit hath no qualms of its own. 32 As with ether spread all over None the sullied exposed being So is the case with Spirit in thee. 33 Sun as one lights all three worlds It’s one Spirit that glows all frames. 34 Aware if thee of Spirit ’n frame Frees that thou from all bindings Making way to reach Supreme. Ends thus: Field and Farmer The Thirteenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-14: Proclivities to Know This diagnostic chapter of 27 slokas known as gunatraya vibhaaga yoga Differentiation of Qualities Threedetails the three human proclivities - virtue passion and delusion. It concludes with the identification of the realized spirit. It may be noted that s3 s4 and s19 that deal with the Nature and the Spirit are digressions and thus are interpolations. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Pass I now thee that knowledge With which sages free themselves. 2 Knows whoso this reaches Me Keeps thus births ’n deaths at bay.

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67 5 To tie the Spirit ’n body tight Uses Nature as its threads Virtue passion as well delusion. 6 Spirit as well gets well enticed By the charms of life well-led Steeped in wisdom and virtue. 7 Frames of passion as it weds Spirit gets fond of joys of life. 8 It’s in delusion Spirit with sloth Doth go in tow on wrong path. 9 Gives man virtue life of ease Grinds him passion in despair Deprives delusion him of reason. 10 Of the trio often Takes as lead role one of these Others to sidelines are confined. 11 Wearing wisdom on his sleeve Radiates virtuous throughout life. 12 Plain greedy or ever restive It’s the way all passionate live. 13 Dull in mind And perverted In work lethargic He’s but deluded. 14 Peaks as virtue dies as one Ascends he the State Highest.

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68 15 Dies if one with passion on hold Comes he back to resume things Lives who deluded all his life Gets he none better in rebirths. 16 Virtuous sully never their lives Rue passionate as chase joys Go down deluded drain of life. 17 Gives as virtue wisdom true Renders passion unto grief Leads as delusion into sloth. 18 Echelons virtuous reach higher Remain ‘as is where’ passionate Go down ladder ever the deluded. 20 Out of orbit if thou go Of Nature that grips thy mind Freed be thou of recurring births. 21 Thus spoke Arjuna: Can man ever rein in matter Is there regimen that reins it 22 Thus spoke the Lord: With no let or ever hindrance Whatever it be he lets go Takes he things all as they come With none fondness or distaste. 23 Seeing it all natures work From the fringes of conscience Detached he watches goings on.

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69 24 It’s in fairness that he weighs Affairs of life in fine balance. 25 Sans self ego self-realized Works his way to state tranquil. 26 It’s by capping his nature Wavers he not from the path That which truly leads to Me And in end he turns Brahman. 27 It’s Me Immortal self of Brahman Dharma eternal that’s All-Blissful. Ends thus: Proclivities to Know The Fourteenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-15: Art of Liberation This unique chapter of 20 slokas known as purushottama praapti yoga Realization of the Supreme.S9 s12 s13 s14 and s15 being digressions are clearly interpolations. Beginning with the parable of world as a fig tree it later deals with the indwelling spirit and the Supreme Spirit and the perishable man and the imperishable Purusha Supreme Spirit. 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Wise see Nature as fig tree huge Roots its planted in high skies Branching down with Vedic leaves Helps which man reach State Supreme.

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70 2 So to feed on their organs With its downward roots it ties Beings all to mundane things With man being charged by wants Supplies he the feed it needs Through the knots of threefold ways. 3 Man as fails to lay his hands Roots on those that entwine him Helps dispassion sunder them. 4 Roots as sundered one gets freed To reach the Vedic branch in reach Grasps as he the truth there all Goes he up from branch to branch To end up on the root utmost On which Abode Supreme lies. 5 Freed of pride desire ’n delusion Climbs as he in self he dwells Feels he same of pleasure ’n pain Detached he reaches thus Supreme. 6 Sun too doth pale nears it when Seat of moksha Abode of Mine. 7 Spirit as lies in beings all Gets it rubbed with one’s nature. 8 Wind as carries scent of flowers While leaving them as is where In like fashion Spirit from frames Moves its awareness to rebirths. 10 Know not fools in lifetime theirs

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71 Nature of Spirit thus lies in them But ever on move from frame to frame. 11 This by striving wise realize Fail though naive in spite of it. 16 Perish all beings though in time Perishes not the Spirit in them. 17 Self Mine Highest that sustains Is but different from that One. 18 Since I transcend that perishes Apart ’n above the eternal One Vedas vouch Me Soul Supreme. 19 Who aver Me as Soul Supreme In My worship bring they faith. 20 Grasps who nuances of this science Turns he wise ’n accomplished thus. Ends thus: Art of Liberation The Fifteenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-16: Frailty of Thought This chapter of 24 slokas known as daivaasura sampad vibhaaga yoga The Characteristics of Virtuous and the Vile deals with all aspects of virtue and evil including how they affect human life. S19 which implies that the Supreme Spirit condemns to hell those who hate Him is an obvious interpolation that contravenes Lords affirmative statement in s29 ch.9 ‘None I favourslight I none / But devout Mine all gain Me true’ and other such averred in many a context in this text. Be that as it may when He is the indweller in

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72 all beings as postulated by the Lord himself won’t the interpolative proposition of s19 amount to self-condemnation 1 Thus spoke the Lord: Pure in heart ’n courage to boot Even mind with helping hand Works who hard ’n tries to grasp Austere upright and well-read – 2 Even tempered loves he peace Liberal minded with kind heart Calm ’n truthful well mannered Fickle he not or calumnious Modest natured covets he not - 3 Free of bias he’s fair-minded Strong in will he stalls envy Humble and he forgives too He’s virtuous thus earmarked. 4 Make all vile rude guys all Vainglorious ’n haughty too Besides being indignant No less are they indulgent. 5 Gives as virtue man freedom Keeps him vileness ever constrined. 6 World is as of good ’n bad Serves thee to know latter too. 7 Conduct of theirs lacks virtue Bear they demeanour that’s impure. 8 Branding beings sexual products Reckon not such in God ’n truth.

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73 9 These small minds of ruined souls Wreck they world with acts of wrath. 10 Pride ’n lust long wish list Vile in conceit live impure. 11 Seeing life as one to gloat Vile by impulse go to lengths. 12 Seek vile creatures ever shortcuts On way to wants they ill-get wealth. 13 Think all vile in like terms - This is mine so let me keep Why not have I more of it. 14 Foe this mine I’ve truly floored Won’t I tackle the rest of them Sure I’m Lord of mine own world. 15 Note all vile gloat as such - Besides wealthy I’m well-born Won’t I give and enjoy too. 16 To their hurt in illusion vile End up slaves of joys of flesh. 17 . In vainglory live all vile And for show-off spend they well. 18 . Blinded by pride lustful lot Me they ill-treat lay in them. 20 Live all deluded far from Me Depraved ladder they go down.

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74 21 Detours lust wrath ’n greed Self-destruct to go hellward. 22 Steer if clear perils these men Sees they then the path perfect. 23 In their impulse vile impinge Upon the scriptures that hold good And thus keep ever from Supreme. 24 Ordain scriptures rights ’n wrongs It’s now left to choose thy course. Ends thus: Frailty of Thought The Sixteenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help. Chapter-17: Science of Devotion This chapter of 28 slokas known as sraddhaa traya vibhaaga yoga Threefold Devotion deals with the spiritual and temporal aptitudes of man. S11-s13 that deal with the virtuous the passionate and the deluded in ritualistic sense and s 23 -28 concerning Om Tat Sat and Asat of the Vedic hymns are clear interpolations for reasons the reader is familiar with. However s7 - s10 that deal with the food habits of the virtuous the passionate and the deluded would pose a problem in determining whether or not they are interpolations. Can eating habits be linked to the innate nature of man in an infallible manner Perhaps some future research and analysis might resolve the universality or otherwise of this averment and till then it is appropriate to reserve the judgment on these. 1 Thus spoke Arjuna: None the regard for scriptures Who tend to manage life their well

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75 What Thou say of such of beings Virtuous passionate or merely deluded. 2 Thus spoke the Lord: It’s one’s nature that tends him To be virtuous passionate or deluded. 3 Beings all have faith in some Its ones nature that shapes it. 4 Virtuous seek gods in worship Opt passionate to humour ghosts Turn all deluded towards the Hades. 5 Hoping for there all to gain Indulge vain in austerities Though not endorsed by scriptures. 6 It’s in delusion they all fast Emaciating frames of theirs Thus in foolishness they all Famish Mine own Self in them. 7 As with habits so with palates Come to tend all in three ways. 8 Opt virtuous all recipes fine Sustain health ’n enhance strength. 9 Hot ’n spicy and pungent Prefer food passionate that ill-suits. 10 Food of deluded is all stale Long in storage and impure.

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76 15 Rings with truth ’n laced with warmth Its speech austere that’s well-meaning. 16 Simple ’n stoic Kind and candid It’s mind austere With self-control. 17 Wanting none Never in turn Done in concern Deed it’s austere. 18 It’s in pretension passionate live Eye they have on name ’n fame. 19 With troubled mind all deluded live Hurt themselves ’n others as well. 20 Virtuous deed is that extends Helping hand to one in need Guided by the zeal to serve. 21 Deed passionate is quid pro quo Ever done with some end in mind. 22 Aiding dubious with disdain It’s deed deluded that lacks goal. Ends thus: Science of Devotion The Seventeenth Chapter Of Bhagavad-Gita Treatise of self-help.

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77 Chapter-18: Thy Looking-glass This chapter of 78 slokas known as moksha sanyaasa yoga Realization through Abnegation describes such aspects of human behaviour based on the three natures - virtue passion and delusion - and the path of selfless action. And in the end the relevance of and the reverence to the Gita is described. One can note that s12 breaks the continuity between s11 and s13 with hyperbolic averments and s56 combines what is stated in the preceding and the succeeding slokas and thus both are seemingly interpolations. S41- s48 that describe the allotted duties of man on the basis of his caste are clearly interpolations. In essence the discourse till s 40 is about the human nature and how it affects man. As can be seen the duties on caste lines detailed in the said interpolations have no continuity of argument. As in earlier chapters the text acquires continuity if only these verses are bypassed. S61 avers that the Supreme dwells in humans and deludes them all by his maya. This is contrary to what is stated in s14 ch.5 ‘It’s his nature but not Spirit / Makes man act by wants induced’. Thus s61 clearly is an interpolation as it contravenes the neutrality of the Supreme Spirit in the affairs of man affirmed throughout by Lord Krishna. 1 . Thus spoke Arjuna: Pray Thee tell for my grasp All about sanyaas path forsake And self-denial that’s tyaaga. 2 . Thus spoke the Lord: Lack inclination it’s sanyaas Sans wants work what makes tyaaga. 3 Fault some sages effort per se Others give nod to deeds noble. 4 Make thee privy of three ways By which men all give up well. 5 Effort gift ’n austerity Take men all on road forsake.

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78 6 Forsake I this vouchsafe when Acts man with no axe to grind. 7 Avoid obligation it’s no abnegation Boils it down to give up of delusion. 8 Forgo made easy passionate opt Desist from duties that strain them. 9 Indulge virtuous in their work With no thought of its outcome. 10 With no illusion but diligence Carries renunciant his duties Agreeable or otherwise too. 11 Needs one work to sustain life Relinquients avoid overloads all. 13 Factors five all deeds engulf Know them well to free thyself. 14 Prone are acts to these aspects - Body to sustain ego that goads Senses thy lure life to guard Faith in deities that tends thee. 15 Be well or so be ill In word thought ’n deed as well Sourced are acts in these aspects. 16 Ignoramus in vain ascribe Acts of theirs to Spirit in them. 17 It’s for thee to realize now

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79 That by killing these Kauravs Slay thee none of them thyself. 18 Aspects knowable known ’n knower Lead to duty deed ’n doer in that order. 19 Knowable as well deeds ’n doers Bracket those freed in three groups. 20 Lay indivisible in frames divisible Realize virtuous Spirit not perishable. 21 Spirit in them ’n others that lies Apart ’n unique feel passionate. 22 Failing to see beyond the self Deluded think like frog in well. 23 Illusions of life virtuous See in light of limitations Thus thou carry businesslike Duties that their life ordains 24 In want passionate come to live Bogged down by what they eye. 25 Deluded work in reckless ways Harm their cause ’n others’ as well. 26 Taking well and ever at ease Senses honed ’n ego evened Detached virtuous ever engage. 27 Mind as covetous ’n thought impure Crave passionate all things mundane Which them excite as well pull down.

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80 28 Verily deluded vulgar ’n vacillate Arrogant dishonest ignorant ’n malicious Indolent being remain they gloomy. 29 By natures of these beings Features intellect theirs vary. 30 Deal virtuous in measures equal Weigh they fine all deeds their fair. 31 Perspective lack passionate right In weird ways they tend their lives. 32 Given their state of perversion Go all deluded in wrong path. 33 Virtuous ever in self-control Steady they wavering mind of theirs. 34 Things that seem to bring joys Passionate all with zeal pursue. 35 Proud ’n arrogant doubting ’n grieving Bog down deluded in despair. 36 Make a note of these three ways Pains which banish ’n fetch bliss. 37 What fail sprint ’n serve long run Virtuous know keep woes at bay. 38 It’s the way with thy passion To jump at all that what might tempt Which would turn sour in due course.

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81 39 Ever in day-dreams End up deluded in dreamlands. 40 Beyond the pale of these natures None ever exists in three worlds. 49 With no want Allegiant to none Freed from action Thou forsake. 50 Leads how forsake to Brahman Know that Wisdom Supreme now. 51 With pure mind ’n will that’s strong Wants thou void and firm thy self - 52 Frugal of food thoughts reined in Dwell in self thou sans passion – 53 Lack thou pride wish ’n wrath Give up ego crave not power Be content and live in peace It’s then thou come near Brahman. 54 Treat all beings ever equal And in devotion live tranquil. It’s thou attain State Brahman. 55 It’s then one would know Me true That tends him to be one with Me. 57 Let thy faith in Me be strong Take Me thou for thy shelter And ever thee act as My agent.

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82 58 . It’s all smooth sail if heeded At thy peril thou this ignore. 59 It’s thine ego sues for peace But prevails what is thy nature.. 60 Sidetrack might thine illusions But nature thine would shape thy deeds. 62 Fix thy mind on Me Supreme Find thou peace in My refuge. 63 That thee heard of this wisdom For task on hand now apply mind. 64 O dear friend let Me tell Word My final that benefits. 65 If one remains to Me firm It’s My promise I take him. 66 Set all aside ’n have faith Thus sans sin reach Me thou 67 None of this for those who lack Faith in Me and selfless work. 68 Whoso passes this secret To devout Mine all reach Me true. 69 Know not I a dearer soul None there ever a better service. 70 Who that studies this discourse He Me prays in true wisdom.

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83 71 Hears this whoso in good faith Attains he the Worlds Higher. 72 Looks as if thou got it right Let not delusions rule thy head. 73 Thus spoke Arjuna: Glad O Lord Gone are doubts Sense I gained With Thy words. 74 Thus spoke Sanjaya: It’s what I’ve heard of that stirring Dialogue between these great souls Krishn and Arjun as they spoke. 75 It’s with Vyasa’s grace Ive heard This peerless art of yogic life Which Lord Krishna taught Paartha. 76 Found I thrilling dialogue stirring Reminiscing I rejoice again and again. 77 What a wondrous Form that was Recalling I rejoice again and again. 78 Wherever yogic Lord Krishna Joins hands with great Paartha Goddess Victory spreads carpet Heaven on earth to set there ever. Ends thus: Thy Looking-glass The Eighteenth Chapter

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84 Of Vyasa’s classic Bhagavad-Gita

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85

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