Power Quality, Need to monitor & improve

Category: Education

Presentation Description

Poor Power Quality affects the system & equipment in more than one way. Good power quality has to be maintained. Equipment used should be selected with a view on the impact on quality.


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Presentation Transcript

Power Quality : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Power Quality CPWD Training Institute Parliament Library Project

What is Power Quality? : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute What is Power Quality? Electrical Power Characteristics Voltage Current Power Factor Frequency Fluctuations Interruptions Micro cut offs Flicker Power Quality

Effects of Deviation from Standard Parameters : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Effects of Deviation from Standard Parameters Electronic revolution has transformed the world.   Electronic Equipment is affected Electronic Equipment causes the most pollution. Non Linear devices, magnetic, Semi-Conductor devices. Proliferation of electrical gadgets at home and the office. The Power System Quality suffers. Power Quality

Offenders : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Offenders Switch Mode Power supplies. TV sets, Audio equipment Computers Faults in Systems Rolling Mills, Arc Furnaces etc., Solid State Power Devices. Electric Traction. Electric Arc Welding. Polluters

Problems : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Problems Equipment Malfunction. Deterioration in life. Energy metering Errors. Rate should be commensurate with quality. Enable customers to save time and increase satisfaction Problems

Cascading Effect : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Cascading Effect Non-Linear Current DrawnCauses Non-Linear Voltage Drop Voltage for other Equipment becomes polluted Consequence – Even linear equipment is forced to draw non-linear current. Harmonics, Flicker, Micro-Cut-Offs Effects

Problems : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Problems Consumers Computers & Communication Equipment Malfunction Automated Systems failure Flicker nuisance Over heating Neutral Failure Utilities Energy Metering Losses in Cables ½ size neutral failure Common Energy Metering Reduction in Life Losses & equipment Failure Unhappy Power Quality

Quality Pointers : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Quality Pointers Harmonics Voltage Sags (Brown outs) Voltage Flicker Transients Profile

Voltage Flicker Definition : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Voltage Flicker Definition Variation in Bus Voltage has a spectral characteristic, which lies between a fraction of a hertz & about one third of the system frequency Flicker is a characteristic where a high frequency sinusoid is modulated by a low frequency sinusoid. Voltage flicker perceptible to human eye Rationale

Power Quality Measures : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Power Quality Measures THD: Total Harmonic Distortion:Ratio of RMS value of total harmonic content to RMS value of fundamental TIF: Telephone Interference Factor IS:6842: Electromagnetic Radiation Objective

Sources of PQ Problems : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Sources of PQ Problems Ferromagnetic Devices. Power Electronic Devices. Arc based devices Fluorescent Lamps Arc Welders & Arc Furnaces. Large loads. Natural Causes Lightning, Wind, Trees or branch falling. Control Methods: Reclosing, AVRs, Objective

Reliability : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Reliability Availability of Uninterruptible power to the customers Tools used for development Recorders Scada Systems Change in Design Principles. Full Size Neutral. Bus Bar trunking. Capacitors for PF improvement Method

Limitation of the Study : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Limitation of the Study Time constraints. Lack of Live Data of Database. Balance between progress & need. Limitations

Building Area MethodLighting Power Densities : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Hospital - 1.6 W/ft2 Library - 1.5 W/ft2 Manufacturing - 2.2 W/ft2 Museum - 1.6 W/ft2 Office - 1.3 W/ft2 Parking Garage - 0.3 W/ft2 Retail - 1.9 W/ft2 School - 1.5 W/ft2 Building Area MethodLighting Power Densities

Space by SpaceLighting Power Allowance : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Office Building Office Enclosed - 1.5 W/ft2 Office Open plan - 1.3 W/ft2 Conference - 1.5 W/ft2 Training - 1.6 W/ft2 Lobby - 1.8 W/ft2 Lounge - 1.4 W/ft2 Dining - 1.4 W/ft2 Food Prep - 2.2 W/ft2 Corridor - 0.7 W/ft2 Rest room - 1.0 W/ft2 Active Storage - 1.1 W/ft2 Space by SpaceLighting Power Allowance

What causes Harmonics? : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute What causes Harmonics? Thyristor & Transistor based switching circuits Tripping of large loads HVDC systems in the power systems Electric Traction

Who Gains & Who loses : 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Who Gains & Who loses Power System, T& D, Stability Consumer Equipment Efficiency & Life

Slide 18: 

PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Thank You

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