Power Quality : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Power Quality CPWD Training Institute
Parliament Library Project What is Power Quality? : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute What is Power Quality? Electrical Power Characteristics
Micro cut offs
Flicker Power Quality Effects of Deviation from Standard Parameters : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Effects of Deviation from Standard Parameters Electronic revolution has transformed the world.
Electronic Equipment is affected
Electronic Equipment causes the most pollution.
Non Linear devices, magnetic, Semi-Conductor devices.
Proliferation of electrical gadgets at home and the office.
The Power System Quality suffers. Power Quality Offenders : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Offenders Switch Mode Power supplies.
TV sets, Audio equipment
Faults in Systems
Rolling Mills, Arc Furnaces etc.,
Solid State Power Devices.
Electric Arc Welding. Polluters Problems : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Problems Equipment Malfunction.
Deterioration in life.
Energy metering Errors.
Rate should be commensurate with quality.
Enable customers to save time and increase satisfaction Problems Cascading Effect : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Cascading Effect Non-Linear Current DrawnCauses Non-Linear Voltage Drop
Voltage for other Equipment becomes polluted
Consequence – Even linear equipment is forced to draw non-linear current.
Harmonics, Flicker, Micro-Cut-Offs Effects Problems : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Problems Consumers
Computers & Communication Equipment Malfunction
Automated Systems failure
Neutral Failure Utilities
Losses in Cables
½ size neutral failure Common
Reduction in Life
Losses & equipment Failure
Unhappy Power Quality Quality Pointers : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Quality Pointers Harmonics
Voltage Sags (Brown outs)
Transients Profile Voltage Flicker Definition : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Voltage Flicker Definition Variation in Bus Voltage has a spectral characteristic, which lies between a fraction of a hertz & about one third of the system frequency
Flicker is a characteristic where a high frequency sinusoid is modulated by a low frequency sinusoid.
Voltage flicker perceptible to human eye Rationale Power Quality Measures : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Power Quality Measures THD: Total Harmonic Distortion:Ratio of RMS value of total harmonic content to RMS value of fundamental
TIF: Telephone Interference Factor
IS:6842: Electromagnetic Radiation Objective Sources of PQ Problems : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Sources of PQ Problems Ferromagnetic Devices.
Power Electronic Devices.
Arc based devices
Arc Welders & Arc Furnaces.
Lightning, Wind, Trees or branch falling.
Control Methods: Reclosing, AVRs, Objective Reliability : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Reliability Availability of Uninterruptible power to the customers
Tools used for development
Change in Design Principles.
Full Size Neutral.
Bus Bar trunking.
Capacitors for PF improvement Method Limitation of the Study : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Limitation of the Study Time constraints.
Lack of Live Data of Database.
Balance between progress & need. Limitations Building Area MethodLighting Power Densities : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Hospital - 1.6 W/ft2
Library - 1.5 W/ft2
Manufacturing - 2.2 W/ft2
Museum - 1.6 W/ft2
Office - 1.3 W/ft2
Parking Garage - 0.3 W/ft2
Retail - 1.9 W/ft2
School - 1.5 W/ft2 Building Area MethodLighting Power Densities Space by SpaceLighting Power Allowance : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Office Building
Office Enclosed - 1.5 W/ft2
Office Open plan - 1.3 W/ft2
Conference - 1.5 W/ft2
Training - 1.6 W/ft2
Lobby - 1.8 W/ft2
Lounge - 1.4 W/ft2
Dining - 1.4 W/ft2
Food Prep - 2.2 W/ft2
Corridor - 0.7 W/ft2
Rest room - 1.0 W/ft2
Active Storage - 1.1 W/ft2 Space by SpaceLighting Power Allowance What causes Harmonics? : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute What causes Harmonics? Thyristor & Transistor based switching circuits
Tripping of large loads
HVDC systems in the power systems
Electric Traction Who Gains & Who loses : PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Who Gains & Who loses Power System,
Equipment Efficiency & Life Slide 18: PLP/JNB CPWD Training Institute Thank You