Short Story Elements : Short Story Elements What parts make up a story? Story Terms : Story Terms Plot
Point of View
Theme Plot : Plot Plot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem. Parts of a Plot : Parts of a Plot Exposition – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation)
Rising Action- events that complicate or intensify the central conflict (rising action)
Climax- highest point of interest or emotional involvement in the story
Falling Action- logical result of Climax
Resolution- Final outcome of the story Conflict : Conflict Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces
Every plot must contain some kind of conflict
Stories can have more than one conflict
Conflicts can be external or internal
External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle
Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind Diagram of Plot : Diagram of Plot Conflict Exposition Rising Action Climax (often called the “Turning Point) Falling Action Resolution Special Techniques of Plot : Special Techniques of Plot Suspense- excitement or tension
Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story
Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past
Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect (use of irony) Setting : Setting Details that describe:
Time of day
Time of year Time and place are where the action occurs Elements of a Setting : Elements of a Setting The Functions of a Setting : The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or atmosphere
To show a reader a different way of life
To make action seem more real
To be the source of conflict or struggle
To symbolize an idea We left the home place behind, mile by slow mile, heading for the mountains, across the prairie where the wind blew forever.
At first there were four of us with one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa and I walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My two little sisters romped and trotted until they got tired and had to be boosted up to the wagon bed.
That was no covered Conestoga, like Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill. Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson Types of Characters : Types of Characters People or animals
Flat characters Elements of Character : Elements of Character Others Round Flat Characterization : Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.
Two primary methods of characterization:
Direct- writer tells what the character is like
Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character. Direct Characterization : Direct Characterization …And I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky.
From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara Indirect Characterization : Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank--he was the janitor.
From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo Characterization : Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.
Two primary types of character:
Flat- reveals only one or two traits.
Round- reveals varied and sometimes contradictory traits. Factors in Analyzing Characters : Factors in Analyzing Characters Physical appearance of character
Does character change? Theme : Theme A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work
Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life
May be stated directly or implied
Interpretation uncovers the theme Example of Theme : Example of Theme “Every man needs to feel allegiance to his native country, whether he always appreciates that country or not.”
From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale