Elements of Short Stories

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Presentation Transcript

Short Story Elements : 

Short Story Elements What parts make up a story?

Story Terms : 

Story Terms Plot Setting Characters Point of View Theme

Plot : 

Plot Plot is what happens and how it happens in a narrative. A narrative is any work that tells a story, such as a short story, a novel, a drama, or a narrative poem.

Parts of a Plot : 

Parts of a Plot Exposition – event that gives rise to conflict (opening situation) Rising Action- events that complicate or intensify the central conflict (rising action) Climax- highest point of interest or emotional involvement in the story Falling Action- logical result of Climax Resolution- Final outcome of the story

Conflict : 

Conflict Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces Every plot must contain some kind of conflict Stories can have more than one conflict Conflicts can be external or internal External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind

Diagram of Plot : 

Diagram of Plot Conflict Exposition Rising Action Climax (often called the “Turning Point) Falling Action Resolution

Special Techniques of Plot : 

Special Techniques of Plot Suspense- excitement or tension Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect (use of irony)

Setting : 

Setting Details that describe: Furniture Scenery Customs Transportation Clothing Dialects Weather Time of day Time of year Time and place are where the action occurs

Elements of a Setting : 

Elements of a Setting

The Functions of a Setting : 

The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or atmosphere To show a reader a different way of life To make action seem more real To be the source of conflict or struggle To symbolize an idea We left the home place behind, mile by slow mile, heading for the mountains, across the prairie where the wind blew forever. At first there were four of us with one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa and I walked, because I was a big boy of eleven. My two little sisters romped and trotted until they got tired and had to be boosted up to the wagon bed. That was no covered Conestoga, like Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill. Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson

Types of Characters : 

Types of Characters People or animals Major characters Minor characters Round characters Flat characters

Elements of Character : 

Elements of Character Others Round Flat

Characterization : 

Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story. Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.

Direct Characterization : 

Direct Characterization …And I don’t play the dozens or believe in standing around with somebody in my face doing a lot of talking. I much rather just knock you down and take my chances even if I’m a little girl with skinny arms and a squeaky voice, which is how I got the name Squeaky. From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara

Indirect Characterization : 

Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of us in the room. Then he removed his hat and gloves, slowly and carefully. Chaplin once did that in a picture, in a bank--he was the janitor. From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo

Characterization : 

Characterization A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story. Two primary types of character: Flat- reveals only one or two traits. Round- reveals varied and sometimes contradictory traits.

Factors in Analyzing Characters : 

Factors in Analyzing Characters Physical appearance of character Personality Background/personal history Motivation Relationships Conflict Does character change?

Theme : 

Theme A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life May be stated directly or implied Interpretation uncovers the theme

Example of Theme : 

Example of Theme “Every man needs to feel allegiance to his native country, whether he always appreciates that country or not.” From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale