Persuasive Appeals- Advertising TechniquesPropaganda : Persuasive Appeals- Advertising TechniquesPropaganda Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs : Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physical
Self-actualization/Success Appeals and Propaganda : Appeals and Propaganda Propaganda-
Persuasion using multiple media designed to convince a large audience
Not always a bad thing!!! Name Calling : Name Calling giving an idea or person a bad label, and therefore rejecting and condemning it without examining the evidence.
Examples: Communist, Liberal, dirty hippie, political ads Glittering Generality : Glittering Generality associating something with a "virtue word" and creating acceptance and approval without examination of the evidence.
Examples: Freedom; Make the world safe for democracy Examples : Examples "I believe in an America that's strong at home and respected in the world. I believe we can have a strong economy focused on good-paying jobs, a health care plan that reduces costs, an energy plan that frees us from Mideast oil, and I believe we can lead a strong military and strong alliances that keep America safe and secure." -- John Kerry
No real substance– who doesn’t believe in that? Slide 7: Glittering Generalities Transfer : Transfer carries the respect and authority of something respected to something else to make the latter accepted. Also works with something that is disrespected to the latter rejected.
Example:This transfer technique is often used with images of ideally beautiful people; with cool looking smokers; and with icons like the Flag. Watch posturing politicians and see them standing in front of symbols of authority. Testimonial : Testimonial get the good word from a respected authority and transfer it to your product. Also works by getting a testimonial from a hated person to make someone look bad.
Examples: whenever you have a famous person pitching a product.
Examples: Ed McMahon for the magazine subscription sweepstakes; athletes promoting shoes; the President in grip-and-grin photos with up-and-coming regional candidates; 9 out of 10 dentists recommend this type of toothpaste. Testimonial : Testimonial Examples : Examples Today testimonials and endorsements appear most commonly in television advertising, particularly in infomercials.
For example, a smiling upper-middle class mother may demonstrate her excitement about a laundry soap and describe the benefits that she receives from using it.
Marketers feel that the use of testimonials adds a personal touch to their appeal and also portrays a populist image. Plain Folks : Plain Folks a speaker or product is good because they are "of the people," the plain folks.
Example: the President in a hard hat. Card Stacking : Card Stacking involves the selection and use of facts or falsehoods in order to give just one side of an issue.
Examples: most political ads about opposing candidates; any ads putting down competitors; most ads which use facts to point out the high points on their products without pointing out the downside. Band Wagon : Band Wagon "Everyone is doing it" (or at least all of "us") to convince members of a group that their peers accept the program, and that we should all jump on the band wagon rather than being loft out.
Examples: soft drink ads with a bunch of handsome young people having fun on the beach; political ads featuring groups waving flags. Emotional Appeal : Emotional Appeal Using appeals like fear, pride, guilt, or anger to influence the audience’s perception
“Choosy moms choose Jif.” Sex Appeal : Sex Appeal Sex appeal : Sex appeal Status : Status Associates something with those who have a better lifestyle
“You’ve arrived if you have…”
“Be the first on your block to have…” Status examples : Status examples Altruism : Altruism Uses the notion of doing something good for society with your purchase, action.
Donations to charities with each purchase
Recyclable materials Altruism examples : Altruism examples Pleasure/Enjoyment : Pleasure/Enjoyment Basic Appeals/Needs Advertisers Use : Basic Appeals/Needs Advertisers Use The desire to gain:
To make money
To save time
to avoid effort
To have health
To be popular
Praise To be in style
To gratify curiosity
To satisfy appetite
To have beautiful possessions
To attract the opposite sex
To be an individual
To emulate others
To take advantage of opportunities Slide 24: The desire to avoid loss:
Loss of possessions
Danger in buying
Loss of money
Trouble Logical reasoning methods: : Logical reasoning methods: Reason— a statement that explains or justifies your thesis and answers why? Evidence—fact and/or expert opinion : Evidence—fact and/or expert opinion Fact—an item of information or statement that can be verified or checked by testing, observing, or consulting reference materials.
Expert opinion—statement of belief about a subject by a knowledgeable person recognized as an authority on that subject. Aristotle’s Categories of Persuasive Appeals : Aristotle’s Categories of Persuasive Appeals Ethos- appeal based on the credibility of the speaker
Pathos- an appeal based on emotion
Logos- appeal based on logic