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Instructional Strategies for Online Courses:

Instructional Strategies for Online Courses Deanna E. Mayers Director of Curriculum

Strategies to Clarify Understanding:

Strategies to Clarify Understanding Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Cues, questions, and advance organizers

Setting Objectives:

Setting Objectives Provide students with a direction for their learning Simple Text items Internet based resources Go Animate Introductions

Providing feedback :

Providing feedback Make sure feedback is corrective in nature; tell students how they did in relation to specific levels of knowledge. Rubrics Projects Journal Reflections Discussion board prompts AP Writing Rubrics

Nonlinguistic Representations:

Nonlinguistic Representations According to research, knowledge is stored in two forms: linguistic and visual. Important to focus instruction in both forms . Use of nonlinguistic representation to also increase brain activity

Homework and practice:

Homework and practice

Generating and testing hypotheses Assignments and Projects:

Generating and testing hypotheses Assignments and Projects A deductive approach (using a general rule to make a prediction) to this strategy works best Require students should clearly explain their hypotheses and conclusions Advanced Organizers: Cause/Effect Multi flow map Sequence Flow Map

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Cues, questions, and advance organizers Vary the style of advance organizer used: Tell a story, skim a text, or create a graphic image. There are many ways to expose students to information before they "learn" it .

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Questions About Things and People Things and People: 1.    What action does this thing or person usually perform? 2.    What action is usually performed on this thing? 3.    How is this thing usually used? 4.    What is this thing part of? 5.    What is the process for making this thing? 6.    When this thing is used, does it present a particular danger or other things or to people?  What is it? 7.    What particular color, number, location, or dimensionality does this thing have? 8.    How is this thing usually sold? 9.    What particular emotional state does this person have? Example – After reading a quote from Georg Percy, what are your impressions of this “New Land” as an Englishman? Why do you believe, with this information, would anyone want to leave England for a land with this description?

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Questions About Events Events: 1.    What people are usually involved in this event? 2.    During what season or time of year does this event usually take place? 3.    On what day of the week does this event usually take place? 4.    At what time of day does this event usually take place? 5.    At what point in history did this event take place? 6.    What equipment is typically used in this event? 7.    How long does this event usually take? Example: What factors contributed to America being able to win the Revolutionary War?

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Questions About States State 1.    What is the basic process involved in reaching this state? 2.    What changes occur when something reaches this state? Example: Scientific evidence indicates that carbon dioxide added to the air by the burning of wood and fossil fuels is contributing to "global warming," a rise in global temperature. Tropical rain forests are estimated to be responsible for more than 20% of global photosynthesis, yet their consumption of large amounts of carbon dioxide is thought to make little or no net contribution to reduction of global warming. Why might this be? (Hint: what happens to the food produced by rain for street when it is eaten by animals or the tree dies?)

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Questions About Actions 1. What thing or person usually performs this action? 2.    What effect does this action have on the taste, feel, sound, or look of this thing? 3.    How does this action typically change the emotional state of a person? 4.    How is the value of this thing changed by this action? 5.    How does this action change the size or shape of a thing? 6.    How does this action change the state of a thing? Example: Why did these social reform movements occur, who were their leaders, what was their impact on American society? Religion Temperance (no alcohol) Women's rights Equality

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Summarizing and Note-Taking Research shows: Promotes greater comprehension Analyze to expose what's essential that taking more notes is better than fewer notes Teachers should encourage and give time for review and revision of notes Notes can be the best study guides for tests.

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Summarizing the Lecture

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Many formats “T” notes

More Advanced Organizers:

More Advanced Organizers Cause and Effect Bubble Map Character Map Comparison Table Concept Map Fishbone Flow Map Hypothesis Map KWL chart Plot line Problem – Solution SQ3R Storyboard Story Map Summary Notes Tree organizer Venn diagram W’s Organizer Wheel and Spoke

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Learning Log Tips for best practice: Use to reinforcing effort and provide recognition Encourage students to chronicle their learning across several days or weeks Must have a plan for learners to review the learning log Teacher posed question to answer – student reflection

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Deanna E. Mayers Director of Curriculum


References Classroom Instruction That Works by R. J. Marzano, D. J. Pickering, and J. E. Pollock, 2001, Alexandria, VA: ASCD. “Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking” by Anuradha A. Gokhale JTE Volume 7, Number 1. Cooperative learning: A guide to research. Totten, S., Sills, T., Digby, A., & Russ, P. (1991). New York: Garland Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. By Vygotsky, L. (1978). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Productive Group Work by Nancy Frey, Douglas Fisher, and Sandi Everlove, 2009, Alexandria, VA: ASCD. “Teaching Students to Construct Graphic Representations,” Beau Fly Jones, Jean Pierce, and Barbara Hunter, Educational Leadership, December 1988. Building Academic Vocabulary, by R. J. Marzano and D. J. Pickering, 2005, Alexandria, VA: ASCD. The Global Development Research Center, Source: Adapted from Classroom Instruction That Works by R. J. Marzano, D. J. Pickering, and J. E. Pollock, 2001, Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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