Introduction to Research Methodology

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Meaning, definition and steps in research methodology

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Business Research Methods INTRODUCTION :

Dr. B. S. Navi Associate Professor, Local Head, Department of Commerce Rani Channamma University, PG Centre, Vijayapur Business Research Methods INTRODUCTION

Origin of the word “Research”:

The word research is derived from the French word " recherche ", which means " to go about seeking“ or to 'search'. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577 . Origin of the word “ Research ”

Meaning of Research:

Research means an objective and systematic search for specific information on a specific topic. Example of Research: Carbon di-oxide emission due to traffic jam Causes of crimes by slum dwellers etc. Effectiveness of Educational incentive system for controlling drop-outs Meaning of Research

Contd… :

Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge. Thus Research involves : Expressing the problem (unresolved problem) Formulating the hypothesis Collecting data/ facts/information Analyzing the data/ facts/ information Reaching at conclusions Contd …

Meaning of Research:

Research is a careful, systematic, critical and objective inquiry in some field of knowledge which aims to discover the new facts or to test the old facts by the use of scientific methodology. It may lead to development of generalizations, principles and theories resulting in prediction and perhaps ultimate control of events. Meaning of Research

Role of Research :

It contributes to the general fund of knowledge. It helps to solve many complex problems faced by the business and society. Modern rapid technological, economic, social development is the effect as well as cause of research. Role of Research

Characteristics of Research:

Research is an objective inquiry. Research attempts to explore new knowledge. Research is an expert, accurate and systematic investigation. Research is based on factual observations that can be quantified. Research meticulously observes the methodology. Research involves the technique of controlling the variables to study the cause and effect relationship. Research is a patient and unhurried activity. Research requires a courage. Characteristics of Research

Objectives of Research:

To achieve new insights into a phenomenon To know about the existing phenomenon To know extent of a cause or effect variables To establish relationship between variables Objectives of Research

Motivation of Research What makes people to undertake research ?:

Desiring solution to the problem/ hazard Desire to do a social / national / organizational service Inner satisfaction of a creative job Motivation of Research What makes people to undertake research ?

Importance of Research:

Research brings new knowledge. Research removes the ignorance and superstitions. Research helps in prediction and control of events. Research analysis social problems and leads to effective solutions. Research guides social and business planning. Research contributes to human progress. Importance of Research

Process of Research :

1. Formulation of Research Problem : First and difficult stage – Study of literature, Discussions with the experts & guide, Immersion into the problem – Understanding the problem thoroughly, Knowing the rationale of problem, Specifying the questions. 2. Stating the Objectives 3. Review of Literature : Purpose – (1) To trace the issues not covered, (2) To specify the objectives of proposed research. Categories of Review – (1) Literature relating to the theoretical framework (2) Empirical Literature. Process of Research

Process of Research :

4. Formulation of Hypothesis: A suggested explanation or solution to the research problem is called hypothesis. It guides the research by delimiting the area. Keeps research on the right path. It should be capable of empirical testing. 5. Preparation of Research Design: RD is a plan comprising of the researcher’s decisions about the procedures, sampling, collection & analysis of data for a given study. It is a blue print of the research work that aims to fulfill the purpose of the study without the waste of time, energy and money” Process of Research

Process of Research ( Continued):

6. Determining the sample design: Determination of universe of study, sample size and sampling method and procedure. 7. Collection of Data: Fact is an empirically verifiable observation. Quantifiable fact is data Primary and Secondary Data – Sources of secondary data – Methods of collecting primary data. 8. Compilation and Tabulation of Data: Editing for consistency, uniformity, completeness and accuracy of data. Coding, classifying and tabulating of data. Graphical and diagrammatic presentation . Process of Research ( Continued)

Process of Research - Continued:

9 . Analysis of Data: Ratios , proportions, percentages, averages, dispersion, correlation, regression. It needs expert knowledge. Software SSPS. 10. Testing of Hypotheses: Hypotheses is a probable answer to research problem. Chi-square Test, F-Test, T- Test etc. Process of Research - Continued

Process of Research - Continued:

Interpretation of Data & Generalizations: Value of research is based on its ability to arrive at valid generalizations to build theory. Interrelationship between facts systematically organized becomes theory. Inviolable theory becomes low. 12. Report Writing: Dissertation or thesis- It indicates problem of research, procedure, findings, theoretical and practical implications of findings. It should follow the principles of effective communication. Effective use of graphs, charts & diagrams. Process of Research - Continued

Types of Research:

Descriptive versus Analytical Applied vs. Fundamental Measurable/Quantitative/Objective Vs. Non-Measurable/ Qualitative/ Subjective Conceptual Vs. Empirical One time Vs. longitudinal or overtime research Field setting Vs. laboratory/simulated research Types of Research

Types of Research :

1. Physical Research : It is a research in natural sciences (such as Physics, Chemistry, Biology etc. ) It deals with the things or variables ( such as heat, light, temperature, pressure etc. ) that can be observed under controlled conditions.) 2. Social Research : It deals with human behavior which is influence by number of social, economic, psychological, cultural factors and which is inconsistent. It refers to the research in social sciences such as sociology, economics, commerce, management, psychology etc. Types of Research

Types of Research:

3. Descriptive research: It means describing state of affairs – Ex-post research 4. Analytical research: It means carrying out analysis on a phenomenon –Involves ex-ante forecasting – e.g., before contemplated change. Example : Impact of 2000 additional cars on CO2 emission in year 2015. Types of Research

Contd...:

5 . Applied research: It aims to find a solution to an immediate problem facing a country/ society/ organization etc. 6. Fundamental research: It is a basic research mainly concerned with generalizations. Example : Hydrogen and Oxygen molecules combine to form water irrespective of temperature level. Contd...

Contd...:

7. Quantitative Research: It is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. Example: CO2 emission measured in PPM (Parts Per Million) 8. Qualitative Research: It is concerned with subjective attitude/ quality/ attributes / desires / feelings/ etc. Example : Perception/ Feeling about Belgaum city air pollution (intolerable / Mildly intolerable / tolerable) compared to Rural Area air pollution. Contd...

Contd...:

9. Conceptual Research: It is about abstract ideas or theory. Attack from ghosts, 10. Empirical Research: It is data-based and subject to verification. Contd...

Research Approaches:

According to types of research discussed: There can be two approaches to research: Measurable/ Objective /Quantitative approach Non-measurable/ Subjective/ Qualitative approach. Research Approaches

Contd…:

Quantitative approach can be further divided into 3 groups: Inferential Approach – infer/ forecast characteristics of a real world phenomenon through collection of data . Example :CO2 emission. Experimental Approach – Researcher deliberately changes some variables to know the causal effect- Example – effect of temperature rise on plant growth under open sky. Simulation Approach – Researcher artificially construct an environment involving all the variables and collects data Example : A greenhouse is constructed and impact of temperature rise on plant growth is measured. Contd …

Significance of Research:

“ Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking that promotes development of logical thinking” Research provides the basis of all government / international policies. Research is used for solving various problems of Businesses, NGOs, Societies etc. Significance of Research

Research Methodology:

Research methodology means all aspects of research like: Identifying the Problem Defining objectives Reviewing Literature Formulating Hypothesis Designing sample Collecting data Analyzing of data Arriving at conclusions Research Methodology

Criteria of Good Research:

The objective of the research clearly defined The research methodology used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement The sampling design should be such as to yield least sampling error. The writing should be done with complete frankness – nothing which has bearing on the result should be hidden. The validity and reliability of data as a well as calculations should be re-checked to avoid mistakes Conclusions should be confined to those justified by data and analysis Researcher should be a person of integrity Criteria of Good Research

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Points to be observed in selecting a Research Problem Subject on which research has been done should not be chosen Controversial issues should be avoided Narrow or too wide issues should be avoided Research problem selected should be feasible within means available Researcher should have some background information on the research problems

How to overcome Research Problems in India:

Greater interaction between academic institutions and practicing organizations/ government/ NGOs etc. More education and training on research methodology National Policy on Research mentioning that research data can not be used against the person Timely publication of secondary data and enforcement of Act on “Right to Information” How to overcome Research Problems in India

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