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Wildlife Assessment - Kalahari Ecosystem (WAKE) Reconnaissance trip funded by University of Alberta FDIC Dr. Lee Foote University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada Ph (1) (780) 492-4020

Basic Motivation: : 

Basic Motivation: Responsible conservation requires we continually work to develop better ways let ecosystems meet the needs of people while ensuring the long-term maintenance of both human cultures and ecosystem integrity. Such conservation is necessarily an adaptive process that goes on forever because of incessant changes in global economics, climate, population, and knowledge.


Direct enumeration Indirect enumeration Based on the success of snow track survey protocols in Alberta, we propose to use local expertise to help develop a similar technique for sand-bed spoor analyses, enumeration, biodiversity analysis and visibility correction factors for aerial surveys. Moose in Alberta Red Fox track in snow Kalahari Lion track Rationale for specific biodiversity measures proposed:


Why Track Surveys? Dependable; if track is there, animal was there Time-integrated; captures daily cycle of movement Low-impact; non-invasive, no wildlife handling needed Participatory; features and incorporates local knowledge Statistically robust; sample size, independent variable & land use treatments prescribed. Low-tech, low risk; less prone to equipment or personnel failure Less confounded by available water sources (some sp). Comprehensive presence/absence detection; good way to detect very rare species. Compatible with aerial and ground surveys; provides a visibility correction factor (VCF).


Hypothesized Need for Aerial Survey VCF by Species Group Low Moderate High/Essential


Theory & Hypotheses Disturbance Deviation from Baseline* *= species indigenous to KTFP as benchmark (2001 & later) 2. Wildlife species may be predicted from vegetation and habitat types by season. 1. Track count methods provide a parallel and detailed addition to existing visual survey data 4. Extractive safari use is compatible with sustainable wildlife community structure in the Kalahari, question is how to select off-take level? This info aids DPW decisions. 3. Hunting and viewing tourism does not change the basic plant structure.


High impact Moderate impact Low impact Study Areas Biltong, subsistence hunting permits Springbok on non-extractive safari drive Commercial Hunting Agriculture, intensive human use


Linkage to existing data


Participants Invited NSERC FSIDA IDRC Expressed Interest: Botswana DPW U Botswana Select Community members Kalahari Cons. Soc. IUCN – SUSG FSIDA U Florida

University affiliates expressing interest in cooperating on project: 

University affiliates expressing interest in cooperating on project Dr. Naomi Krogman, International Development/Environmental Sociologist, U of Alberta Dr. Evelyn Merrill, Range Ecologist, Landscape analyst, U of Alberta Dr. Mark Boyce; Quantitative Vertebrate Ecologist, U of Alberta Derek Keeping, MSc. Student Julia Burger, Prospective MSc Student Dr. Raban Chanda, U Botswana Dr. Brian Child, U Florida Martha Wallgren, Univ. Upsalla, Sweden Dr. Alistair Franke, U of Alberta Dr. Lee Foote, Research Director, U of Alberta


Bat-eared Foxes (5-Pula coin for reference) Black-bellied Korhan Chacma Baboon (Kalahari re-invader)


Short list of trackers from Communities Basic field accommodations Hauled water tanks Used 4X4 truck Logistical needs for project Johnny- Zsutswa Masada - Ukwi Grant support (of course) sought through Canadian and International sources


Data inspection for species of special interest. Movement, group size, adult: offspring ratios & time/area association with other surveyed species. Lion (key management need) Leopard (quota debate) Aardwolf (sensitive species?) Hyenas (2 sp) Pangolin (recovering?) Baboon (encroaching?) Wildebeest (water dependent) Cattle competition from wildlife We only provide management recommendations (a) at the invitation of the management authority (DPW), and (b) with defensible supporting data.

Future Work: 

Future Work The project is envisioned as a 2-phase project (2006-2009). a. Track survey technique development w/ community members. b. Survey techniques and employment to community members and game guards as a standard measurement protocol to involve them in resource management at grass roots level (2009-2012) & improve safari employment opportunities in KD1, KD2, & KTFP

Grant Destinations: 

Grant Destinations FDIC NSERC WWF IDRC Calgary Zoological Society

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