Hybrid journals: systematic standard discoverability of OA articles

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Slides for a talk on "Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access articles" presented by Brian Kelly at the NASIG 2014 conference. See http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/events/nasig-2014/

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Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access articles:

Hybrid journals: Ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access articles By Santiago Chumbe , Brian Kelly and Roddy MacLeod Presented by Brian Kelly at the NASIG 2014 Conference 1

About This Presentation:

About This Presentation We propose a solution, using RSS feeds , for the problem of ensuring systematic and standard discoverability of the latest Open Access (OA) articles published in Hybrid journals Introduction 2 Presented by Brian Kelly at the NASIG 2014 conference on 2 May 2014 from 13.10-14.10

About The Authors :

About The Authors Santiago Chumbe : Creator of JournalTOCs Researcher at ICBL, Heriot Watt University Brian Kelly: Jisc-funded UK Web Focus at UKOLN, 1997-2013 Now Innovation Advocate at Cetis & consultant Roddy MacLeod: Instigator of using Journal TOC RSS feeds Heriot-Watt University Library, 1975-2009 Introduction 3

About You :

About You Who works: In a library (academic) In a library (other) For a publisher Other Who works mainly as: A librarian (working with users) A techie (working with software) A negotiator ( d ealing with vendors; customers; …) 4

Presentation Outline:

Presentation Outline Context History JournalTOCs OA articles and Hybrid journals Prototyping a solution Final thoughts Further work 5

Context:

Context Current awareness services (CAS) are important. They alert users to recently published literature in their fields . Everybody benefits from CASs . Researchers need to be up-to-date. Librarians want to help patrons to access the latest research. Publishers need to reach new audiences in a cost-effective way. 6

Researchers:

Researchers T imely and personalized awareness of relevant new research is of the highest importance to researchers and academics Context 7

Publishers:

Publishers Early and easy access to new articles increases Journal Impact, articles´ citation and subscriptions $9.5 billion per annum industry Context 8 PDF

Librarians:

Librarians With MOOCS, iBooks , Google , OA, iMovies , … librarians are assuming new roles. With the increasingly overwhelming digital data environment, m anaging CAS for their patrons can be an important service provided by libraries. 9 Context

CAS using RSS feeds?:

CAS using RSS feeds? Using RSS feeds, we could collect the latest research directly from the publishers . 10 "straight from the horse's mouth!" Context

CAS using RSS feeds?:

CAS using RSS feeds? RSS is a simple standard M2M data exchange protocol, easy to use and easy to implement. 11 RSS OPML New TOCs and articles New journals & journals transfers Context

Early Developments:

Early Developments Our initial work was funded by three projects and three joint collaborations with the Industry: ticTOCs (2007 - 2009) JournaltocsAPI (2009 - 2010) WattNames (2010) JASS ( 2011) X-PARC (2012) LM -API (2012) History 12

PowerPoint Presentation:

ticTOCs instigated a wide adoption of journal TOC RSS feeds and produced: Recommendations on RSS Feeds for Scholarly Publishers http:// oxford.crossref.org / best_practice / rss / Before ticTOCs (2006): 4,000 TOC RSS feeds ( A few hundred using DC, PRISM) Immediately after ticTOCs (2009): 11,000 TOC RSS feeds (6,500 using DC or/and PRISM) From 410 publishers 13 History

JournaltocsAPI:

JournaltocsAPI developed a RESTful web services ( API ) Added 5,000 more journals 16,000 journals from 900 publishers (7,500 using DC or/and PRISM) Started to select Open Access journals and worked with PKP to add the RSS plug-in to OJS Produced a business plan to create a sustainable JournalTOCs service Engaged with early adopters 14 History JournaltocsAPI

PowerPoint Presentation:

JournalTOCs 15 H elp researchers keep up-to-date on new research that matters to them Mission: JournalTOCs www.journaltocs.ac.uk is a Current Awareness Service (CAS) - discover and be alerted to the newest papers coming directly from publishers as soon as they have been published online. A free service, for individual researchers, students, librarians and anyone looking for the latest papers published in the scholarly literature with international coverage and 15,000 registered users .

PowerPoint Presentation:

JournalTOCs 16 The biggest free searchable collection of scholarly journal Tables of Contents (TOCs) collected from 2,186 publishers . All major publishers are included in JournalTOCs , including Elsevier, Springer , Taylor and Francis, Wiley, Sage, Walter de Gruyter , SciELO , Redalyc , RMIT , Inderscience , Project MUSE, Hindawi , Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Revues.org , Emerald, Wolters Kluwer, Biomed Central, African Journals Online, Medknow , Thieme , Libertas Academica , IGI Global, PeerJ and about 2,000 more.

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JournalTOCs d ata as of April 2014 10,100 Hybrid journals 7,650 Open Access journals 6,200 Subscription journals 24,200 journals TOTAL JournalTOCs 17 Metadata for 8 million articles published since 2009

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18 JournalTOCs Hybrid journal Subscription journal Open Access journal

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JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Web Services - API Anyone can use the free API to digest, mix and embed journal TOCs in their own library catalogues, portal, discovery service, web page, etc. JournalTOCs Database Your service

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JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Web Services - API It is being used by 100+ institutions such as: Countway Library of Medicine of the Harvard Medical School Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek ( EZB ) Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek Catálogo de Revistas en Ciencias de la Salud Open University (UK) ZB MED (German National Library of Medicine)

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An institutional subscription based service to help to make the free service sustainable 21 JournalTOCs

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22 JournalTOCs JournalTOCs Premium , the institutional version of JournalTOCs , is used by a range of libraries and information centres across the world - academic libraries, large pharmaceutical companies, hospital libraries, an agency of the United Nations (UN), an aerospace research centre and a consortium of INASP partner libraries. Academic libraries Hospitals Pharmaceutical companies

Hybrid Journals:

Hybrid Journals 23 A hybrid journal is a journal that publishes Open Access articles together with other articles that require a subscription or payment to access and read. Thus, a hybrid journal is a subscription-based journal where only some articles are Open Access OA articles and Hybrid journals

Growth of Hybrid Journals:

Growth of Hybrid Journals 24 Hybrid Only Subscription Gold OA Most of the journals published by the biggest publishers are Hybrid OA articles and Hybrid journals

The rise of Open Access :

The rise of Open Access OA articles and Hybrid journals 25 Open Access made up 12% of articles in 2011

But discovery systems know OA terms only at the journal level !:

But discovery systems know OA terms only at the journal level ! 26 OA articles and Hybrid journals In hybrid journals the possibility of missing OA articles is real and is happening! BY BY-NC-ND BY journal level

Challenge:

Challenge 27 OA articles and Hybrid journals As hybrid journals are proliferating, it has become necessary to enable the systematic identification of OA at the article level . article level

Challenge:

28 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge

Challenge:

29 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge

Challenge:

30 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge

Challenge:

31 OA articles and Hybrid journals Challenge

We need a solution:

Currently no method exists 32 OA articles and Hybrid journals We need a solution t o systematically identify the free full-text availability of OA articles regardless of where such articles have been published.

NISO Initiative:

NISO Initiative NISO is proposing the creation of two new metadata elements: Element Purpose Optional Attributes Namespace free -to-read To define whether the article is accessible, without charge or other restriction (such as registration), to read online. start_date end_date To be defined license-ref To provide a reference to a URI that carries the license terms specifying how the article may be used. start_date   To be defined 33 OA articles and Hybrid journals

NISO Initiative:

NISO Initiative NISO’s new elements : free-to-read and license-ref are mainly concerned with defining whether an article is accessible, without charge or other restriction (such as Pay-Per-View), to read online . They are also concerned with identifying the embargo periods ( start-date and end-date ). NISO Initiative aims to be bigger and to cover all type of scenarios , including OA articles, while they prefer not to mention OA in the draft documents . 34 OA articles and Hybrid journals

NISO Initiative:

NISO Initiative 35 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: NISO proposal is still a draft under discussion and we need a solution now !

NISO Initiative:

NISO Initiative 36 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: New elements and namespaces can take time to be implemented, accepted and adopted < free-to-read > < license - ref > New Namespace? ?

NISO Initiative:

NISO Initiative 37 OA articles and Hybrid journals BUT: It doesn´t specifically deal with OA articles and hybrid journals. Involves: Embargo periods ( start-date, end-date) Free issues (marketing) L icenses different to CC Subscription as the main publishing model e tc… " moving wall "

Our approach:

38 OA articles and Hybrid journals TO USE DC AND CC METADATA ELEMENTS High uptake is achieved when publishers are asked to use elements that they are already familiar with. PRISM Module Our approach

Licences:

Licences We observed a widespread uptake of Creative Commons (CC) to licence OA articles. 39 OA articles and Hybrid journals Practically ALL publishers are using CC for their OA articles

Copyright:

Copyright For OA articles published in Hybrid journals we observed that: 40 OA articles and Hybrid journals Most of the publishers allow authors to retain the copyright but some publishers are asking authors to assign the copyright to the publisher.

Our proposal:

Our proposal In Sept 2013, the EPSRC (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) awarded JournalTOCs funding to: Prototype a solution to facilitate the automated discovery of OA articles from hybrid journals The JEMO Project was setup to implement the prototype. JEMO blog at http://openjemo.wordpress.com/about 41 OA articles and Hybrid journals

PowerPoint Presentation:

The main JEMO’s objective is: T o help publishers implement standard elements in their RSS feeds to enable the systematic identification of Open Access (OA) articles from hybrid journals which will consequently help researchers. 42 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our proposal

PowerPoint Presentation:

43 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our proposal “To help publishers ....”

PowerPoint Presentation:

“… standard elements in their RSS feeds ….” 44 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our proposal < dc:rights > < cc:license >

PowerPoint Presentation:

“…. systematic identification ….” 45 OA articles and Hybrid journals Our proposal Aggregators Discovery services Abstract & Indexing DB Publishers

Prototyping:

Prototyping 46 We prepared a Step by Step Guide to enable OA identification from RSS feeds < dc:rights > < cc:license > How to add and to RSS http://openjemo.wordpress.com/2014/03/31/step-by-step-guide-to-enable-oa-identification-from-rss-feeds/ Prototyping a Solution

Prototyping:

Prototyping 47 We worked with a group of publishers to help them to implement the guidelines 12+4 participating publishers: 5 as initial JEMO Project Partners 7 were contacted after the project started + 4 OA self-motivated publishers Prototyping a Solution

Participating Publishers:

Participating Publishers 48 JEMO JEMO JEMO JEMO JEMO Prototyping a Solution

Participating Publishers:

49 Participating Publishers Prototyping a Solution These publishers have also agreed to implement , or are already using the suggested dc:rights and cc:license metadata elements

OA systematic identification :

OA systematic identification 50 Prototyping a Solution On 7 th April 2014, JournalTOCs started the systematic identification of OA from hybrid journals from the participating publishers. …. …. JournalTOCs Aggregator RSS feeds from publishers

OA systematic identification :

51 Prototyping a Solution 1. Copyright Analysis (if dc:rights is present) < dc:rights > Copyright © 2014 [ ENTITY ] </ dc:rights > JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification ENTITY=Author YES © Author © Publisher NO

OA systematic identification :

52 Prototyping a Solution 2 . Licence Analysis (if cc:license has a no-empty value for rdf:resource ) < cc:license rdf:resource = ”[ Selected_CC_License ]“ /> JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification rdf.resource != ‘’ YES OA article Non OA article NO Axiom: Only OA articles have CC rdf:resource values

OA systematic identification :

53 JournalTOCs Aggregator OA systematic identification Prototyping a Solution

Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs:

54 Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs Prototyping a Solution

Automated identification of OA articles from hybrid journals: Demonstration:

Automated identification of OA articles from hybrid journals: Demonstration 55 http ://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php?action=search&query=1740-0597 Demo

Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs:

56 Showing OA articles on JournalTOCs Demo

Conclusions:

Conclusions The context: Adding CC to RSS was a “natural” process for the participating publishers as all of them are already using CC licenses for OA articles Because 60% of publishers are already using DC elements, adding dc:rights was easily done Since the start of the project, 16 publishers have implemented the dc:rights and cc:license elements in their RSS feeds 57 Final Thoughts

Conclusions :

Conclusions The benefits: OA articles in hybrid journals are no longer ‘hidden ’  More views and click- throughs Better return on investment for Article Processing Charge (APC) Discovery of OA at the article level has been made possible 58 Final Thoughts

Further Work:

Further Work Clustering We are developing subject clusters of always-full-text-available articles by topic, irrespective of source ( OA journals, or OA articles within hybrid, plus subscription-only journals) 59 Further Work

Subject Clusters of OA Articles:

Subject Clusters of OA Articles End result in both instances - guaranteed full-text available subject-based clusters of the latest articles OA articles in hybrid journals are no longer 'hidden'. More views and click- throughs Better return on investment for Article Processing Charge (APC ) Better access to articles on topics of interest 60 Further Work

Further Work:

Further Work Clustering We are developing subject clusters of always-full-text-available articles by topic, irrespective of source ( OA journals, or OA articles within hybrid, plus subscription-only journals.) JournalTOCS will produce, display and allow alerting of subject clusters of new articles from 24,000+ journals.   For JournalTOCS Premium institutional subscribers, subject clusters will also include articles from subscribed titles. 61 Further Work

Further Work:

Further Work CC Type Identification We will alert readers the type of CC licence used by each OA article. 62 Further Work

Further Work:

30 40 Further Work Increase Uptake We are forming a second batch of 10 publishers to which we will help to implement the DC Rights and CC licence metadata elements. 63 Further Work Dec 2014 Apr 2014 10 20

Further Work:

Further Work Analytic Information We will produce metrics and information on the evolution of the number of OA articles published in hybrid journals per period of times and per subjects. 64 Further Work

Review:

Review This presentation has: Outlined a challenge which has been observed: OA articles hidden in hybrid journals Proposed a light-weight solution based on mature and widely-used standard: RSS Showed development of services which have used RSS Proposed a solution based on RSS and CC Illustrated one example of a service which uses the solution 65

Questions :

Questions Any questions? 66 For further information on this talk please contact Santiago Chumbe (S.Chumbe@hw.ac.uk), Roddy MacLeod (macleod.roddy@gmail.com) or Brian K elly (ukwebfocus@gmail.com)

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