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Presentation on Javan and Sumatran Rhinos:

Presentation on Javan and Sumatran Rhinos Belong to the well-known mammalian family Rhinocerotidae , which is in turn placed into the order Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates). Five extant species, of which Javan , Sumatran, and Indian species are traditionally considered “ asian ” rhinos. All Asian rhinos under considerable pressure from the current human influenced environment.

Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sundaicus):

Javan Rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros sundaicus ) One of the rarest, if not the rarest, large mammal on Earth. As few as 35, and at most, 100 left. One-horned. Historically roamed lowland tropical forests from Northeastern India through on to Indochina, and as far south as the islands of Java and Sumatra. Today, they are restricted to Ujung Kulon national park (NP) on the Indonesian island of Java. Remain under extreme threat from multiple biotic and abiotic factors including poaching, agricultural expansion, natural disaster, and especially invasive plant species such as the Arenga palm.

Historical and Current Habitat of Javan Rhino:

Historical and Current Habitat of Javan Rhino

Optimizing Javan Rhino habitat in Ujung Kulon NP:

Optimizing Javan Rhino habitat in Ujung Kulon NP The arenga palm ( Arenga obtusifiola ) is an extremely invasive plant from the perspective of the Javan rhinoceros. As recently as the 1980s, the park was free of the palms. Spreads by seed dispersal through palm civets ( Paradoxurus hermaphroditis ) and long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ), as well as sprouting from roots. This gives the palm a selective advantage over Javan rhino friendly fauna. In 2012, Hariyadi , et al. strategically chose a four hectare plot in UKNP. The plot was first split into four, and each of these four areas in turn contained smaller areas measuring 20m x 20m, 10m x 10m, and 2m x 2m respectively. This sectioning allowed Hariyadi , et al. to conduct analysis on four classes of vegetation: saplings, bushes, young trees, and adult tress.

Plot Layout:

Plot Layout

Plot Manipulation:

Plot Manipulation Over 17 months, from February 2008 to June 2009, Hariyadi , et al. manipulated the plot. Manipulation took part in three phases: clearing, treating, and monitoring. Once the team found their growth, they took specimens from all four classes back to the lab for nutritional analysis, and in the field, counted numbers and types of plants before and after treating and clearing phases to statistically find any change. After clearing and treating, Hariyadi , et al., set up three monitoring points in order to ascertain if the elusive rhinos would visit.

Results :

Results Clearing and treating of Arenga palms within the plot resulted in a significant increase in the number and diversity of saplings. Saplings providing adequate nutrition for Javan Rhinos dramatically increased, with the water and calcium rich Spondias pinnata becoming the dominant sapling. Most importantly, Javan rhinos began using the plot as a feeding ground almost immediately following clearing and treating.

Nutrition Values of New Saplings Within the Plot:

Nutrition Values of New Saplings Within the Plot

Occurrence Chance of Sighting :

Occurrence Chance of Sighting

Javan Rhinos using the area:

Javan Rhinos using the area

Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis):

Sumatran Rhinoceros ( Dicerorhinus sumatrensis ) Two horned. About 200 left in scattered populations, with another 20 or so in captivity. Captive members from a 1980s project that capture forty in order to start a breeding program. Historically ranged from Eastern India to Vietnam in the east, and as far south as the Malaysian peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Sabah, and Borneo in the south. Today, occupy scattered patches within the Malaysian peninsula, northern Borneo, and the island of Sumatra.

Current Range of Sumatran Rhinoceros:

Current Range of Sumatran Rhinoceros

Endocrine and Ultrasound Characterization of a Successful Pregnancy in a Sumatran Rhino supplement with Synthetic Progestin:

Endocrine and Ultrasound Characterization of a Successful Pregnancy in a Sumatran Rhino supplement with Synthetic Progestin The remaining captive population of 20 or so Sumatran rhinoceroses remains both a tremendous resource for reintroduction and a deeply complicated challenge; Sumatran Rhinoceroses are especially difficult to breed. In 2003, Roth, et al., had access to a pair of mating capable Sumatran Rhinoceroses at the Cincinnati Zoo. The female had previously aborted pregnancy five times. Roth, et al., used progestin, a hormone that has been highly successful with maintaining pregnancy in the rhino’s closest domestic relative, the horse, along with careful ultrasound, blood tests, and ethogram monitoring in order to stay medically updated, and to provide a detailed pregnancy profile for zoos use across the world if successful.

Standard Profile of Hormone Concentrations:

Standard Profile of Hormone Concentrations

Embryonic Vesicle Diameter and Crown-rump length:

Embryonic Vesicle Diameter and Crown-rump length

Ethogram:

Ethogram

Results and Conclusions:

Results and Conclusions A viable calf was born to a healthy mother, the first in 112 years. Progestin is also very helpful in maintaining Sumatran Rhinoceros pregnancies. Provides useful data profiles on important mammalian pregnancy hormone levels, pregnancy behavior, crown-rump length, and embryonic crown rump length.

References (1):

References (1) Adhi , R.S.H, Agus , P., Ridwan , S., Daryan , Hendra , P., and Asep Y. 2012. Optimizing the habitat of the Javan rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros sondaicus ) in Ujung Kulon National Park by reducing invasive palm Arenga obtusifolia . Pachyderm No. 52. Roth, T.L., Bateman, H.L., Kroll, J.L., Steinetz , B.G., and Reinhart, P.R. 2004. Endocrine and Ultrasonic Characterization of a Successful pregnancy in a Sumatran Rhinoceros ( Dicerorhinus sumatrensis ) Supplemented W ith a Synthetic Progestin. Zoo Biology 23:219-238. Fernando P., Polet , G., Foead , N., S.ng , L., Pastorini J., and Melnick D.J. 2006. Genetic Diversity, Phylogeny, and conservation of the Javan rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros sondaicus ). Conservation genetics 7:439-448. DOI 10.007/s10592-006-913904. Zafir , A.W.A, Payne J., Mohamed A., Fong, C.L., Sharma, D.S.K.S, Williams R.A.A.C, Nathan S., Widodo S.R., and Clements G.B. 2011. Now or never: what will it take to save the Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis from extinction?. Fauna and Flora International, Oryx 45(2), 225-233. doi : 10.1017/50030605310000864.

References (2):

References (2) Slide-1, lefthand picture of Sumatran rhinoceros. Retrieved on 5-7-2014. worldwildlife.org Slide-2, righthand picture of Javan rhinoceros. Retrieved on 5-7-2014. www-rainforest- alliance.org Slide-14, picture of Javan rhinoceros calf. Retrieved on 5-7-2014. www.rhinoresourcecenter.com

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