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10 to 15 minutes of stretching each day is enough to make your day more relaxed. Stretching your joints is vital before exercise. It will prepare your body for exercise, so you don’t cramp or injure yourself. Stretching is something that will relax your mind. It will clear your mind and you will find that you have a better time exercising. STRETCHING


WATER INTAKE Younger people (toddlers) are made of 75% water fluids. Older kids and adults are made of 60% water fluids. The elderly who are more fragile are made of 50% water fluids. The older a person is, the more important water intake is as they have less water fluids. You should drink 2 cups (500mls) of water within 30 to 60 minutes before exercise. You should drink 100 to 150mls of water every 15 minutes during exercise to maintain hydration.


CONCENTRATION CURLS Concentration curls will test your biceps and forearms. Concentration curls are reps where you are only moving your elbow. You must keep shoulder and wrist still. These reps are much harder than others. It is recommended that you don’t use too much weight. You should start really low and work your way up until you can just do it. Only slowly work up with this rep type to avoid injury.


WARM UPS Like sports, it is important to warm up, before getting in there. Same thing for exercises. But what warm ups are good before exercising? The answer is stretches. Stretching your muscles and joints is the best thing to do before exercising. Without stretching, you will find that they get injured very easily. The reason it is important to stretch, is because it prepares your joints and muscles, so you don’t hurt yourself when exercising. It will also relax your mind, so you will have a much better time exercising.


WARM UPS TO AVOID Warm ups are the best thing to do before exercising. But some are best to avoid as they can be quite damaging. There are two different warm up types that can be quite harmful to your body. One is stretching as well as bouncing. These warm ups are just not good for your spine and people shouldn’t do them. The other type of warm ups that can be damaging to your body is simultaneous leg movement, or in other words, both legs making the same movement. Exercises like two leg raises or sit-ups with feet planted in the ground are those kind of exercises. They can be good, but it is not good for your tail bone unless your back is kept straight.




SQUATS Squats come in different levels. There are normal squats and squats with weights. When doing squats with weights, it is important to start with low weights. You should have a nice wide stance (each foot being about 5 to 10cm from being inline with users waste). When doing the squat, you should have a soft support on the bar for your neck, so it does not hurt the back of your neck. The bar should be rested the back of your neck and supported with the users hands, which should both be evenly placed on the bar. Your hands should be about in line with your feet, or even a bit wider. Squats are probably the riskiest of exercise, because if your back isn’t straight, it will push your spine down and it can cause you some very serious damage.


BENCH PRESS A bench press is where you lay your back on a bench and raises a bar above your head. You must raise the bar as far as your arms can extend (quickly) and bought back to about your neck (slowly). You must put even amounts of weight on each side of the bar, so it isn’t unstable. (There should be locks, so the weights don’t slide off). It is important to have someone as back up behind you, in case you are lifting too much weight. Otherwise, the weight will fall on you. You should breathe in as you slowly lower the bar and forcefully breathe out as you quickly raise the bar up with force.


LEG PRESS The leg press is a machine where you are seated and your feet are against a platform. There are two types that work the same, just differently set up. One requires you to put weights on a bar, like the one displayed on the right. The other requires you to set a weight with a pin as shown on the image on the left. After the weight is set, you put your hands on bars at side of seat on each side of the seat and push. Too much weight or incorrect technique can cause stress on your tail bone.


TREADMILL A treadmill is a piece of machinery that is basically made to walk or run on. A treadmill is basically an escalator that you might see in a large shopping center, only the user is in control and it is compact. Treadmills have a digital display of everything that goes on, which include your heartrate, speed, time and incline. Basically when you step on the treadmill, there will be a start and stop button. When you are ready, you will press start and it will start you off on an incredibly slow rate. (.8kph). This is where you can put in the speed you feel comfortable on. It is best to start at walking speed such as 5 or 6kph, then get faster. You can do this by pressing the plus button. The incline generally gets as high as 15%. What it does is raise the front of the treadmill, so the higher you set the incline, the more uphill the run will seem. In an urgent need to stop, you must grab onto the handle bars attached, jump up and have feet land on respective sides of the rails along side of the treadmill itself. After you have finished with the treadmill, you must press the stop button. The machine will reset, ready for the next person to use.




ELECTRONIC EXERCISE BIKE   These bikes have a bit more to it than the basic bikes. They have a digital display of everything that is going on in the front. This includes resistance, time, heart rate and speed. They can be used like a basic exercise bike (adjusting the resistance as you go on). They also have routines. There should be several different routines. These routines should display the resistance patterns of the rides. As normal, when it gets a bit tough to ride, you should stand up when running, to prevent injury in your tail bone. Have a bottle of water on standby whilst on the bike.


BASIC EXERCISE BIKE These exercise bikes are as simple as just hopping on and going for it. All there is to it is the bike frame, the pedals and adjustable resistance. Turning the knob clockwise will increase the resistance, making the ride harder. Turning the knob anti clockwise will decrease the resistance, making the ride easier. When you find it too easy to ride, this is when you increase the resistance. When it gets a bit hard, but you need to keep going, you must either turn down the resistance to make it easier, or stand up on the bike. If it is hard to ride and you are still sitting down, it will cause damage to your tailbone. So it is safe to be standing up when you are on a high resistance. Have a bottle of water on standby whilst on machine.


ROWING MACHINE A rowing machine is a cardio machine. There is a seat that moves towards and away from the machine, a handle bar that does the same movement and a place to strap in your feet. It has a digital display of speed, calories lost, time it takes to get to 500m and some other handy stuff. Basically, you sit in the seat and grabs hold of the handle bars. Before the you proceed, you can set the resistance of the string attached to the handle bar (which is on the side of the digital display) from between 1 and 10 (10 being the highest). Once you have done that, you can pull on the handle bar and push with their legs to hoist themselves back. Once you have gone back, you move forward and proceed to repeat. To avoid injury, it is important to get the hang of push out with your legs first (whilst keeping a straight back), pulling the handle bar as close to your chest as possible and to get a bit more distance, lean back with the bar. It is also important to do the opposite movements on the way forward, so it doesn’t injure you. (lean forward , bring your arms forward, then bring your legs in). If these techniques aren’t used correctly, it can cause damage to your tail bone and also your shoulders.




    When exercising in cold weather, it is extremely important to stretch first. This is because your muscles are weaker in the cold and are more likely to get injured. It is important to wear warm clothing. A tip would be to wear multiple layers of clothing rather than one jumper. (Multiple layers is better than one thick layer).   Even with cold weather it is important to drink the correct amount of water before exercising to keep up your water fluids. Otherwise you will get that congested feeling high up in your chest.   It may be cold, but there is still a huge chance of you getting sunburn. The chances of sunburn increases when you are higher up or closer to the sky and also when there aren’t as many clouds which still exposes the sun a bit more. Even on a cold day. Even if it is cloudy and you are on low ground, it is still good to wear sunscreen. COLD WEATHER


HOT WEATHER Exercising in hot weather will wear you down the most. It is very important for you to keep up fluids as it will cause dehydration and in more extreme cases, dizziness, headaches, cramps and sickness.   Before a run, you should not drink alcohol, tea or coffee right before or after exercising as they can quite rapidly reduce fluid loss. When running, you generally lose 1.5 litres of water fluids each hour of running. So it is very important to have a water bottle when running. (See water intake to see how important it really is).   You should be drinking the equivalent of 2 cups of water within 30 to 60 minutes before exercise. You should drink 100 to 150mls of water every 10 minutes of exercise to maintain hydration. When you are running in hot weather, it is important for you to wear light and loose clothes. This is so your body can get air and doesn’t suffocate in the heat.

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