History of extesion education lecture

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Extension Education

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1 1 HISTORY & GENESIS OF EXTENSION Dr. B. P. Singh Senior Scientist Division of Extension Education Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar

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1 2 HISTORY & GENESIS OF EXTENSION Rabelais ( 1483-1553) was the one to influence the movement of application of modern science to practice affair In England – Samul Hartlib ( 1600-1700) published a book in 1651 entitled “ an Essay for Advancement of Husbandry-Learning.

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1 3 HISTORY & GENESIS OF EXTENSION Swiss Educational reformers, Heinrich Pestalozzi ( 1746-1826) wrote on agriculture for several years and conducted a school for poor children in which part of their time was spent in raising farm products spinning and weaving of cotton.

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1 4 Philip Emanual von Fellenberg ( 1771-1844) conducted two mannual training school, which was located on 600 acre land in which boys were expected to do farm work. Agricultural school in europe were established in Hungary in 1779, in Nagi Michlas in 1786 and Georgican Academy at Kezthely- 1797.

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1 5 The annals of Agricultural and Useful Arts -a periodical begun in London in 1784 by Arthur Young ( 1741- 1820) widely promoted the advancement of agricultural in Europe and America ( True 1929). Agricultural Society: According to True ( 1928), the forerunner of agricultural extension in Europe and North America was the agricultural society.

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1 6 The first such society in scotland was known as the society of improvers in the knowledge of agriculture , which was begun in 1723. The America philosophical society founded in 1744 and published many article on agricultural subject. There were many societies formed to acquaint their member with what was being done to improve agriculture and to disseminate agril information through their publication, newspaper article and lecturers

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1 7 The Beginning of Extension type Programme The overt use of the notion of “ extending relevant and useful information to the adult population at large however, predates the university extension movement. In 1826, a British Poloitician Lord Henry Borugham, founded the society for the Diffusion of Useful knowledge” to the poor

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1 8 The use of itinerate teachers to improve agriculture was first started in America in 1843, when the committee on Agriculture, New York Assembly, suggested “ the legislature might authorized the State Agril. Society to employ a practical and scientific farmers to give upon practical and scientific knowledge ( True 1928)” to the needed farmers.

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1 9 In Ohio in 1845, N.S. Townshed, Dean of the college of Agriculture suggested that the State Agril. Society “ might select a sufficient number of competent individual to lecture ….on all the science having relation with agriculture , N.S. Townshed also advocated the formation of farmers club in every township to hold meeting, at least monthly, at which there should be lectures on the science and their application to agriculture.

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1 10 The Rise of Extension The first , modern, agricultural and instructional service was established in Ireland during great potato famine of the mid-nineteenth century . This service operated from 1847- 1851

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1 11 The Rise of Extension The actual use of the term ‘ EXTENSION” originated in England in 1868 with a system of University Extension which was taken up first by Cambridge and Oxford University around 1850’s and later it was used by other educational institution in England. According to Farquhar ( 1873) the term “ Extension Education” was first used in 1873 by Cambridge University to describe the particular educational innovation.

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1 12 The objective of University extension was to take the educational advantage of Universities for ordinary people * to serve their educational need, * to those who are near to their farm, * For the rapidly growing population in the industrial, urban area

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1 13 Extension Work in the US In US ,the system of University Extension was introduced through city library, especially in Buffalo, Chicago and St. Lavis. By 1890 the American society for the extension of University was established.

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1 14 Extension Work in the US In context of diffusion of Agricultural information to the farmers Vorhees ( 1894) was the first to use the Word “ Extension”. In fact in USA, Extension work started when Dr. Seaman A. Knapp organized education campaign to control cotton boll-weevil during the first decade of 1880-’s to the first decade of 1900’s.. He is also known as father of demonstration

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1 15 In 1906 , Willium C. Stalling become the nations first county agent. On January 16, 1912, Mrs. Edna W. Trigg became the first woman county agents.

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1 16 With a view to bringing the resources of land –grant Universities to bear upon problems that people faced daily, the US Congress passed the Smith Lever Act , in 1914 itself which led the establishment of Cooperative Extension Service on May 8, 1914.

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1 17 * In the Programmes running under Cooperative Extension Service, county agent was important person , who worked with people to identify their problems To motivated them Made scientific information available to them Helped them to use the information His goal was to help people to have a higher standard of living and an enjoyable life Formally, term “ Agricultural Extension” was adopted in USA when the Smith Lever Act of 1914 was passed.

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1 18 World War II brought emphasis on increasing food production. and Extension staff encouraged the farmers to meet production goals and adjust shortages at home . Further efforts were made to decrease livestock losses from disease and improper care under the programmes of CES.

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1 19 Extension Work in the US The conditions for agricultural extension to evolve apart from the importance of farmers and agriculture in the society and economy concerned, several conditions appear to be necessary for the initiation and organized development of agricultural extension work. 1 st Information has been assembled, systematized and made available on good or new agricultural practices suited to a particular environment and is based on either the accumulation of experience or findings from research .

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1 20 2 nd This information is used among other things, to educate professional agriculturist who may further enlarge or refine this body of knowledge or become active promoters and disseminators of it. 3 rd An appropriate administrative or organizational structure exists by and within which the dissemination activities may be established and conducted.

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1 21 4 th There is a legislative or some other official mandate or influential proponent which prescribes that Agricultural extension work is desirable and must occur. 5 th There are invariably variety of antecedent ( experiences) which have attempted to promote agril information and advice to disseminate. All or several of these conditions have been present in the evolution of modern form of agril extension.

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1 22 Development of Extension in the Third World Although the concept of extension education was introduced in the 19 th century, yet its importance was realized in the countries of the third world after the second world war.

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1 23 There were two main reasons for the establishment of advisory services for rural development in the most of the countries, : food shortage after the war and the independence of many nations. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better balanced economy.

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1 24 The government of these free countries started giving special importance to the programm of rural development. These and many other factors led to the establishment of a varieties of rural services and institutions, including extension services.

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1 25 Latin America and Caribbean- National agricultural extension organizations were started in the mid- 1950s In African countiries- the introduction of agril extension organization was later, with most extension organization starting in the 1960s and 1970s ( Swanson and Rassi, 1981)

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1 26  In most third world countries, the introduction of general agricultural extension organization was brought about by assistance, particularly from the US. The lack of local demand for extension-type services has been characteristics of the experience in most Third World countries; this is a major difference from the North America and European experiences. Few Third World countries had well established colleges of agricultural university when they become independent.

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1 27 The extension type activities were carried out in many Third World countries. These activities were usually associated with commodity improvement schemes. The experiences of most of the extension organization have not been satisfactory as it was stated by Clifford Wharton, Jr. ( 1983). President of the State University of New York:

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1 28 Clifford Wharton, Jr. ( 1983). President of the State University of New York: “ If there is an area where we have been most unsuccessful, it has been the development of cost-effective and program- efficient models for the delivery of new scientific and technical knowledge to the millions upon millions of farm producers of the third World. We know how to harness the creative and inventive forces of science and technology in the war on hunger, but I submit that we still have not been fully successful in technology diffusion”.

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1 29 Extension Education In India: Extension education is the unique specialized discipline which deals mainly with transformation of knowledge concerning the problems of the society. Like any other discipline, it concerns not only the extension work but also teaching and research.

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1 30 Extension Education In India: In India, Bihar Agricultural College Sabour was the first to introduce extension as a compulsory subject at undergraduate level as well at post graduate level . Master programme in agril. Extension was introduced in the year 1955-56. At present , all the SAUs are imparting extension education as a compulsory subject to all the undergradaute students.

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1 31 Various research Institute including EEI,NRC and University are conducting research in extension and they are publishing research in number of Extension Research Journals. Various major areas have emerged as the distinct field in extension where a good number of researches had been conducted. These are: # Information and Communication Technology # Education Technology # Extension Administration and Personnel Development # Farmers education and Training including farm women # Programme Planning and Evaluation # Youth development # ITKs

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1 32 Further Fiscal Commission in 1949 has given stressed on the need of an Extension Services with the objective of bridging the gap between research and the practices of producers. GMF Enquiry Committee, in submitting of its report to GOI in 1952 also elaborated and crystallized the concept of extension service.

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1 33 GMF Enquiry Committee stressed the need of an organization for intensive rural work which would reach every farmers and assist in the coordinated development of rural life as a whole. The committee also recommended that within a period of ten years agricultural extension organization should be built up through out the country.

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1 34 In order to provide extension services to every person, several efforts were being made by prominent personality: Sriniketan Project in 1941 by R.N. Tagore Marthandam Rural Demonstration Centre ( 1921) by Spencer Hatch Gurgao Project ( 1927) by Mr. F.L. Brayne Firka Development Scheme of Madras ( 1946) Others

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1 35 On the basis of the report of various committee, Pilot Training-cum-Development Project were started all over the countries in 1952) with the assistance from the Ford foundation. 55 community Project were started all over the country on 2 nd October 1952. The experience gained through community Project led to the adoption of National Extension Service. A National Extension service Block comprised about 100 village with approximately 66,000 village

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1 36 In order to secure full participation of people in development process, Balwant Rai Mehta committee recommended the introduction of Panchauati Raj and by this three –tier system was set up namely village panchayat, Block Samiti and Zila parishad

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1 37 Besides all these, various extension programme were being launched like IADP, IAAP, HYVP ,T&V system Various special programme were also launched Small farmers Development Agency Marginal Farmers and Land Less labourer Development Antyodaya and IRDP First Line extension programme ( ICAR)

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1 38 Objective in Extension Education Objective can be defined as “an expression of the end or direction of movement towards which efforts are directed”. The broad objective of extension education is to bring about desirable changes in the behaviour of the people. All the efforts of the extension agents are directed to add new things to the knowledge of the participants who should understand them and use them in solving their problems.

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1 39 Objective in Extension Education The objective of extension education has been classified in three different forms: Cognitive domain: Cognitive domain includes objectives which emphasize remembering of reproducing something which has presumably been learned .

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1 40 Objective in Extension Education The objective of extension education has been classified in three different forms: Cognitive domain: Cognitive domain includes objectives which emphasize remembering of reproducing something which has presumably been learned . Affective domain: Objective which emphasize a feeling, tone, an emotion or a degree of acceptance or rejection belong to this domain.

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1 41 Klausmeier ( 1961) defined attitude As ‘ a learned, emotional toned, predisposition to reach, in a consistent way, favurable or unfavourable, towards a person, object or idea.’

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1 42 Objective in Extension Education c. Psychomotor domain: All those objectives that emphasize some muscular or motor skill, some manipulation of material and objects or some act which requires a neuro-muscular coordination are known as motor objectives.

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1 43 Objective in Extension Education Fundamental objective of extension is to develop the rural people economically, socially and culturally by means of education. More specifically , the general objectives of extension are:- To assists people to discover and analyze their problems and identify the felt needs To develop leadership among people and help them in organizing groups to solve their problems

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1 44 Objective in Extension Education To disseminate research information of economic and practical importance in a way people would be able to understand and use To assist people in mobilizing and utilizing the resources which they have and which they need from outside To collect and transmit feedback information for solving management problems.

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1 45 Objective in Extension Education NCA ( 1976) explain that extension aims at improving the efficiency of the human capital in an effort to rapidly increase the rate of agricultural production.

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1 46 Objective in Extension Education Ven den Ben and Hawkins ( 1988). Explain extension as a process which helps farmers to analyze their present and expected future situation; To become aware of problems that arise in such analysis; Increase knowledge and develop insight into problems and helps to structure their existing knowledge

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1 47 Objective in Extension Education Help farmers to acquire specific knowledge related to certain problems solution and their consequences so that they can act on possible alternatives To make a responsible choice which, in their opinion , is optimal for their situation Increases farmers motivation to implement their choices help to evaluate and improve their opinion-forming and decision –making

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1 48 Objective in Extension Education There are number of the differences among extension organization in their objectives Aimed at increasing productivity Partial Extension only Government agency Centralized Working national wide Only transferring knowledge Directive Aimed at solving problems Holistic Integrated range of services Self help, NGO based Decentralized, participatory working in a small area Also generating knowledge Non-directive It is difficult to say that a good extension organization should be left or right side, what is best is depend upon the objectives and the situation.

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1 49 Concept Extension Education Rank Order ( Shukla ( 1972)  Extension education is an applied science consisting of contents derived from researches , accumulated field experiences and relevant principles drawn from the behavioral sciences, synthesized with useful technology, in a body of philosophy, principles, contents and methods focussed on the problems of out of school edcuation for adults and youth ( Leagan, J.P.)

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1 50 Concept Extension Education Extension is an education and its purpose is to change the attitude and practices of the people with whom the work is done. ( Ensminger. D.) Extension Education is defined as an educational process to provide knowledge to th rural people about the improved practices ina convincing manner and to help them to take decisions within their specific local conditions. ( Dhama, O.P.)

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1 51 Concept Extension Education Agri. Extension is a bridge that fills tha gap between agricultural research station on the one hand and the farming population on the other by establishing a suitable teaching organization at various levels of administration.

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1 52 Concept Extension Education Extension education is a Behavioural Science following a continuous, persuasive and discriminating educational process. It aims at affecting the behavioral components of people in a desirable direction, through conviction, communication and diffusion, by its proven method, principles and philosophies resulting in a learning involvement of both client and change- agent systems.

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1 53 Philosophy of Extension Education Philosophy, in the original and wider sense, is the pursuit of wisdom or knowledge of things and their causes, both theoretical and practical. Philosophy is an attempt to answer ultimate questions critically after investigating all, that makes such question puzzling and after realizing the vagueness and confusion that underlies our ordinary ideas.

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1 54 Philosophy of Extension Education Kelsey and Hearne ( 1955) state that philosophy of extension work is based on the importance of the individual in the promotion of progress for rural people and for the nation. Extension Education work with the people to help them to develop themselves, expressed in terms of everyday life, which lead them in the direction of overall objectives. Some will make progress in one direction while others will do so in another direction. Progress varies with individual needs, interests and abilities. Through this process the whole community improves, as a result of co-operative participation and leadership development.

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1 55 Philosophy of Extension Education Ensminger (1962) state that philosophy of extension can be expressed on the following lines: It is an Educational Process, through which change is made in K.A.S of the people. Extension is working with all kinds of person to answer their needs and wants It is “ helping people to help themselves”. It is “learning by doing” and “seeing is believing”. It is development of individual , their society Working together to expand the welfare Extension is a two way-channel Working in harmony with the culture Dhama (1965) has also given almost same point

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1 56 Philosophy of Extension Education Mildred Horton described four principles which make philosophy of extension education: The Individual is supreme in a democracy The home is the fundamental unit in a civilization The family is the first training group of the human race The foundation of any permanent civilization must rest on the partnership of man and land .

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1 57 Philosophy of Extension Education Shukla (1972) supported the philosophy Horton and emphasized “ Extension programme revolves around the individual, the cultivator and we have to bring change in his KAS understating , capacity and ability through persuasion by educational means” Bhatnagar ( 1971) it is the activity of State govt. ( with or without the help of other agencies) which provide the farmers with technical know-how as a guide to improved methods, in order to bring desirable changes in their behaviour with the aim of attaining higher production.

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1 58 Function of Extension Education Its Function is to bring about desirable changes in the human behaviour by means of education. Changes may be brought in their KAS, understanding, goals, action and confidence. Change in the knowledge means change in what people know Change in skill is change in the technique of doing the thing Change in attitude involves change in the feeling or reaction towards certain things. Change in understanding means change in comprehension. Change in goal Change in action means change in performance Cahnge in confidence involves change in self-reliance

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