Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Organization

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Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Organization

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Verbal and Non- Verbal Communication and Its Importance in Interpersonal Communication Dr. B.P. Singh Senior Scientist Division of Extension Education Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India

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Whenever a message is conveyed to its employee in form of oral symbol or speech, it is referred as verbal communication . This type of message is conveyed quickly at the time when other type of communication may delay in passing on the information. Verbal Communication is the process by which meaning are transformed by oral symbols or speech i.e., language. Language may be defined as an arbitrary system of vocal symbols by which human beings as a member of social group in a given culture interact and communicate. Advantages : Message can be quickly communicated Message may be clarified to increase understandability Provides opportunity for face to face interaction Creates an atmosphere of informality which may improve the compliance of instruction. VERBAL COMMUNICATION

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VOICE is the most important element of verbal communication. Voice has mainly five aspects – tone, quality, pitch, rate and force. Tone : Voice tone refers to the coloring or hue in the voice, just as in art tone is a quality of color or shade. The tone of voice is an instrument for conveying various shades of emotion . We portray anger, love, hate and a whole host of other emotions through the inflection of our speaking instruments. ( Like – Harish Bhimani in Mahabharat serial , JaiDev on 15th August and 26th January in celebrations of Republic day and Independence Day, Amitabh Bachchan in GolCunda light and sound show)

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Voice : An acceptable voice quality has also a commercial and cultural value like singer of religious and patriotic songs. The voice of Lata Mangaskar for song of Sare Jhan Se Achcha Hindusta Hamara …. and many other melodies/song the voice of Mahendra Kapoor for the song of Mera Desh Ki Dharti Sona Ugle . Some voice become very clear and appeal to the listeners, if communicated through all India radio, like the voice of Dharmapal from All India Radio, New Delhi in Gram Sansar Karyakaram for the farmers. The quality of one’s voice is depend on both the physical and the emotional make up of the individual. Physically, one’s vocal quality is dependent on the structure of the vocal mechanism. The contempt ( hatred/dislike), cynicism (suspecion), fear, eagerness and many other emotions display themselves in vocal quality. A speaker who would like to develop a pleasing vocal quality must first develop emotional control. Cont.. Cont..

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Pitch : The pitch of one’s voice is determine at birth. We can do little to change our basic pitch, which can be control within nature’s limits. One of the prime pitch problems is called vocal monotony . Repetition of same pitch pattern produce sleep. Vocal monotony is mostly likely to occur in formal speaking situations. While giving the educational lecture to the farmers, one should not speak in same pattern of pitch, farmers should recognize and understand where the speaker is giving more importance in his speech. The modulation in pitch is essential for effective communication. Rate : Besides changing our pitch in speaking, we can also change our pace. Most speakers without training or practice tend to speak at a very rapid rate. This is true in a formal situation than in everyday conversation. Variation in vocal rate promotes interest .

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Force : Vocal force is often defined as the intensity of the tone. For many speakers vocal force is synonymous with loudness, but skilled speakers can make a quiet statement as forceful as a loud one. In face-to-face communication, one should keep the following rules in mind: Be calm and collected at all times Be loud enough to be heard easily Express words with accurate diction (accent) and correct pronunciation Speak slowly and make use of the pause to stress main ideas Use a confident tone Make use of both the quiet and the loud forms of force Be free from any expression of worry , anxiety, or uncertainty as to what you are requesting Be vibrant and enthusiastic and avoid the dull, monotonous voice Express sincerity; remember that your honesty and integrity will show through your voice Know what you are talking about and do’t bluff. Read a good self-help book on vocal improvement Practices reading out loud from newspaper or books Practice in front of a mirror, watching the movement of your lips Practice being alive and interested in all that is going on around about.

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Whenever a message is conveyed in written form, on paper or in black and white, it is referred as written communication. Written communication has following advantage and limitations: Advantages: Makes the message authentic Makes communication specific, with little change of distortion Serves as a document and may be referred back when necessary Uniformity of communication to a large number of employees at the same time. Limitation: Time consuming and costly Communication becomes formal which may develop resistance amongst employees May create confusion if not well written Increases secretarial work WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

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The differences between verbal and non-verbal communication can be understood by the terms of kinesics, phonetic and language or speech . Kinesic s refer to the way people communicate through body movements & gesture such as raised eye brows, and by body expression. Kinesics signals are motion we see and feel. Phonetic signals or speech are the sound we hear. Differences in Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

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NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Evolution of meaning through non-words symbols Evolution of meaning through speech or language 2. The non-verbal denotation unit is a Gestalt The verbal denotation unit is word or its written presentation 3. Non-verbal denotation unit can be broken down further Can not be broken down further 4. Non-verbal denotation is based on continuous function- like hand is continuously involved in movement as long as organism It is based on discontinuous function . Sound and letters have discrete beginning & end. 5. Non-verbal symbol are used by international intellectuals. It is adapted to communicate with in and out- group . Verbal codes are culturally specific language. It is adapted to communicate within a group 6. Non-verbal codes can be perceived by distance & proximity receivers alike. Action may be seen & heard & may produce physical impact. It can be perceived by distant receivers only like it can be heard or read. 7. Non-verbal codes influence perception, coordination, integration and leads to acquisition of skills. It leads to thinking and acquisition of information. Non-verbal communication is the process by which meaning are conveyed by non-verbal symbols and following points makes crystal clear difference between verbal and non-verbal communication:

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NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION VERBAL COMMUNICATION 8. Non-verbal codes have emotional appeal It has intellectual appeal. 9. Non-verbal denotation is learned early in life Learned later in life 10. Non-verbal codification involves complicated network like- musician and athletics go through certain warming up prior to performance. Verbal codes involves central nervous system 12. Non-verbal codes represent an intimate language. Verbal code represent a distant language 13. Less awareness and attention is required. Music, art & physical education are part of the curriculum and that are done through face to face interaction. Great efforts are extended in teaching rules , pronunciation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics experiences in oral or written use of language. It is regarded as most basic skills. 15. Individual devote considerable attention in physical appearance, dress or gestures. More overt attention is given to planning, executing and monitoring of impact of verbal message. 16. Non-verbal codes are private & personal because it is related to one’s appearances body position & manners. Language is regarded as public or social matter except stammering or stuttering . 17 Non-verbal codes have much impact – if used alone. It may be used to strengthen , contradict, substitute, accent of verbal codes. Verbal codes are often used along with non-verbal code. 18. Non-verbal symbols are more powerful in communicating the message of emotion. Verbal codes are mostly used to send purposeful message.

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A analysis reveals that non-verbal communication usually carries greater weight in a message outcome than verbal communication . To be more specific , facial expressions, clothes, posture , tone or body movements may loudly or subtly communication messages. In practice it is observed that non-verbal messages cannot be as readily disguised or controlled as verbal ones. Consequently non-verbal messages often contradict verbal messages. It is of considerable importance that higher authority should be conscious not only of the non-verbal language they use but also of the non-verbal messages others transmit to them intentionally or unintentionally. It can be understood by the example that if any one paid a visit to a nightclub, he is aware that communication need not be verbal in order to convey a message. A glance, a stare, a smile, a frown, a provocative body movement-they all convey meaning. This includes body language and paralinguistic. Role of Non - Verbal Communication in Organization

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Form of Non-Verbal Languages Sign Language : Such language takes the form of non-verbal messages that literally replaces words. For example, a flagman at the construction site uses a flag to signal motorist to slow down, halt or proceed. Action/Body Languages : Action language Walking fast, communicating in a one is in a hurry, lift eyebrow, rubbing the nose. , shrug shoulder for indifference, Object language : Such language consists of physical items such as clothes, furniture, physical possessions or other things that serve to convey message. Thus the size, furnishing and location of an office indicate the occupants status, whereas the awards that may be displayed indicate accomplishments. Para Language : under the Paralinguistic part of this chapter

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Environmental Aspect – use of space Bodily aspect of non-verbal communication Paralinguistic – fall between verbal and non-verbal communication ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECT : In this aspect the example has been given about use of space to make understand clearly the environmental aspects: In a room: Person who lives here? How is furniture place here ? How can people sit in the room? Close to one another? Far away? Facing each other? Side by side? Are there table. Lamps footstool , which would separate one person from another? Proxemics : It explain about the use of space by people. i.e. both environmental space and that of personal space- actual distance we establish between ourselves and other. Basically Non-verbal Communication is based on

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FEATURE OF SPACE : It is of two types: Fixed feature organized by permanent things such as by wall, door and windows. Semi-fixed feature organized by the object within the fixed boundaries of that space. Distance between people and placement of objects may affect the interaction in a particular setting. SOCIOPETAL : Sometimes the objects within a setting are arranged so that people will be facing one another, thereby encouraging interpersonal communication. This type of environment is called socio-petal. If it is reverse then it is SOCIOFUGAL. INFORMAL SPACE: It can be thought of as personal space or a personal “bubble” surrounding the person which changes from situation to situation depending upon the kind of interaction.

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1 . Very close ( 3-6 inch) : Soft whisper; top secret 2. Close ( 8-12 inch) : Audible wishper; very confidential 3. Near ( 12-20 inch) :Indoor, soft voice; outdoor, full voice, confidential 4. Neutral (20-36 inch) :Soft voice, low volume, personal subject matter 5. Neutral (4.5ft-5ft) :Full voice; information of non-personal matter 6. Public distance (5.5-8ft) :Full voice with slight overloudness; public information for others to hear 7. Across the room(8-20ft) : Loud voice; talking to a group EDWARD Hall has found that across culture, people tend to use specific distances for specific types of interactions.

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1 . Very close ( 3-6 inch) : Soft whisper; top secret 2. Close ( 8-12 inch) : Audible wishper; very confidential

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Public distance (5.5-8ft) : Full voice with slight overloudness; public information for others to hear Across the room(8-20ft) : Loud voice; talking to a group

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Neutral (20-36 inch) :Soft voice, low volume, personal subject matter Neutral (4.5ft-5ft) :Full voice; information of non-personal matter

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BODILY ASPECTS : Physical characteristics: (interaction to a new person) Body movement: It includes posture and position; gross body movement such as walking; arms and hand gestures: and head movement. Albert Scheflin : He studied the body movement on the basis of three aspect i.e., point, position and presentation . Point - making a point during conversation Position – changing the position of head during conversation and movement of body Presentation -It consist of the “totality of one person’s position in given interaction”. Facial Expressions : This includes the movement of our eyes, nose, lips, eyebrows, chin & cheeks to explain or communicate our message.

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It fall between verbal and non-verbal communication. It explain how the words of the verbal portion of the messages are said. It deal with volume, tone, rate, pitch inflection and so forth that the speaker uses. The people in organization often hear the expression: “ It’s not what you say, it is the ways you said it .” Paralanguage may refer to such things as vocal pitch, tone, volume, pace, and other delivery- related factors. This is related to vocal sounds that influence how words are expressed. Para Language

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Mark Knapp has identified six major uses of nonverbal communication 1.For repeating the message: “he ran towards main street” and points in that direction. 2. For contradicting the message: “I am no angry” in a loud voce with face flushed and hands clenched. Knapp has said that we are much more likely to trust the non-verbal aspects . 3. For substituting the message: As when someone says something to you which you do not believe and with head down you peer at them with raised eyebrows all of which clearly says” Oh, come on!”.

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4.For complementing the message : “ I love you” with bright eyes and a big smile on his face. 5.For accenting the message: “I do not want you to do that again” and slams a hands on the table when saying word “don’t”. 6.For relating and regulating the message : It regulate the flow of verbal communication, as when someone raises his hand indicating he wants to speak .

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