Muscular System

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GCSE PE The Muscular System:

GCSE PE The Muscular System Unit 1.2 Your healthy active body

What do I need to know:

What do I need to know The role of the muscular system during physical activity The difference between isometric and isotonic contractions Immediate and effects of physical activity Effects of regular exercise and long term benefits of physical activity Potential injuries to the muscular system and their treatment The effect of diet, rest and steroid use when building the muscular system

Role of the muscular system during physical activity:

Role of the muscular system during physical activity Muscles are responsible for causing movement by contracting (shortening) Muscle attach to bones via tendons They work in antagonistic pairs when one contracts the other relaxes allowing a joint to move Biceps contract while the triceps relax wold cause the elbow to flex The opposite happens to return extend the elbow

The muscles:

The muscles Deltoid Pectorals Biceps Obliques Abdominals Quadriceps Latissimus Dorsi Trapezius Deltoid Tricep Gluteals Hamstring Gastrocnemius

Muscle action:

Muscle action Muscle Joint action created Sporting/Physical Action Biceps Flexion of lower arm at elbow Lifting of bicep curl Triceps Extension of lower arm at elbow Lowering of bicep curl Deltoids Abduction of upper arm at shoulder Lifting arms to perform handstand Pectorals Adduction of upper arm at shoulder Forehand drive in tennis Trapezius Rotation of head at neck Rotation of upper arm at shoulder Heading the ball in football Pull of rowing stroke Gluteals Extension of the upper leg at hip Jumping Quadriceps Extension of the lower leg at the knee Kicking a football Hamstrings Flexion of the lower leg at the knee Back heeling a football Gastrocnemius Flexion of foot at ankle Going up on toes to push off in jump Latissimus Dorsi Adductions and rotation of upper arm at the shoulder Pulling the arms back in rowing stroke Abdominals Flexion and rotation of the trunk Forward Action in sit ups

Muscle contraction:

Muscle contraction Not all contraction lead to movement Those that do are called Isotonic contractions Isometric contractions , however, do not result in movement The only time this happens is when you are trying to move an immovable object Muscle tension occurs but the length of muscle does not change E.g. Ever tried pushing a wall down? Your muscles contract but there is no movement or change in muscle length

Immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system:

Immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system Increased demand for energy Increased carbon dioxide production Increased temperature Lactic acid production during anaerobic work Muscle fatigue (tiredness as result of working hard)

Effects of regular training:

Effects of regular training Long term effects of training Increased strength of ligaments Increased strength of tendons Increased size (hypertrophy) of skeletal muscle Increased strength of skeletal muscle Increased aerobic respiration efficiency Health benefits of regular training Reduced chance of muscular injury

Potential injuries to the muscular system:

Potential injuries to the muscular system Soft tissue injuries Strains Tears Pulls All treated by applying RICE Rest – Stop performing to avoid further damage Ice – Apply an ice pack Compression – Bandage wrapped to reduce further swelling Elevation – Reduce blood flow to area and chance of further swelling Commonly seen in footballers and sprinters when they are running and pull up holding their hamstring

Effect of lifestyle factors when building the muscular system:

Effect of lifestyle factors when building the muscular system Protein acts as the building blocks of muscle Protein consumption should be increased when training Protein should be consumed within 20 minutes of completing training in the form of protein shakes Rest is required to allow the body to recover from damage to muscles caused by training (not just injury) Performers should not train the same muscle group every day as this does not allow sufficient recovery time and could lead to injury Muscles need to be allowed to repair stronger to cope with demands of exercise

Effects of Anabolic Steroids:

Effects of Anabolic Steroids Positive effects This increases speed of progression in terms of strength and size due to: Increase speed of recovery from training This means athlete can train more often (frequency) Negative Side effects Illegal without a prescription Aggressive behaviour Acne Low sperm count Premature heart disease

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