BRACHIAL PLEXUS

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PRESENTED BY: NAVEED HAJI RAJPER BAKHTAWAR SOOMRO ARSHAD MEHMOOD:

PRESENTED BY: NAVEED HAJI RAJPER BAKHTAWAR SOOMRO ARSHAD MEHMOOD

BRACHIAL PLEXUS:

BRACHIAL PLEXUS

WHAT IS BRACHIAL PLEXUS?:

WHAT IS BRACHIAL PLEXUS? The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originate near the neck and shoulder. These nerves begin at the spinal cord in the neck and control the hand, wrist, elbow, and shoulder

ANATOMY::

ANATOMY: The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres ,running from the spine ,formed by the ventral rami of the lower cervical and upper thoracic nerve roots It includes: from above the fifth cervical vertebra to underneath tha first thoracic vertebra (C5_T1) It proceeds through the neck,the axilla and into the arm Brachial plexus is responsible for cutaneous and muscular innervation of the entire upper limb

PowerPoint Presentation:

Motor nerves carry messages from the brain to muscles to make the body move. Sensory nerves carry messages to the brain from different parts of the body to signal pain, pressure, and temperature. The brachial plexus has nerves that are both motor and sensory.

PATH::

PATH: The brachial plexus is divided into Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, and Branches. There are five "terminal" branches and numerous other "pre-terminal" or "collateral" branches that leave the plexus at various points along its length. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves , after they have given off their segmental supply to the muscles of the neck . These roots merge to form three trunks : "superior" or "upper" ( C5 - C6 ) "middle" ( C7 ) "inferior" or "lower" ( C8 , T1 )

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Each trunk then splits in two, to form six divisions : anterior divisions of the upper, middle, and lower trunks posterior divisions of the upper, middle, and lower trunks

DIVISIONS::

DIVISIONS: These six divisions will regroup to become the three cords . The cords are named by their position with respect to the axillary artery . The posterior cord is formed from the three posterior divisions of the trunks (C5-C8,T1) The lateral cord is the anterior divisions from the upper and middle trunks (C5-C7) The medial cord is simply a continuation of the anterior division of the lower trunk (C8,T1)

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from Nerve Roots [2] Muscles Cutaneous roots dorsal scapular nerve C4 , C5 rhomboid muscles and levator scapulae - roots long thoracic nerve C5 , C6 , C7 serratus anterior - upper trunk nerve to the subclavius C4 , C5, C6 subclavius muscle - upper trunk suprascapular nerve C4 , C5 , C6 supraspinatus and infraspinatus - lateral cord lateral pectoral nerve C5, C6 , C7 pectoralis major (by communicating with the medial pectoral nerve ) - lateral cord musculocutaneous nerve C5, C6, C7 coracobrachialis , brachialis and biceps brachii becomes the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm lateral cord lateral root of the median nerve C6, C7 fibres to the median nerve -

PowerPoint Presentation:

posterior cord upper subscapular nerve C5, C6 subscapularis (upper part) - posterior cord thoracodorsal nerve (middle subscapular nerve) C6, C7 , C8 latissimus dorsi - posterior cord lower subscapular nerve C5, C6 subscapularis (lower part ) and teres major - posterior cord axillary nerve C5 , C6 anterior branch: deltoid and a small area of overlying skin posterior branch: teres minor and deltoid muscles posterior branch becomes upper lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm posterior cord radial nerve C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 triceps brachii, supinator , anconeus , the extensor muscles of the forearm , and brachioradialis skin of the posterior arm as the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm

PowerPoint Presentation:

medial cord medial pectoral nerve C8, T1 pectoralis major and pectoralis minor - medial cord medial root of the median nerve C8, T1 fibres to the median nerve portions of hand not served by ulnar or radial medial cord medial cutaneous nerve of the arm C8, T1 - front and medial skin of the arm medial cord medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm C8, T1 - medial skin of the forearm medial cord ulnar nerve C7 , C8, T1 flexor carpi ulnaris , the medial two bellies of flexor digitorum profundus , the intrinsic hand muscles except the thenar muscles andtwo mostlateral lumbricals the skin of the medial side of the hand and medial one and a half fingers on the palmar side and medial two and a half fingers on the dorsal side

What happens when the brachial plexus is injured?:

What happens when the brachial plexus is injured? Injury to a nerve can stop signals to and from the brain, preventing the muscles of the arm and hand from working properly, and causing loss of feeling in the area supplied by the injured nerve. When a nerve is cut, both the nerve and the insulation are broken. Pressure or stretching injuries can cause the fibers that carry the information to break and stop the nerve from working, without damaging.

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