logging in or signing up HINDUSTAN bitumishra Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 729 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: January 12, 2012 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 0 Presentation Description HISTORY OF INDIA SINCE ANCIENT TIME TILL 2011. Comments Posting comment... Premium member Presentation Transcript STONE AGE : STONE AGE The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years . Bone was used during this period as well, but finds of bone tools are rare compared to the millions of stone tools that have been collected from the surface or excavated. During the Stone Age, metalworking was entirely beyond human capability. THE BRONZE AGE : THE BRONZE AGE Innovation of the technique of smelting ore ended the Stone Age and began the Age of Metals. The period, when the people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture Bronze, a time known as the Copper Age, or more technically the Chalcolithic, "copper-stone" age. The first most significant metal manufactured was bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. THE IRON AGE : THE IRON AGE The Iron Age is after Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron. During this time, stone remained in use in parallel with the metals for some objects, (such as stone pottery). Civilized man was now an expert stone-worker. The transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE INDUS VALLEY : INDUS VALLEY India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era, somewhere between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE, The lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE, Later South India, spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION : INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION The first urban civilization of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilization. The Mature Indus civilization flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, marking the beginning of the urban civilization on the subcontinent. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 to 500 BCE, laying the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION : INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION VEDIC PERIOD : VEDIC PERIOD The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas, sacred to Hindus, which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit. After the time of the Rigveda, Aryan society became increasingly was socially organized around the four varnas, or social classes. The core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their origins during this period. VEDIC PERIOD : VEDIC PERIOD The Vedic Period established republics such as Vaishali (existed between 6th Century BCE until 4th century BCE). In the later Vedic Age, sixteen monarchies and "republics" known as the Mahajanapadas created stretched across Indo-Gangetic Plain (Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharashtra). Vedic period came to an end in 500 BCE. JAINISM : JAINISM Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, is believed to be the last of the Tirthankaras, born in 599 BC. The Jains, though, believe that Mahavira was only one of the 24 Tirthankaras Religious teachers) and believe that Jainism existed even before Mahavira. Mahavira passed away in 527 BC. BUDHISM : BUDHISM Siddhartha Gautama born in Lumbini (Now in Nepal) around 563 BCE, attained the state of "enlightenment" at Bodha Gaya (Now in Bihar) in 537 BCE and became known as the "Buddha" He spent the rest of his life teaching the path of awakening , travelling throughout the north eastern part of Indian subcontinent. He dead at the age of 80(483 BCE) in Kushinagar (India). CYRUS THE GREAT : CYRUS THE GREAT 538 BC: Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquers north western parts of the Indian subcontinent. From the Mediterranean sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus's rule : The Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus's rule GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS LAGADHA - Author of a 1350 BC text on Vedic astronomy BHASKARACHARYA: (1114 -1183BC) a Mathematician especially in algebra and geometry. His famous work Lilavati and Bijaganita remain unparalleled . Occurrences of eclipses and Cosmography written in his treatise titled "Siddhanta Shiromani" VISHNU SHARMA, who is believed to have written the Panchatantra collection of fables(between 1200 BCE to 300 CE). GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : BAUDHAYANA, 800 BC, the author of the earliest Sulba Sūtra . He is accredited with calculating the value of ‘pi’ to some degree of precision. MANAVA, 750 BC: Author of the Indian geometric text of Sulba Sutras APASTAMBA, 700 BC : Wrote Dhamasutra, which is used in domestic rites and is a collection of ritual formulas AKSAPADA GAUTAMA, 550 BC: Logician (composed the Nyāya Sūtras are an ancient Indian text on of philosophy) GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : PINGALA, 5th century BC, the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody. KATYAYANA, 400 BC: Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician and Vedic priest PANINI, 400 BC, A resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. His standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit. BHARATA MUNI, 4th century BC, Indian musicologist who authored the Natya Shastra. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : ARYABHATA (476-520 CE) - Mathematician-Astronomer. His most famous works are the Āryabhaṭīya (499 CE, when he was 23 years old) and the Arya-siddhanta . Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily. He calculated the sidereal rotation (the rotation of the earth referencing the fixed stars) as 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds; the modern value is 23:56:4.091. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : SUSHRUTA (fl. 800 BC) was an ancient Indian surgeon and is the author of the book Sushruta Samhita, in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures, 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in eight categories. CHARAKA, born c. 300 BC, the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda. He is sometimes referred to as the Father of Indian Medicine. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : KALIDASA (4th Century AD) was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit . VARAHAMIHIRA (505–587), was astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer. He was the first one to mention in his work Pancha Siddhantika that the ayanamsa, or the shifting of the equinox is 50.32 seconds. He wrote on all the three main branches of Jyotisha astrology. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : BRAHMAGUPTA (598–668 CE) was mathematician and astronomer. His best known work is the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta. He was the first to use zero as a number and gave rules to compute with zero. BHASKAR I (600-680), the first to write numbers in the Hindu-Arabic decimal system with a circle for the zero . He wrote three astronomical contributions. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : MATANGA MUNI - Brihaddeshi is a Classical Sanskrit (6th to 8th century) text on Indian classical music. It is the first text that speaks directly of the raga. VIRAHANKA (8th century) - a prosodist who is also known for his work on mathematics. Described the Fibonacci series. LALLA (720-790) : A mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. He is also known for having published the earliest known description of a perpetuum mobile in Śiṣyadhīvṛddhidatantra. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : SHRIDHARA (870-930) - Gave a good rule for finding the volume of a sphere. He wrote on practical applications of algebra separated algebra from arithmetic. VIRASENA (8th Century): A noted mathematician. He gave the derivation of the volume of a frustum by a sort of infinite procedure. GOVINDSVAMIN (9th century): A mathematician who gave the fractional parts of the Aryabhata's tabular sines. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : MAHAVIRA (9th century) : who asserted that the square root of a negative number did not exist. He was the author of Ganit Saar Sangraha. He separated Astrology from Mathematics JAYADEVA (9th century) : A mathematician, who developed the cyclic method (chakravala method). He also made significant contributions to combinatorics. PRITHUDAKA: (9th century) : wrote an important commentary on Brahmagupta's work. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS : HALAYUDHA, 10th century : He wrote the Mṛtasañjīvanī, a clear description of Pascal's triangle (called meru-prastaara). ARYABHATA II, (920-1000): the author of the Maha-Siddhanta. VATESHVARA (10th century) : presented several trigonometric identities. He was the author of Vaṭeśvara-siddhānta written in 904 AD, a treatise focusing on astronomy and applied mathematics. GREAT INDIAN SCHOLARS ALEXANDER, THE GREAT : ALEXANDER, THE GREAT Alexander III of Macedon (356 –323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of Macedon, a state in Northern Greece. He was tutored by the famed philosopher Aristotle. In 336 BC he succeeded his father Philip II to the throne after Philip was assassinated. In 334 BC he invaded Persian ruled Asia Minor and overthrew the king Darius III and conquered the Persian Empire. ALEXANDER THE GREAT : ALEXANDER THE GREAT He invaded India in 326 BC and defeated king Poru at Hydaspes war. His march to east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gandharidai Empire of Bengal was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC. NANDA EMPIRE : NANDA EMPIRE The Nanda Empire originated from the region of Magadha in Ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Mahapadma Nanda (424 BC), who has been described as the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas (the son of a Shudra mother), was the first empire builder recorded in the history of India, who dead at the age of 88. NANDA EMPIRE : NANDA EMPIRE They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains. His 12 of the dynasty’s ruled India for 100 years. The last ruler of the dynasty was Dhanananda defeated by Chandragupta Maurya with help of Chanakya in around 321 BCE. Nanda Empire : Nanda Empire CHANAKYA : CHANAKYA Chanakya, who is also known as Kautilya and was the author of the Arthashastra, is regarded as the architect of Chandragupta's early rise to power. He is thrown out of the Nanda court by the king, whereupon he swears revenge. Chanakya had trained Chandragupta under his guidance and together they planned the destruction of Dhananda. MAURYA EMPIRE : MAURYA EMPIRE The Maurya Empire (322-185 BCE), established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha (Now in Bihar) at the age of 20. He seized the capital city Pataliputra and the conquest of the Nanda Empire. He founded a vast empire that extended from the Bay of Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west, which he would further expand in later years. CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA : CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA He defeated Seleucus Nicator in 305 BC and married his daughter (Greek Macedonian princess), a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance in 302 BCE. He renounced his throne to his son, Bindusara and became an ascetic under the Jain Saint Bhadrabahu. He migrated south with them and ended his days in Sallekhana (Karnataka). A small temple marks the cave (Bhadrabahu Cave) where he is said to have died by fasting. Chandragupta Maurya’s Conquests : Chandragupta Maurya’s Conquests BINDUSARA : BINDUSARA Bindusara ruled ( 298 BC – c. 272 BC) and extended this empire to the southern part of India, as far as what is now known as Karnataka except the region of Kalinga (modern ODISHA) and the Tamil kingdoms of the south. He had two sons, Susima and Ashok, who were the viceroys of Taxila and Ujjain. Bindusara's death in 273 BC led to a war over succession. ASHOK THE GREAT : ASHOK THE GREAT Ashoka was supported by his father's ministers. A minister named Radhagupta seems to have played an important role and Ashoka managed to become the king Ashoka is said to have been of a wicked nature and bad temper. He was also known as Chandasoka because of his cruelness and bad nature. ASHOK THE GREAT : ASHOK THE GREAT Ashoka expanded his empire over the next eight years, (Burma-Bangladesh and the state of Assam in India in the east to the territory of present-day Afghanistan in the west; Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in South). The Kalinga War happened eight years after his coronation and caused the deaths of more than 100,000 soldiers and many civilians who rose up in defence; over 150,000 were deported. KALINGA WAR : KALINGA WAR One day after the war was over, Ashoka ventured out to roam the city and all he could see were burnt houses and scattered corpses. This sight made him sick and the brutality of the conquest led him to adopt Buddhism. He made Buddhism his state religion around 260 BC, and propagated it and preached it within his domain and worldwide from about 250 BC. ASHOK THE GREAT : ASHOK THE GREAT His son Venerable Mahindra and daughter Sanghamitra, who established Buddhism in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). During the remaining portion of Ashoka's reign, he pursued an official policy of nonviolence (ahimsa). The Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath is the most popular of the relics left by Ashoka. 232 BC: Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala. Ashoka Empire : Ashoka Empire Ashoka Pillar At Saranath SATAVAHANA DYNASTY : SATAVAHANA DYNASTY Simuka (230–207 BCE) was an Indian king and the founder of the Satavahana dynasty also known as Andhras. He declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire and is said to have ruled in the area of Pratishthan and Malwa. He was succeeded by his brother Kanha (or Krishna) (r. 207–189 BCE), who further extended his kingdom to the west and the south. SUNGA DYNASTY : SUNGA DYNASTY The Shunga Dynasty was established in 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka’s death, when the last emperor of the Mauryan rulers, Brhadratha was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pusyamitra Sunga. The empire of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south, and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions, and the city of Ujjain. SUNGA DYNASTY : SUNGA DYNASTY Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. It is said that there were ten Sunga emperors. The last of the Sunga emperor was Devabhuti (83–73 BCE). He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been over fond of the company of women. KANVA DYNASTY : KANVA DYNASTY The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC and ruled in the eastern part of India from 75 BCE to 26 BCE. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. . Vasudeva (c.75 – c.66 BCE) Bhumimitra (c. 66 - c. 52 BCE) Narayana (c. 52 - c. 40 BCE) Susarman (c. 40 - c. 26 BCE) However, their dynasty was brought to an end by the Satavahanas of the south. INDO-GREEK KINGDOM : INDO-GREEK KINGDOM The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded India early in the 180 BC. The Greeks in India were eventually divided from the Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom centered in Bactria (now the border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan). The Indo-Greeks ultimately disappeared as a political entity around 10 AD following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians SATAVAHANA DYNASTY : SATAVAHANA DYNASTY Satakarni, the Sixth ruler of Satvahana Dynasty, defeated the Sunga Empire of North India, said to have ruled for 56 years. He conquered Kalinga after the death of the ruler Kharavela. He extended Satavahana rule over Madhya Pradesh and pushed back the Sakas from Pataliputra. KUNINDA KINGDOM : KUNINDA KINGDOM The Kingdom of Kuninda was an ancient central Himalayan kingdom from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century, located in the modern state of Uttarakhand and southern areas of Himachal in northern India. They are mentioned in Indian epics and Puranas. The Mahabharata relates they were defeated by Arjuna. PANDYAN DYNASTY : PANDYAN DYNASTY The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty (Before 300 BCE), which ruled South India. The Pandyan Dynasty faded into obscurity upon the invasion of the Kalabhras. The Kalabhras ruled South India between third and sixth Century AD. The Pandayan dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai till 9th Century. PANDYAN TERITORIRIES : PANDYAN TERITORIRIES KANVA DYNASTY KHARAVELA : KHARAVELA Kharavela acceded the throne in the region of Kalinga in the 1st century B.C and was the descendant of the Mahameghavana dynasty. Kharavela was the third ruler of the dynasty who acceded the throne at an early age after the sudden premature death of his father. He led many successful campaigns against Magadha, Anga (Tamilnadu). He propagated Jainism in East India. He excavated the Kumari hills to built cave dwellings for the Jain monks. KHARAVELA : KHARAVELA He included a formidable maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Bali, Sumatra, and Java. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka, Burma, as well as the Maldives and the Malay Archipelago. It is assumed that his son, Kudepasiri succeeded him. The rule of the dynasty continued till the end of the first century. Kharavela Empire : Kharavela Empire INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM (SAKAS) : INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM (SAKAS) Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Sakas (the Iranian tribes ), who migrated from Southern Siberia in the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE. The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara, what is now modern day Pakistan from around 110 to 80 BCE. Indo-Scythian rule in India ended with the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III in 395 CE. KUSHAN EMPIRE : KUSHAN EMPIRE The Kushan Empire originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria (now northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Kanishka, (whose era is thought to have begun c. 127 CE), they had conquered most of northern India, at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra, in the middle Ganges Valley, and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal. KANISHKA : KANISHKA They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. By the 3rd century, their empire in India was disintegrating; their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. 190-225 CE). The empire declined from the 3rd century and fell to the Sassanid and Gupta Empires. Kushan Empire : Kushan Empire CHRISTIANITY : CHRISTIANITY Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the eastern Mediterranean coast of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt, it grew in size and influence over a few decades, and by the 4th century had become the dominant religion within the Roman Empire. CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA : CHRISTIANITY IN INDIA During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 AD to spread the gospel amongst Kerala's Jewish settlements. CLASSICAL AGE : CLASSICAL AGE The Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. 320–550 CE). This period has been called the Golden Age of India. The decimal numeral system, including the concept of (0) zero, was invented in India during this period. The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma, and Vatsyayana GUPTA PERIOD : GUPTA PERIOD Sri Gupta (240–280) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and start of the Gupta dynasty. A portion of northern or central Bengal might have been the home of Guptas at that time, Ghatotkacha (c. 280–319 AD) was the son of Maharaja Sri-Gupta (reigned c. 280–319 CE), had a son named Chandragupta- I (reigned c. 319-335 CE) . CHANDRAGUPTA - I : CHANDRAGUPTA - I In a breakthrough deal, Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi, a Lichchhavi princess—the main power in Magadha. Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganges River to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE SAMUDRA GUPTA : SAMUDRA GUPTA Samudragupta, succeeded his father in 335 CE, and ruled for about 45 years, till his death in 380 CE. He had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. Amongst his many sons, Samudragupta nominated prince Chandra Gupta II, born of queen Dattadevi, as his successor. CHANDRAGUPTA - II : CHANDRAGUPTA - II Chandra Gupta II, Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power), ruled from 380 until 413. He married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a princess of Naga lineage. He expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409 CE. Gupta Empire : Gupta Empire KUMARGUPTA - I : KUMARGUPTA - I Chandragupta II was succeeded by his second son Kumaragupta I, born of Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini. He ruled until 455 CE. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire. Skandagupta, son and successor of Kumaragupta I is generally considered to be the last of the great Gupta rulers. SKANDAGUPTA : SKANDAGUPTA He defeated the Pushyamitra threat, but then was faced with invading Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as the Huna, from the northwest. He repulsed a Huna attack c. 455, But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. Skandagupta died in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta. HUNA INVASION : HUNA INVASION Skandagupta was followed by weak rulers Purugupta (467–473), Kumaragupta II (473–476), Budhagupta (476–495?), Narasimhagupta, Kumaragupta III, Vishnugupta, Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta. In the 480's the Hephthalite King Oprah broke through the Gupta defences in the northwest, and much of the empire in northwest was overrun by the Huna by 500. GUPTA EMPIRE : GUPTA EMPIRE The Hunas conquered several provinces of the empire, including Malwa, Gujarat and Thanesar. Narasimhagupta formed an alliance with the independent kingdoms to drive the Hun from most of northern India by the 530's. The tail end recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550. VARDHANA DYNASTY : VARDHANA DYNASTY After the downfall of the Gupta Empire, North India was split into several independent kingdoms. The Hunas had established their supremacy over the Punjab and parts of central India. Prabhakara Vardhana, the ruler of Sthanvisvara, who belonged to the Pushyabhuti family, extended his control over neighboring states. Prabhakar Vardhan was the first king of the Vardhana dynasty with his capital at Thaneswar. RAJYA VARDHAN : RAJYA VARDHAN After Prabhakar Vardhan’s death in 606 CE, his eldest son, Rajya Vardhana, ascended the throne. Harsha Vardhana was Rajya Vardhana’s younger brother. Harsha ascended the throne at the age of 16, when Shashanka, king of Gauda in Eastern Bengal treacherously murdered Rajyavardhana. HARSHAVARDHAN : HARSHAVARDHAN Harsha united the two kingdoms of Thanesar and Kannauj and transferred his capital from Thanesar to Kannauj. He formed an alliance with Bhaskaravarman, king of Kamarupa and marched on Shashanka. Harsha was able to oust Shashanka's son, Manava and bring Bihar, Kanauj and northern Bengal under his rule after the death of Sashanka. Harsha's ambition of extending his power to the Deccan and Southern India were stopped by the great Chalukya Empreror of South India . HARSHAVARDHAN : HARSHAVARDHAN Harsha was the chief patron of the University of Nalanda where about 10,000 students from all parts of India and abroad studied. He wrote three Sanskrit plays – Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika. He ruled for 41 years and died in the year 647 AD. His two sons (Vagyavardhan and Kalyanvardhan) were killed by Arunashwa, a chief minister in Harsha's court. After Harsha's death, apparently without any heirs, his empire died with him. The kingdom disintegrated rapidly into small states. Harsha Vardhan Territories : Harsha Vardhan Territories DYNASTY DIVISIONS : DYNASTY DIVISIONS From the 7th to the 9th century, three dynasties contested for control of northern India: * The Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa, * The Palas of Bengal, * The Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire, and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. CHALUKYA DYNASTY : CHALUKYA DYNASTY The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. Chalukya BadamiTerritories : Chalukya BadamiTerritories 637 CE:Pulakesi II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana. CHALUKYA DYNASTY : CHALUKYA DYNASTY The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi II. After the death of Pulakesi II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. CHALUKYA DYNASTY : CHALUKYA DYNASTY In the western Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the middle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Badami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern Basavakalyan) until the end of the 12th century. The 11th century saw the birth of Telugu literature under the patronage of the Eastern . GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA The Gurjara Pratihara often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. Harichandra is said to have laid the foundation of this dynasty in the 6th century. He was a samanta of the Rashtrakutas. Kannauj was the capital of imperial Gurjara Pratiharas. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA The Harichandra line of Gurjara-Pratihara established the state of Marwar, based at Mandore near modern Jodhpur, which grew to dominate Rajasthan. Nagabhata I (730–756) extended his control east and south from Mandor, conquering Malwa as far as Gwalior and the port of Bharuch in Gujarat. He established his capital at Avanti in Malwa, and checked the expansion of the Arabs, who had established themselves in Sind. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA In this Battle of Rajasthan (738 CE) Nagabhata led a confederacy of Gurjars to defeat the Muslim Arabs who had till then been pressing on victorious through West Asia and Iran. Nagabhata I was followed by two weak successors, who were in turn succeeded by Vatsraja (775–805). Vatsraja unsuccessfully challenged the Pala ruler Dharmapala (c. 775–810) for control of Kannauj. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA 786 : The Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva (c. 780–793) crossed the Narmada River into Malwa, and from there tried to capture Kannauj. Vatsraja was defeated by Dhruva around 800, and died in 805. Vatsraja was succeeded by Nagabhata II (805–833) Nagabhata II was initially defeated by the Rashtrakuta ruler Govinda III (793–814), but later recovered Malwa from the Rashtrakutas, conquered Kannauj as far as Bihar from the Palas. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA Nagabhata II rebuilt the great Shiva temple at Somnath in Gujarat, which had been demolished in an Arab raid from Sindh. Rambhadra (833-c. 836) briefly succeeded Nagabhata II. Bhoja I or Mihir Bhoja (c. 836–886) expand the Gurjar dominions west to the border of Sind, east to Magadha, and south to the Narmada. His son Mahenderpal 1 (890–910) expanded further eastwards in Magadha, Bengal, and Assam. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA Bhoja II (910–912) was overthrown by Mahipala I (912–914). The Rashtrakuta emperor Indra III (c.914–928) briefly captured Kannauj in 916. Although the Pratiharas regained the city, their position continued to weaken in the 10th century, partly as a result of the drain of simultaneously fighting off Turkic attacks from the west and the Pala advances in the east. GURJARA PRATIHARA : GURJARA PRATIHARA The Gurjar-Pratiharas lost control of Rajasthan to their feudatories, and the Chandelas captured the strategic fortress of Gwalior in central India, c. 950. Mahmud of Ghazni sacked Kannauj in 1018, and the Pratihara ruler Rajapala fled. The Chandela ruler Gauda captured and killed Rajapala, placing Rajapala's son Trilochanpala on the throne as a proxy. Jasapala, the last Gurjar ruler of Kanauj, died in 1036. PALA EMPIRE : PALA EMPIRE The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750–1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the India. Gopala was the first ruler from the dynasty. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a democratic election. He reigned from 750–770 and consolidated his position by extending his control over all of Bengal. PALA EMPIRE : PALA EMPIRE The Buddhist dynasty lasted for four centuries (750–1120 CE) and ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in Bengal. They created many temples and works of art as well as supported the Universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. Somapura Mahavihara built by Dharmapala is the greatest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian Subcontinent. The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala (781 – 861). PALA EMPIRE : PALA EMPIRE The death of Devapala ended the period of ascendancy of the Pala Empire and several independent dynasties and kingdoms emerged during this time. However, Mahipala I rejuvenated the reign of the Palas. He recovered control over all of Bengal and expanded the empire (995 – 1043). He survived the invasions of Rajendra Chola and the Chalukyas. After Mahipala I the Pala dynasty again saw its decline until Ramapala (1082-1124). PALA EMPIRE : PALA EMPIRE The Pala Empire can be considered as the golden era of Bengal. The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century weakened by attacks of the Sena dynasty followed by the invasion of Bakhtiyar Khilji's Muslim armies. The last Pala empire rulers after Ramapala were weak. The last Pala ruler was Govindapala (1162–1174). RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE : RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE The Rashtrakuta Empire was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. During the 8th and the 10th centuries, saw a tripartite struggle for the resources of the rich Gangetic plains between the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa. RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE : RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE 814: Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. At their peak the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta ruled a vast empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the south, a fruitful time of political expansion, architectural achievements and famous literary contributions. RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE : RASTRAKUTA EMPIRE Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the finest example of which is seen in the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora and the sculptures of Elephanta Caves in modern Maharashtra as well as the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in modern Karnataka. The early kings of this dynasty were Hindu but the later kings were strongly influenced by Jainism. Kannada literature flourishes during this period. KAILSH TEMPLE, ELLORA : KAILSH TEMPLE, ELLORA SENA DYNASTY : SENA DYNASTY The Sena Empire was a Hindu dynasty that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. The dynasty's founder was Hemanta Sen, who was part of the Pala dynasty until their empire began to weaken. He usurped power and styled himself king in 1095 AD. His successor Vijay Sen (ruled from 1096 AD to 1159 AD) had an unusually long reign of over 60 years. SENA EMPIRE : SENA EMPIRE Ballal Sena conquered Gaur from the Pala, became the ruler of Bengal and Delhi as well as made Nabadwip the capital. Lakshman Sen succeeded Ballal Sena in 1179 and ruled Bengal for approximately 20 years. He expanded the Sena Empire to Assam, Odisha, Bihar and probably to Varanasi. In 1203–1204 AD, the Turkic general Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked Nabadwip. Though he defeated Lakshman Sen, he failed to conquer Bengal. SENA EMPIRE : SENA EMPIRE During this period Buddhism that had dominated Bengal for centuries was in decline due to the loss of its institutions at Nalanda University and Vikramshila University. The dynasty is famous for building Hindu temples and monasteries including the famous Dhakeshwari Temple in what is now Dhaka, Bangladesh. Jayadeva, the famous Sanskrit poet and author of Gita Govinda, was one of the Pancharatnas (meaning 5 gems) in the court of Lakshman Sen. RUINS OF NALANDA DEVA DYNASTY : DEVA DYNASTY After the Sena dynasty, the Deva dynasty (c.12th-13th century) ruled in eastern part of Bengal and was probably the last independent Hindu dynasty of Bengal. The capital of this dynasty was Bikrampur in present-day Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. The first ruler of this dynasty was Purushottamadeva. A later ruler of this dynasty Ariraja-Danuja-Madhava Dasharathadeva extended his kingdom up to Bikrampur and made it his capital. SUMARA DYNASTY : SUMARA DYNASTY The Sumra was established by Rajput Soomro tribe of Sindh. They were the first Emirs and ruled Sindh from their vibrant capital Mansura. Mansura was the largest and most wealthiest inhabited city of its time. The Sumra ruled Sindh from 1026-1351. Their first ruler is named Khafif. The dynasty had both Arab and local Sindhi heritage. However the overwhelming majority of the Soomro are Sunni. PRITVIRAJ CHOHAN : PRITVIRAJ CHOHAN Prithviraj Chauhan (1149-1192 CE), was the last independent Hindu king to sit upon the throne of Delhi, who ruled the kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century. He succeeded to the throne in 1169 CE at the age of 20, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi which he received from his maternal grandfather Ballal Sena of the Sena Dynasty in Bengal. MUSLIM CONQUEST : MUSLIM CONQUEST According to the traditional Islamic view, the Qur'an (Koran) began with revelations to Muhammad Koranic revelations in 610. In the year 630, Mecca was conquered by the Muslims. Muhammad died in June 632. The first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Persian Empire occurred around 664 CE during the Umayyad Caliphate, led by Mohalib towards Multan in Southern Punjab, in modern day Pakistan. He returned with wealth and prisoners of war. MUSLIM CONQUEST : MUSLIM CONQUEST 712: First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir , was the last Hindu ruler situated in Sindh and parts of Punjab in modern day Pakistan. After whom the Arabs would be defeated by the Rajputs at the Battle of Rajasthan in 738. Shahabuddin Ghori reconquered the city of Ghazna (Afghanistan) in 1173 and captured Multan and Uch in 1175 and of Lahore in 1186. He ruled until his assassination in 1206 near Jhelum (Pakistan). MUHAMMAD GHORI : MUHAMMAD GHORI Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the Muslim ruler Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191. Ghauri attacked for a second time the next year. Prithviraj was defeated and captured at the Second Battle of Tarain (1192). Sultan Ghauri took Prithviraj to Ghazni, where he was executed. Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers. MUHAMMAD GHORI : MUHAMMAD GHORI Muhammad Ghori destroyed a sacred Hindu shrine- Kashi Vishwanath Temple along with other temples of Varanasi during his raid in 1194. Muhammad of Ghor's armies destroyed many Buddhist structures, including the great Buddhist university of Nalanda. 20,000 Hindu prisoners were slaughtered and their heads offered to crows. He was assassinated on March 15, 1206, while offering his evening prayers. THE SLAVE DYNASTY (MAMLUK DYNASTY) : THE SLAVE DYNASTY (MAMLUK DYNASTY) Muhammad of Ghauri had no child. His sultanate was divided into many parts by his slaves (mamluk generals). Mamluk, literally owned, was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam. Mamluks held political and military power most notably in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Iraq, and India. Mohammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal. EASTERN GANGA DYNASTY : EASTERN GANGA DYNASTY The Eastern Ganga dynasty reigned from Kalinga and was founded by King Ananta-Varman Chodaganga Deva (1078–1147), grandson of the Chola king Virarajendra Chola and nephew of emperor Kulothunga Chola I. Anantavarman was a religious person as well as a patron of art and literature. King Anantavarman Chodagangadeva was succeeded by a long line of illustrious rulers such as Narasimha Deva I (1238–1264). Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri (1078 - 1148 CE) in Odisha. : Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva is credited for having built the famous Jagannath Temple of Puri (1078 - 1148 CE) in Odisha. EASTERN GANGA DYNASTY : The rulers of Eastern Ganga dynasty defended their kingdom from the constant attacks of the Muslim rulers. This kingdom prospered through trade and commerce and the wealth was mostly used in the construction of temples. The rule of the dynasty came to end under the reign of King Bhanudeva IV (1414–34), in the early 15th century. EASTERN GANGA DYNASTY THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkic general of Central Asian birth, became the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1210. However, his reign as the Sultan of Delhi was short lived. He died accidentally in 1210 while he was playing a game of polo in Lahore on horseback: his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle. He was buried near the Anarkali bazaar in Lahore. His son Aram Shah rose to the throne. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY The rise of Chihalgani (The Forty); an elite group of 40 nobles. They conspired against Aram Shah and invited Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, then Governor of Badaun, to replace Aram. Iltutmish defeated Aram in the plain of Jud near Delhi in 1211. What became of Aram is not quite certain. He shifted Capital from Lahore to Delhi. He defeated Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha of Multan and Tajuddin Yildoz of Ghazni, who had declared themselves contenders of Delhi. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Mongols invaded India in pursuit of Jalal-ud-din Mangabarni who was defeated at the Battle of Indus by Genghis Khan in 1221. After Genghis Khan's death Iltutmish consolidated his hold on northern India by retaking many of the lost territories. He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230. In 1231, he built Sultan Ghauri, the first Islamic Mausoleum in Delhi. Qutub Minar : Qutub Minar QUTUB MINAR : QUTUB MINAR The Qutub Minar is constructed with red sandstone and marble, and is the tallest minaret in India, with a height of 72.5 meters (237.8 ft), contains 379 stairs to reach the top, and the diameter of base is 14.3 meters where as the last store is of 2.7 meters. The Construction was commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1199 A.D and completed by Iltutmish in 1231 A.D. for Prince Nasir ud din Mahmud, the eldest son. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Iltutmish dead in 1236. The power shifted to Rukn ud din Firuz He ruled for just seven months. His mother Shah Turkan for all practical purposes was running the government. He abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the considerable outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Rukn-ud-din Feroze and his mother Shah Turkan were assassinated by the Chihalgani . THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Razia Sultana, (1236 – 1240), First Female Muslim Ruler in India. She was defeated by the powerful nobleman Malik Altunia, whom she agreed to marry. However, her brother Muiz-ud-din Bahram usurped the throne with the help of the Chihalgani and defeated the combined forces of the Sultana and her husband. Both fled and reached Kaithal, where their remaining forces abandoned them. They both fell into the hands of Jats and were robbed and killed on October 14, 1240. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Muiz-ud-din Bahram (1240 - May 15, 1242) During his reign the Chihalgani became disorderly and constantly bickered among each other. It was during this period of unrest that the Mongols invaded the Punjab & sacked Lahore. The sultan was too weak to take any step against them. The "Chihalgani" besieged him in the White Fort of Delhi and put him to death in 1242. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Ala-ud-din Masud (1242 – 1246) He was more of a puppet for the Chihalgani (the forty chiefs) and did not actually have much power or influence in the government. Instead, he became infamous for his fondness of entertainment and wine. By 1246, the chiefs became upset with Sultan's increasing hunger for more power, and replaced him with Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, another son of Iltutmish. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246 – 1266) He was the eighth sultan of the Mamluk Sultanate. He was the youngest son of Shams ud din Iltutmish. He was very religious, spending most of his time in prayer and renowned for aiding the poor and the distressed. He had no children to be his heir. His Deputy Sultan, Ghiyath-ud-din Balban, who primarily dealt with the state affairs, rose to power after Mahmud's death in 1266. THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Ghiyath-ud-din Balban (1266 – 1286) Balban ruled with an iron fist. He broke up the Chihalgani group of nobleman. He tried to establish peace and order in India. He built many outposts in areas and had a strong and well-organized spy system. He ruled as the Sultan from 1266 until his death in 1287, and was succeeded by his grandson, Muiz ud din Qaiqabad, who reign (1287–1290). THE SLAVE DYNASTY : THE SLAVE DYNASTY Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Qaiqabad (1286 – 1290) Being still young at the time, he ignored all state affairs. After four years, he suffered from a paralytic stroke and was later on murdered in 1290 by a Khilji chief. His three year old son, Kayumars (1290), nominally succeeded him. But the Slave dynasty had ended with the rise of the Khiljis. KHILJI DYNASTY : KHILJI DYNASTY The Khilji was a dynasty of Turko-Afghan Khalaj origin who ruled large parts of South Asia from 1290 - 1320. They were the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India. Jalal-ud-Din Firuz Khilji's original name is Malik Firuz. was appointed by Sultan Qaiqabad to the fief of Baran and the command of the army. He took over and ruled from there for six years.(1290 – 1296) KHILJI DYNASTY : KHILJI DYNASTY Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296- 1316) was the nephew and son in law of Jalal-ud-din. On October 3, 1296 he killed his uncle and, proclaimed himself the King of Delhi. In 1297, his army looted the temple of Somnath and the Shivalinga was broken into pieces and was being carried back to Delhi. He repeatedly defeated the invasions of the Mongols. Alauddin Khilji Introduced Price control system in order to maintain a large scale army. Allaudin Khilji died in 1316 A.D. KHILJI DYNASTY : KHILJI DYNASTY KHILJI DYNASTY : KHILJI DYNASTY Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khilji (died 1320) was the third and last ruler of the Khilji dynasty ,was the son and successor of Alauddin Khilji. At the age of 18, blinded his brother and ascended the throne. He was the weakest ruler of the khilji dynasty. Qutb-ud-din was murdered by Khusro Khan in 1320, which ended the Khilji dynasty. Khusro Khan was a former Hindu slave of the Makwana sect in Gujarat. TUGHLUQ DYNASTY : TUGHLUQ DYNASTY Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq (Ghazi Malik) was the founder and first ruler of the Turkic Muslim Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over Sultanate of Delhi (Sep, 08, 1320 – Feb, 1325). Ghazi Malik and son, collected the forces of Sindh and Multan and overthrown Khusro Khan in Delhi. He has been the founder of the third city of Delhi called Tughluqabad. In 1324-1325, he died of heat apoplexy. TUGHLUQ DYNASTY : TUGHLUQ DYNASTY Muhammad bin Tughluq was the eldest son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq became Sultanate of Delhi at the age of 25. Tughluq early in his reign moved the capital from Delhi to Devagiri,(1500 km) south in the Deccan, renaming Devagiri as Daulatabad. After only two years, the capital had to be shifted back again to Delhi due to poor infrastructure. Tughluq died in 1351 on his way to Thatta, Sindh. TUGHLUQ DYNASTY : TUGHLUQ DYNASTY Firoz Shah Tughlaq(1351-1388) was the son of a Hindu princess of Dipalpur and cousin of Muhammad bin Tughluq. He established four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar. Qutb Minar struck by lightning in 1368 AD, he replaced them with the existing two floors. He had about 180,000 slaves, trained in various arts and crafts. TUGHLUQ DYNASTY : TUGHLUQ DYNASTY Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II (who had succeeded Firuz Shah Tughluq in 1389) was murdered in 1390. Abu Bakr became ruler of the Tughlaq empire. But Muhammad Shah ibn Firuz Shah Tughluq succeeded him as king, reigning from 1390 to 1394. Nusrat Shah, grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, controlled the western part of the sultanate from Firozabad and Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Tughluq, youngest son of Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad, controlled the eastern part of the sultanate from Delhi from 1394–1398. TURCO-MONGOL INVADER : TURCO-MONGOL INVADER Turco-Mongol invader, Timur (Tamerlane) defeated four armies of the Sultanate on December 15, 1398. The Sultan Mahmud Khan fled before Tamerlane entered Delhi on December 18. For eight days Delhi was plundered, its population massacred and over 100,000 war prisoners mostly Hindus were killed as well. Then marched on Meerut and rode up to Haridwar and sacked the holy city on January 23, 1399. TURCO-MONGOL INVADER : TURCO-MONGOL INVADER He, returned to his own capital beyond the Oxus (Amu Darya) in April,1399. Immense quantities of spoils and slaves were taken from India. 90 captured elephants were employed merely to carry precious stones looted from his conquest, so as to erect a mosque at Samarkand(now in Uzbekistan) – what historians today believe is the enormous Bibi-Khanym Mosque. SINDHU – HINDUSTAN - INDIA : SINDHU – HINDUSTAN - INDIA The word Hindu is derived from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent and is first mentioned in the Rig Veda. The word Hindu was first used by Arab invaders and then went further west by the Arabic term al-Hind referring to the land of the people who live across river Indus and the Persian term Hindu referring to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus". MALWA SULTANATE : MALWA SULTANATE Dilawar Khan Ghuri, the governor of the Delhi Sultanate in Malwa (Madhya Pradesh), who asserted his independence in 1392, but did not actually assume the ensigns of royalty till 1401. The last ruler Mahmud Shah II surrendered to Bahadur Shah, the sultan of Gujarat after the fort of Mandu fell to Bahadur on May 25, 1531. GUJARAT SULTANATE : GUJARAT SULTANATE Zafar Khan was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391. He declared himself independent in 1407. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411 on the banks of Sabarmati River. The end of the sultanate came in 1573, when Akbar annexed Gujarat in his empire. Gujarat became a Mughal Subah. SAYYID DYNASTY : SAYYID DYNASTY The dynasty was established by Khizr Khan. Ruled Delhi sultanate in India from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. The last ruler, Ala-ud-Din Alam Shah voluntarily abdicated the throne in favour of Bahlul Khan Lodi on April 19, 1451. LODI DYNASTY : LODI DYNASTY Lodi Dynasty was the last dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty founded by Bahlul Lodi ruled from 1451 to 1526. The last ruler of this dynasty, Ibrahim Lodi was defeated and killed by Babur in the first Battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526. VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE : VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE The Vijayanagara, was a South Indian empire based in the Deccan Plateau. Established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I. It lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. SIKHISM : SIKHISM Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev Ji (Born on 15th April 1469) and ten successive Sikh Gurus (the last teaching being the holy scripture Guru Granth Sahib Ji). The principal beliefs of Sikhi are faith and justice, in Waheguru—represented by the phrase ik ōaṅkār, meaning one God. It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world. TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) : TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) 1st Guru : Guru Nanak Dev founded the Sikhism. (20 August 1507 to 22 September 1539) 2nd Guru : Guru Angad Dev (7 September 1539 -29 March 1552) 3rd Guru : Guru Amar Das (26 March 1552-1 September 1574) 4th Guru : Guru Ram Das founded the city of Amritsar, which is home of the Harimandir Sahib and regarded widely as the holiest city for all Sikhs. (1 September 1574-1 September 1581) 5th Guru : Guru Arjan Dev was captured by Mughal authorities who were suspicious and hostile to the religious order he was developing. (1 September 1581-30 May 1606) GOLDEN TEMPLE : GOLDEN TEMPLE The Harmandir is referred to as the Golden Temple, was begun by Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru, and completed by his successor, Guru Arjan Dev. During the eighteenth century, the Harmandir Sahib occasionally suffered damage, due to the frequent fighting between the Sikhs and Mughal or Afghan. It was rebuilt in 1764 by Maharaja Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (1718-1783) with the help of other Sikh chieftains. Between 1802-1830 Ranjit Singh did the sewa of gold plating . TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) : TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) 6th Guru : Guru Hargobind : created the concept of Akal Takht (throne of the timeless one), which serves as the supreme decision-making centre of Sikhi and sits opposite the Darbar Sahib. (25 May 1606-28 February 1644) 7th Guru : Guru Har Rai : (3 March 1644-6 October 1661) 8th Guru : Guru Har Kishan (6 October 1661-30 March 1664) TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) : TEN GURUS OF SIKHISM (1469-1708) 9th Guru : Guru Teg Bahadur : (20 March 1665-11 November 1675) - Executed by Aurangzeb for helping to protect the faith of Hindus 10th Guru : Guru Gobind Singh (11 November 1675 - 7 October 1708) - Ordered that the Gurū Granth Sāhib (the Sikh Holy Scripture), would be the ultimate spiritual authority for the Sikhs and temporal authority would be vested in the Khalsa—the Sikh Nation. He was stabbed by Jamshed Khan, while he was resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer. ARRIVAL OF PORTUGUESE : ARRIVAL OF PORTUGUESE During 15th Century, Portuguese expeditions organized by Prince Henry the Navigator had been crawling down the African coastline. They expanded the trade for the gold and slave trade in west Africa. They were also eager to break into the highly-profitable spice trade between Europe and Asia. On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from Lisbon. Vasco da Gama’s First voyage : Vasco da Gama’s First voyage He continued his voyage first to Sieralone (West Africa), then passed the Great Fish River (Eastern Cape, South Africa) and then Arab-controlled territory on the East African coast Kenya. With help of a pilot, he arrived in Kappad near Calicut, India on 20 May 1498. He set sail for home on 29 August 1498 without much success. SEA ROUTE OF VASCO DA GAMMA : SEA ROUTE OF VASCO DA GAMMA Vasco da Gama’s Second voyage : Vasco da Gama’s Second voyage On 12 February 1502, da Gama commanded the 4th Portuguese Armada to India, a fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men and started capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters. He returned to Portugal in September 1503 with silk and gold. 1503: Kingdom of Kochi is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India. Vasco da Gama’s Last Voyage : Vasco da Gama’s Last Voyage Vasco da Gama was sent to the subcontinent once more in 1524. He was to replace the incompetent Eduardo de Menezes as Viceroy (representative) of the Portuguese possessions, but da Gama contracted malaria not long after arriving in Goa and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas Eve in 1524. His body was first buried at St. Francis Church, which was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochi, PORTUGUESE IN INDIA : PORTUGUESE IN INDIA The government started in 1505, with the nomination of the first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida, then settled at Kochi. 1508: The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War. 1509: Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval theater. PORTUGUESE IN INDIA : 1522: Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast Until 1752, the "State of India”, governed by either a Viceroy or a Governor from headquarters established in Goa since 1510. At the time India's independence in 1947, Portuguese India enclaves, including Goa proper, as well as the coastal enclaves of Daman (Port: Damão) and Diu, and the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, which lie inland from Daman. PORTUGUESE IN INDIA BABUR (Ẓahīr ad-Dīn Muḥammad ) : BABUR (Ẓahīr ad-Dīn Muḥammad ) Babur (1483 –1531) was a Muslim conqueror from Central Asia who, following a series of setbacks, finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty of South Asia. Babur hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, his tribe had embraced Turkic and Persian culture, converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. BABUR : BABUR 1495: Babur obtained his first power position at age of Twelve, succeeding his father as ruler of Farghana (Uzbekistan), but lost to uncle. 1497: Babur attacked the Uzbek city of Samarkand and after seven months succeeded in capturing the city, but lost again to rebellions. 1504: He was able to cross the snowy Hindu Kush mountains and capture Kabul. October 1511: Babur made a triumphant re-entry into Samarkand, ending a ten year absence. BABUR IN INDIA : BABUR IN INDIA 21st April, 1526 : Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First battle of Panipat, and captured Delhi and Agra March 16, 1527 : Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar and made himself absolute master of North India in the Battle of Khanua. May 6, 1529 : Babur defeated Mahmud Lodi, brother of Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Ghaghara River, crushing all remaining North Indian resistance. BABUR : BABUR The matchlock appeared in Europe in 1475. Babur introduced the improved versions of the matchlocks into his army in 1526. These guns allowed small armies to make large gains on enemy territory. Babur spent the later years of his life arranging affairs and revenues of his new empire, and improving his capital, Agra. Babur died at the age of 48. Humayun inherited the throne. Babur is buried in Kabul, Afghanistan. HUMAYUN : HUMAYUN Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556)), the second Mughal Emperor, succeeded his father in India in 1530 at the age of 22. His half-brother Kamran Mirza, who became a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father's empire. Humayun lost his Indian territories to the Afghan Sultan, Sher Shah Suri and left to Persia in 1940. SHER SHAH SURI : SHER SHAH SURI An Afghan (Pathan) by origin, was a commander in the Mughal Army under Babur and then as the governor of Bihar. His original name Farid Khan and born in Sasaram. In 1537, when Babur's son Emperor Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Khan turned against his master and overran the state of Bengal to established the Sur Empire. During his five year rule from 1540 to 1545, issued the first Rupee and re-organised the postal system of India. Shahrah-e-Azam"/Sadak-e-Azam or the "Badshahi Sadak" (renamed "Grand Trunk Road“) rebuilt by Sher Shah Suri : Shahrah-e-Azam"/Sadak-e-Azam or the "Badshahi Sadak" (renamed "Grand Trunk Road“) rebuilt by Sher Shah Suri ISLAM SHAH SURI : ISLAM SHAH SURI Sher Shah Suri died from a gunpowder explosion during the siege of Kalinjar fort on May 22, 1545 fighting against the Chandel Rajputs. Sher Shah Suri was succeeded by his second son, Jalal Khan who took the title of Islam Shah Sur. Islam Shah died of urinary disease on 22 November 1554. He was succeeded by his son Firuz Shah Suri, who was aged only twelve. SHAH OF DELHI : SHAH OF DELHI Within few days, Firuz Shah Suri, murdered by Sher Shah's nephew Muhammad Mubariz Khan, who then ascended the throne as Muhammad Adil Shah. In 1555, Ibrahim Khan Suri, son of Ghazi Khan and Sultan's brother-in-law, who was in charge of Agra, revolted. He defeated the army of Adil Shah and captured Delhi. SIKANDAR SHAH SURI : SIKANDAR SHAH SURI Soon, the empire founded by Sher Shah was divided into four parts. Sikandar Shah Suri was the sixth ruler of Sur dynasty after overthrowing Ibrahim Shah Suri. While Sikandar was busy with his struggle against Ibrahim, Humayun captured Lahore in February 1555. He died in Bengal in 1559. HUMAYUN : HUMAYUN Humayun's Persian wife, Hamida Begum, gave birth Akbar during exile. Iran's Shah Tahmasb (1524-76) had provided Humayun with the necessary troops to recapture Kandahar and then Kabul. On July 23, 1555 Humayun, once again, sat on Babur's throne in Delhi. Humayun died unexpectedly on 27 January 1556 at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library in his haste to obey the muezzin's call to prayer. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT Akbar Jalāl ud-Dīn Muhammad Akbar), also known as Shahanshah Akbar-e-Azam or Akbar the Great (23 November 1542 – 27 October 1605) was thirteen years old when he ascended the Mughal throne in Delhi (February 1556). During his reign, he eliminated military threats from the powerful Pashtun descendants of Sher Shah Suri, and at the Second Battle of Panipat he decisively defeated the newly self-declared Hindu king Hemu. SAMRAT HEMACHANDRA (1501-1556) : SAMRAT HEMACHANDRA (1501-1556) Hemu, son of Rai Puran Das, Born in Alwar, Rajasthan was a Hindu Emperor of India during the crucial periods in Indian history, when the Mughals and Afghans were desperately vying for power. Hemu rose to become Chief of Army and Prime Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Akbar and Humayun in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles continuously, without a single setback. HEMU CHANDRA : HEMU CHANDRA Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556, assuming the title of "Vikramaditya“. He re-established the Hindu rule (albeit for a short duration) in North India, after over 350 years of Muslim rule. On 5 November 1556, the Mughal army defeated Hem Chandra's army at the historic battle field of Panipat. He was captured and executed in the Mughal camp. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT 1558-1560 : Expanded the kingdom by defeating the kingdoms of Punjab, Jammu and of Gwalior, northern Rajputana and Jaunpur. 1562: Captured Malwa and subsequently conquered the kingdom of the Gonds. February, 1568: The fortress of Chittor fell after a siege of four months. Over 30,000 inhabitants of Chittorgarh Fort were killed by the victorious Mughal army. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT 1569: Laying the foundation of a new city, 37 kms from Agra called Fatehpur Sikri ("city of victory"). 1569: Rajasthan, was conquered by the Mughal army, making Akbar the master of almost the whole of Rajputana. 1599: Shifted his capital back to Agra from where he reigned until his death. 1573: Captured Ahmedabad 7th August, 1574: Captured Patna 3rd March 1575: Captured Bengal. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT The Mughal army also conquered Kabul (1581), Kashmir (1586), and Kandesh (1601), among others. Akbar installed a governor over each of the conquered provinces. Akbar solidified his rule by pursuing diplomacy with the powerful Hindu Rajput caste, and by marrying Rajput princesses AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT Akbar's reign significantly influenced art and culture in the country. His administration included numerous Hindu landlords, courtiers and military generals. He began a series of religious debates with Hindus, Jains, Zoroastrians and Portuguese Roman Catholic Jesuits. He treated these religious leaders with great consideration, irrespective of their faith, and revered them. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT He granted lands and money for the mosques as well as to huge number Hindu temples in north and central India, Christian churches in Goa and a land grant to the newly born Sikh faith for the construction of a place of worship. The famous Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab is constructed on the same site. AKBAR THE GREAT : AKBAR THE GREAT He spent his youth learning to hunt, run, and fight, but he never learned to read or write. This lifestyle of his childhood made him a daring, powerful and a brave warrior but he remained illiterate throughout his life. On 3 October 1605, Akbar fell ill with an attack of dysentery, from which he never recovered. He is believed to have died on or about 26 October 1605 and buried at a mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra. JAHANGIR (1569 – 1627) : JAHANGIR (1569 – 1627) Jahangir : Born as Prince Muhammad Salim, he was the third and eldest surviving son of Mogul Emperor Akbar. His mother was the Rajput Princess of Amber, Jodhabai (born Rajkumari Hira Kunwari, eldest daughter of Raja Bihar Mal or Bharmal, Raja of Amber, India). The name Jahangir is from Persian, meaning "Conqueror of the World". JAHANGIR : JAHANGIR In 1600, when Akbar was away from the capital on an expedition, Salim broke into an open rebellion, and declared himself Emperor. Akbar had to hastily return to Agra and restore order. Prince Salim forcefully succeeded to the throne on 3 November 1605, eight days after his father's death and thus began his 22-year reign at the age of 36. JAHANGIR : JAHANGIR One of his favourite wives was a Rajput Princess Manmati, who gave birth to Prince Khurram, the future Shah Jahan. The total number of wives in his harem was more than eight hundred. Jahangir married Mehr-ul-Nisa (better known by her subsequent title of Nur Jahan "Light of the World". ), in May 1611. She was the widow of Sher Afghan. BRITISH IN INDIA : BRITISH IN INDIA English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. In 1612, Sir Thomas Roe was instructed by James I to visit the Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Salim Jahangir to arrange for a commercial treaty which would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and build factories in Surat and other areas. This mission was highly successful as Jahangir sent a letter to James through Sir Thomas Roe. JAHANGIR : JAHANGIR The health of Jahangir was completely shattered by too much drinking of alcohol. He was trying to restore it by visiting Kashmir and Kabul. He went from Kabul to Kashmir but returned to Lahore on account of a severe cold. Jahangir died on the way back from Kashmir near Sarai Saadabad in 1627. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram who took the title of Shah Jahan. SHAH JAHAN (5th Jan, 1592 – 22nd Jan 1666) : SHAH JAHAN (5th Jan, 1592 – 22nd Jan 1666) Shah Jahan, meaning "King of the World." was the emperor of the Mughal Empire in the India from 1628 until 1658. Born as Prince Shihab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram in Lahore, Pakistan as the third and favorite son of the emperor Jahangir from his Rajput wife Gossaini. In 1607 CE, at the age of fifteen, Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum, the grand daughter of a Persian noble, who was 14 years old at the time gave her the title Mumtaz Mahal (Jewel of the Palace). SHAH JAHAN : SHAH JAHAN Mumtaz Mahal had 14 children and she died an accidental death, while giving birth to her 14th child in Burhanpur in 1631 AD . The intervening years had seen Khurrum take two other wives known as Akbarabadi Mahal (d.1677 CE), and Kandahari Mahal (b. c1594 CE). Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold. SHAH JAHAN : SHAH JAHAN India became the richest centre of the arts, crafts and architecture and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in his empire. His famous Peacock Throne, with its trail blazing in the shifting natural colours of rubies, sapphires, and emeralds, was made during this period. SHAH JAHAN : SHAH JAHAN He moved the capital from Agra to Delhi. Shah Jahan repulsed the Portuguese in Bengal. 1658 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military over expenditures. Shah Jahan became ill in 1658 CE, Dara (Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead. TAJ MAHAL : TAJ MAHAL The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653, employing over 1,000 elephants, thousands of artisans and craftsmen with a labour force of twenty thousand workers . Taj Mahal was entrusted to a board of architects under imperial supervision, including Abd ul-Karim Ma'mur Khan, Makramat Khan, and Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. Lahauri is generally considered to be the principal designer. SHAH JAHAN : SHAH JAHAN Aurangzeb, the third son, gathered a well trained army and became its in chief commander, he faced his elder brother and heir apparent Dara Shikoh's army close to Agra and completely defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. He declared Shah Jahan as incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort (1658). In January 1666 CE, Shah Jahan fell ill with strangury and dysentery and died. AURANGZEB : AURANGZEB Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir, more commonly known as Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal Emperor, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707 He began a program of military expansion along all the boundaries of his empire. He pushed north-west into the Punjab (Afghanistan) and drove south, conquering three Muslim kingdoms: Nizams of Ahmednagar, Adilshahis of Bijapur and Qutbshahis of Golconda. GOLKONDA : GOLKONDA The 13th century Golkonda Fort was built by the Hindu Kakatiya kings. In the 16th century, Golkonda was the capital and fortress city of the Qutb Shahi kingdom, near Hyderabad. The city was home to one of the most powerful Muslim sultanates in the region and was the centre of a flourishing diamond trade. The Golkonda fort use to have a Vault chamber where once the famous Kohinoor and Hope diamonds were stored along with other diamonds. AURANGZEB : AURANGZEB 1689: Almost all of Southern India was a part of the Mughal Empire and after the conquest of Golconda the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb may have been the most richest and powerful man alive. Aurangzeb's chain of command grew weaker. The Sikhs of the Punjab grew both in strength and numbers, and launched rebellions. The Marathas waged a war with Aurangzeb which lasted for 27 years. Even Aurangzeb's own armies grew restive — particularly the fierce Rajputs. SHIVAJI : SHIVAJI Shivaji Raje Bhosle (19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680), was a Maratha, founded the Maratha empire with Vedant Raigad as its capital, 1674 Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire and was crowned as Chhatrapati ("sovereign") of the Maratha kingdom in 1674. Shivaji died of fever in April 1680, and his eldest son Sambhaji took power. MARATHA EMPIRE IN 1760 : MARATHA EMPIRE IN 1760 AURANGZEB : AURANGZEB Aurangzeb personally led his imperial army to attack and to completely destroy the Maratha threat once and for all. Sambhaji was tortured for 40 days and killed on 11 March 1689. Aurangzeb continued his grim war against the Marathas for another 18 years, though he occupied the whole of Maharashtra. 1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan and was engaged in continuous war for more than two decades. AURANGZEB : AURANGZEB AURANGZEB : AURANGZEB He died in Ahmednagar on Friday, 20 February 1707 at the age of 88, during his final campaign against the Marathas. After Aurangzeb's death, his son Bahadur Shah I took the throne. Following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the empire started its gradual decline, although the dynasty continued for another 150 years. MUGHAL EMPIRE AFTER AURANGZEB : MUGHAL EMPIRE AFTER AURANGZEB Bahadur Shah I - 1707–1712 Jahandar Shah - 1712–1713 Furrukhsiyar - 1713–1719 Rafi Ul-Darjat – 1719 Rafi Ud-Daulat a.k.a Shah Jahan II – 1719 Nikusiyar – 1719 Muhammad Ibrahim – 1720 Muhammad Shah - 1720–1748 THE LAST MUGHALS : THE LAST MUGHALS Ahmad Shah Bahadur - 1748–54 Alamgir II - 1754–1759 Shah Jahan III - In 1759 Shah Alam II - 1759–1806 Akbar Shah II - 1806–1837 Bahadur Shah Zafar - 1837–1857 (THE LAST EMPEROR OF MUGHALS) THE LAST MUGHALS : THE LAST MUGHALS 1717: Furrukhsiyar granted a firman to the English East India Company granting them duty free trading rights for Bengal and confirmed their position in India. Muhammad Shah, fought a long war with the Maratha Empire, losing Deccan and Malwa in the process. He suffered the invasion of Nadir-Shah of Persia in 1739. NADER SHAH : NADER SHAH In 1738, Persian ruller Nader Shah conquered Kandahar. His thoughts now turned to the Mughul Empire of India. Its ruler Muhammad Shah was powerless to reverse this disintegration. Nader asked for Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. He defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal on 13 February, 1739. After this victory, Nader captured Mohammad Shah and entered with him into Delhi. During the course of one day (March 22) 20,000 to 30,000 Indians were killed by the Persian troops, forcing Mohammad Shah to beg for mercy. NADER SHAH INVANSION : NADER SHAH INVANSION In response, Nader Shah agreed to withdraw, but Mohammad Shah paid the consequence in handing over the keys of his royal treasury, and losing even the Peacock Throne to the Persian emperor. Nader also gained the Koh-I-Noor and Darya-ye Noor diamonds). The Persian troops left Delhi at the beginning of May 1739, taking with him a few thousand Indian girls (both Hindu and Muslim), a large number of boys as slaves and thousands of elephants, horses and camels loaded with the booty his men had collected. THE LAST MUGHALS : 1754, May: The Battle of Sikandarabad -Mughal forces massacred by the Maratha. 22 October, 1764: The Battle of Buxar - Defeat of the combined forces of Mughal, Nawab of Oudh & Nawab of Bengal, Bihar at the hand of East India Company. 1761: Hyder Ali becomes Nawab of Mysore. 1761 : Ahmed-Shah-Abdali defeated the Marathas during the Third Battle of Panipat. 1799: The fall of Tipu Sultan of Mysore. THE LAST MUGHALS THE LAST MUGHALS : 1804: The blind and powerless Shah Alam II formally accepted the protection of the British East India Company. 1857: Some rebels in the Sepoy Rebellion declared their allegiance to Shah Alam's descendant, Bahadur Shah II, the British Raj decided to abolish the institution altogether. They deposed the last Mughal emperor in 1857 and exiled him to Burma, where he died in 1862. THE LAST MUGHALS FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY : FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY Founded in 1664 to compete with the British and Dutch East India companies in colonial India. With the decline of the Mughal Empire, the French decided to intervene in Indian political affairs to protect their interests, notably by forging alliances with local rulers in south India. Several Indian trading ports, including Pondicherry and Chandernagore, remained under French control until 1954. The Company was not able to maintain itself financially, and it was abolished in 1769 DANISH EAST INDIA COMPANY : DANISH EAST INDIA COMPANY The Danish East India Company, ( Denmark, Norway), which was active from the 17th to the 19th centuries. The Danish colony's capital was Fort Dansborg at Tranquebar, established in 1620 and also established several commercial outposts. In 1777 it was turned over to the government by the chartered company and became a Danish crown colony. DANISH COMMERCIAL OUTPOSTS : DANISH COMMERCIAL OUTPOSTS 1696 - 1722 Oddeway Torre on the Malabar coast. 1698 - 1714 Dannemarksnagore at Gondalpara, southeast of Chandernagore. 1752 - 1791 Calicut. October 1755 Frederiksnagore at Serampore, in present-day West Bengal. 1754/1756 the Nicobar Islands under the name Frederiksøerne. 1763 Balasore (already occupied 1636-1643). DANISH INDIA COMPANY : DANISH INDIA COMPANY In 1789 the Andaman Islands became a British possession. During the Napoleonic Wars, the British attacked Danish shipping, and devastated the Danish East India Company's India trade. In May 1801 - August 1802 and 1808 - 20 September 1815 the British even occupied Dansborg and Frederiksnagore. On 16 October 1869 all Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands, which since 1848 had been gradually abandoned, were sold to Britain. EAST INDIA COMPANY : EAST INDIA COMPANY An early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies. The Company was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium. In 1612, Sir Thomas Roe visited the Mughal Emperor Nuruddin Salim Jahangir and arranged for a commercial treaty which allowed the Company exclusive rights to build factories in Surat and other areas. EAST INDIA COMPANY : By 1720, 15% of British imports were from India. The Company created trading posts in Surat (where a factory was built in 1612), Madras (1639), Bombay (1668), and Calcutta (1690). By 1647, the Company had 23 factories. In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal, and in 1717 completely waived customs duties for the trade. EAST INDIA COMPANY Slide 202: At this time, Britain and France became bitter rivals. The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) resulted in the defeat of the French forces. By the Treaty of Paris (1763), the French were allowed to maintain their trade posts only in small enclaves in Pondicherry, Mahe, Karikal, Yanam, and Chandernagar without any military presence. EAST INDIA COMPANY EAST INDIA COMPANY : In 1757, After the Battle of Buxar, Shah Alam II, the ruling emperor, gave up the administrative rights over Bengal, Bihar, and Midnapore District. Clive became the first British Governor of Bengal. In 1772, the Company established a capital in Calcutta and appointed its first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, and became directly involved in governance. EAST INDIA COMPANY KINGDOM OF MYSORE : KINGDOM OF MYSORE With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire (circa 1565), the kingdom became independent. The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and, under Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu . The kingdom reached the height of its military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto ruler Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. EAST INDIA COMPANY : 1799: Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan and Hyder Ali, the rulers of the Sultanate of Mysore. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces. 1807 : East India Company signs treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh 1818 : Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire, leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India. EAST INDIA COMPANY EAST INDIA COMPANY : After the Battle of Assaye (1803), the British had secured the entire region of Southern India (with the exception of small enclaves of French and local rulers), Western India and Eastern India. In 1830, Ram Mohan Roy travelled to the UK as an ambassador of the Mughal Emperor Akbar II, who conferred him title of Raja to convince British government for welfare of India and to ensure that the Lord Bentick's regulation banning the practice of Sati was not overturned. EAST INDIA COMPANY INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857 : INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857 The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions (Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region). The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and it was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858. The regions, such as Bengal, the Bombay Presidency, and the Madras Presidency – remained largely calm. INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857 : INDIAN REBELLION OF 1857 The large princely states of Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion. In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. Rebel leaders, such as the Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, became folk heroes in the nationalist movement in India. EAST INDIA COMPANY : The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. The British Government nationalised the Company. The Company lost all its administrative powers; its Indian possessions, including its armed forces, were taken over by the Crown pursuant The Company continued to manage the tea trade on behalf of the British Government until the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act 1873 came into effect, on 1 January 1874. The Act provided for the dissolution of the company on 1 June 1874. EAST INDIA COMPANY BRITISH RAJ : BRITISH RAJ The system of governance was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (and who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India), and lasted until 1947. BRITISH RAJ : The British Raj extended to Aden Colony (from 1858 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1858 to 1937), Upper Burma (from 1886 to 1937), British Somaliland (from 1884 to 1898), Singapore (briefly from 1858 to 1867). Burma was directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948. BRITISH RAJ BRITISH RAJ : BRITISH RAJ The Government of India Act 1858 made changes in the governance of India at three levels: * In the imperial government in London, * In the central government in Calcutta, * In the provincial governments in the presidencies (and later in the provinces). BRITISH RAJ : BRITISH RAJ In London, it provided for a cabinet-level Secretary of State for India and a fifteen-member Council of India. In 1907, for the first time, two Indians were appointed to the Council. In Calcutta, the Governor-General remained head of the Government of India (called the Viceroy, secondary role as the Crown's representative to the nominally sovereign princely states). BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE, 1909 : BRITISH INDIAN EMPIRE, 1909 FIRST VICEROY OF INDIA : FIRST VICEROY OF INDIA CHARLES CANNING (1 Nov 1858 - 21 Mar 1862) Reorganisation of British Indian Army (Indian Army). 1860: University of Bombay, University of Madras, and University of Calcutta. 1861: Establishment of Archaeological Survey of India. Reorganises customs, Imposes income tax, Creates paper currency. 1861: Creation of Imperial Police later known as Indian Police Service. SECOND & THIRD VICEROY OF INDIA : SECOND & THIRD VICEROY OF INDIA LORD ELGIN (21 Mar 1862-20 Nov 1863) Dies prematurely in Dharamsala. JOHN LAWRENCE (12 Jan 1864-12 Jan 1869) (1864-1865 ): Anglo-Bhutan Duar War 1867 : Creation of Department of Irrigation and Imperial Forestry Service (now Indian Forest Service). 1869: Possession of Nicobar Islands. FOURTH & FIFTH VICEROY OF INDIA : FOURTH & FIFTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD MAYO (12 Jan 1869-8 Feb 1872) * Creation of Department of Agriculture (now Ministry of Agriculture). * Major extension of railways, roads, and canals. * Creation of Andaman and Nicobar Islands as a Chief Commissionership (1872). Assassination of Lord Mayo in the Andamans. LORD NORTHBROOK (3 May 1872-12 Apr 1876) Gaikwad of Baroda dethroned for misgovernment Indian Councils Act of 1874. SIXTH VICEROY OF INDIA : SIXTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD LYTTON (12 Apr 1876-8 Jun 1880) * 8 Jun 1880Baluchistan established as a Chief Commissionership. * Queen Victoria (in absentia) proclaimed Empress of India at Delhi Durbar of 1877. * Creation of Famine Commission of 1878–80 under Sir Richard Strachey. * Indian Forest Act of 1878 * Second Anglo-Afghan War. SEVENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : SEVENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD RIPPON (8 Jun 1880-13 Dec 1884) * End of Second Anglo-Afghan War. * 1882:University of Punjab established in Lahore. * Creation of the Education Commission. * Creation of indigenous schools (for Muslims). Repeal of import duties on cotton and of most tariffs. Railway extension. EIGHTH VICEROY OF INDIA : EIGHTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD DUFFEIRIN (13 Dec 1884-10 Dec 1888) * Passage of Bengal Tenancy Bill. * Third Anglo-Burmese War. * 1885: Russian attack on Afghans at Panjdeh . * Creation of Imperial Civil Service (later Indian Civil Service, and today Indian Administrative Service). * 1887 : University of Allahabad established. Indian National Congress (INC) : Indian National Congress (INC) 1885: Indian National Congress (INC) was founded by Indian and British members most notably Allan Octavian Hume. Womesh Chandra Bannerjee was the first President of the INC. 1892, Dr. Dadabhai Naroji entered the House of Commons and became the first ever Indian/Asian Member of the British Parliament. A. O. Hume W.C. Bannerjee NINTH VICEROY OF INDIA : NINTH VICEROY OF INDIA LOED LANSDOWNE (10 Dec 1888-11 Oct 1894) * British Parliament passes Indian Councils Act of 1892 opening the Imperial Legislative Council to Indians. * Establishment of the Durand Line between British India and Afghanistan. Railways, roads, and irrigation works begun in Burma. Border between Burma and Siam finalised in 1893. * Indian Prisons Act of 1894 TENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : TENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD ELGIN (11 Oct 1894-6 Jan 1899) * Reorganization of Indian Army (from Presidency System to the four Commands). * Pamir agreement Russia, 1895. Bubonic plague in Bombay (1896), Bubonic plague in Calcutta (1898); riots in wake of plague prevention measures. Establishment of Provincial Legislative Councils in Burma and Punjab ELEVENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : ELEVENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD CURZON (6 Jan 1899-18 Nov 1905) * Return of the bubonic plague, 1 million deaths. * Gold Reserve Fund created for India. * Death of Queen Victoria (1901); dedication of the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta * Coronation Durbar in Delhi (1903); Edward VII (in absentia) proclaimed Emperor of India. * Partition of Bengal (1905); new province of East Bengal and Assam under a Lieutenant-Governor. TWELFTH VICEROY OF INDIA : TWELFTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD MINTO (18 Nov 1905-23 Nov 1910) * Creation of the Railway Board. * Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. * Appointment of Indian Factories Commission in 1909. * Establishment of Department of Education in 1910 (now Ministry of Education) BORN OF MODERN INDIA : BORN OF MODERN INDIA In 1905, Gopal krishna Gokhale became president of INC and was a moderate reformist. He introduced M.K.Gandhi to Indian politics in 1915. In 1907, Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal (Lal-Bal-Pal) were the Swadeshit triumvirate who advocated the Swadeshi movement involving the boycott of all imported items and the use of Indian-made goods. THIRTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : THIRTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD HARDINGE (23 Nov 1910-4 Apr 1916) * Visit of King George V and Queen Mary in 1911. * King George V announces creation of new city of New Delhi to replace Calcutta as capital of India. * Indian High Courts Act of 1911. * Construction of New Delhi, 1912-1929. * World War I, Participation of Indian Army. * Passage of Defence of India Act 1915 WORLD WAR - I : WORLD WAR - I World War I began in Europe on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved in two opposing alliances: the Allies (Britain, France and Russia) and the Central Powers ( Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy). More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. More than 9 million combatants were killed. WORLD WAR - I & INDIA : WORLD WAR - I & INDIA Indian princes volunteered their men, money, and personal service, while leaders urging peasants to join the British army—were allied in backing the war effort. 800,000 Indian troops fought in all the theatres of the war. 47,746 were classed as killed or missing with 65,000 wounded. Such was the cost of the war, that India’s economy was pushed to near bankruptcy. FOURTEENTH & FIFTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : FOURTEENTH & FIFTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD CHEMFORD (4 Apr 1916-2 Apr 1921) * 1919 : Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. * Third Anglo-Afghan War. * 1920 : University of Rangoon established . LORD READING (2 Apr 1921-3 Apr 1926) * 1922 : University of Delhi established in. * Indian Workers Compensation Act of 1923 BAPU : BAPU In 1918, Gandhi started with the Champaran agitation and Kheda Satyagraha, where he signed an agreement with British Government, granting the poor farmers of the region more compensation and control over farming, and cancellation of revenue hikes and its collection until the famine ended. As a result, Gandhi's fame spread all over the nation and because of this, he is now called "Father of the nation" in India. People called him Bapu (Father) and Mahatma (Great soul). JALLIANAWALA BAGH MASSACRE : JALLIANAWALA BAGH MASSACRE On Sunday 13 April 1919(the holiday of Baisakhi), fifty British Indian Army soldiers commanded by Dyer began shooting at an unarmed gathering of men, women, and children without warning and they were ordered to shoot to kill. Official Government of India sources estimated the fatalities at 379, with 1,100 wounded. The casualty number quoted by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with approximately 1,000 killed. POST WORLD WAR – I EFFECTS : POST WORLD WAR – I EFFECTS In 1919, the Government of India Act was introduced. This introduced a national parliament with two houses for India. About 5 million of the wealthiest Indians were given the right to vote (a very small percentage of the total population) Within the provincial governments, ministers of education, health and public works could now be Indian nationals The act planned for a commission to be held in 1929, to see if India was ready for more concessions/reforms. SIXTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : SIXTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD IRWIN (3 Apr 1926-18 Apr 1931) Indian Trade Unions Act of 1926, Indian Forest Act, 1927 * Appointment of Royal Commission of Indian Labour, 1929. Indian Constitutional Round Table Conferences, London, 1930-32, Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931. SWADESHI POLICY : SWADESHI POLICY In 1921, Gandhiji reorganized Indian National Congress with a new constitution, with the goal of Swaraj. He expanded his non-violence platform to include the swadeshi policy — the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922, and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. But he was released having served only 2 years due to health problem. GANDHI-IRWIN PACT : GANDHI-IRWIN PACT Gandhi launched the famous Salt March to Dandi from 12 March to 6 April,1930, where he marched 388 kilometers from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to make salt himself. Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people. Gandhi–Irwin Pact was signed in March 1931. The British Government agreed to free all political prisoners, in return for the suspension of the civil disobedience movement. SEVENTEENTH VIVEROY OF INDIA : SEVENTEENTH VIVEROY OF INDIA LORD WILLINGDON (18 Apr 1931-18 Apr 1936) * 1931: New Delhi inaugurated as capital of India. * Indian Workmen's Compensation Act of 1933. * 1932 : Royal Indian Air Force created in. * 1932 : Indian Military Academy established. * Government of India Act 1935 * Creation of Reserve Bank of India EIGHTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : EIGHTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD LINLITHGOW (18 Apr 1936-1 Oct 1943) * Indian Payment of Wages Act of 1936. * Burma administered independently after 1937, the Burma Office separated off from the India Office. * Indian Provincial Elections of 1937. * Cripps' mission to India, 1942. * Indian Army in Middle East Theatre of World War II * Burma Campaign of World War II begins in 1942. WORLD WAR - II : WORLD WAR - II It was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It is the deadliest conflict in human history, resulting in to over 70 million fatalities. The British Indian Empire was declared as a belligerent against the Axis powers by the United Kingdom without consulting prominent Indian leaders. Several leaders of the Indian independence movement, including Mahatma Gandhi, expressed strong opposition against Nazism. CRIPP’S COMMISSION : CRIPP’S COMMISSION The Second World War had a profound influence on the British policy towards India. Britain needed India's manpower to fight the war and, to secure Indian support, was willing to offer to hand over its political power after it won the war. In 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps on his first mission to India made on behalf of the British Government his offer of independence after the war in exchange for cooperation, but the Indian political parties rejected his proposals SUBHAS BOSE : SUBHAS BOSE Subhas Chandra Bose was elected as president of the INC for two consecutive terms (1937 & 1939), but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with M. K. Gandhi. He established a separate political party, the “All India Forward Bloc” (1939). He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was "Give me blood and I will give you freedom". QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT : QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT World War II broke out in 1939, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, drafting a resolution calling for the British to Quit India. Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee were arrested in Bombay by the British on 9 August 1942. His wife Kasturba died after 18 months imprisonment in 22 February 1944. He was released before the end of the war on 6 May 1944. AZAD HIND FAUZ : AZAD HIND FAUZ Subhas Bose left India (1941), travelling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan. With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organized and later led the “Azad Hind Fauj” or “Indian National Army” (INA) with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of South Asia, against British forces. AZAD HIND GOVERNMENT : AZAD HIND GOVERNMENT With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, Subhas Bose formed the “Azad Hind Government” (21st October 1943) in exile, and regrouped and led the INA in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma. INA could able to free the Andaman and Nicobar islands from the British and were renamed as “Swaraj” and “Shaheed” islands. He is presumed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan at the age of 48. INDIA & WORLD WAR - II : INDIA & WORLD WAR - II The Indian Army during World War II was one of the largest Allied forces contingents which took part in the North and East African Campaign, Western Desert Campaign and the Italian Campaign. More than 2.5 million Indian troops were fighting Axis forces around the globe. After the end of the World War, India emerged as the world's fourth largest industrial power and its increased political, economic and military influence paved the way for its independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. NINTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA : NINTEENTH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD WAVEL (1 Oct 1943-21 Feb 1947) * Indian Army becomes, at 2.5 million men, the largest all-volunteer force in history. * British Labour Party wins UK General Election of 1945 with Clement Attlee as prime minister. * 1946 Cabinet Mission to India. * Indian Elections of 1946. ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE (AIML) : ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE (AIML) The partition was promulgated in the dissolution of the British Indian Empire. The All India Muslim League (AIML) was formed in Dhaka in 1906 by Muslims who were suspicious of the Hindu-majority Indian National Congress. 1930 convention of the Muslim League said that a separate nation for Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated subcontinent. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA While the Indian National Congress and Gandhi called for the British to Quit India, the Muslim League passed a resolution for them to divide and quit, in 1943. Jinnah called for Direct Action, on 16 August 1946 in Calcutta, in which more than 5,000 people were killed and many more injured. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA Gandhi was infuriated and visited the most riot prone areas to stop the massacres, personally. He made strong efforts to unite the Indian Hindus, Muslims and Christians and struggled for the emancipation of the "untouchables" in Hindu society. As public order broke down all across northern India and Bengal, the pressure increased to seek a political partition of territories as a way to avoid a full-scale civil war. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA The 1946 Cabinet Mission was sent to try and reach a compromise between Congress and the Muslim League. A compromise proposing a decentralized state with much power given to local governments won initial acceptance, but Nehru was unwilling to accept such a decentralized state and Jinnah soon returned to demanding an independent Pakistan. TWENTIETH VICEROY OF INDIA : TWENTIETH VICEROY OF INDIA LORD MOUNTBATTEN (21 Feb 1947-15 Aug 1947) * Indian Independence Act 1947 of the British Parliament enacted on 18 July 1947. * Partition of India * India Office and position of Secretary of State for India abolished; ministerial responsibility within the United Kingdom for British relations with India and Pakistan is transferred to the Commonwealth Relations Office. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA Within British India, the border between India and Pakistan (the Radcliffe Line) was determined by a British Government-commissioned report prepared under the chairmanship of a London barrister, Sir Cyril Radcliffe. The ceremonies for the transfer of power were held in Karachi August 14 1947 and India's on August 15, 1947. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA The partition of India included the geographical division of the Bengal province of British India into East Bengal, which became part of the Dominion of Pakistan (from 1956, East Pakistan, until independence as Bangladesh in 1971) and West Bengal, which became part of India. PARTITION OF INDIA : PARTITION OF INDIA Slide 255: The partition of the Punjab province into West Punjab PARTITION OF INDIA (later the Pakistani Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory) and East Punjab (later the Indian Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh). Slide 256: Many millions of Muslim, Sikh, and Hindu refugees trekked across the newly drawn borders. In Punjab, where the new border lines divided the Sikh regions in half, massive bloodshed followed. In Bengal and Bihar, where Gandhi's presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was more limited. In all, anywhere between 250,000 and 500,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. PARTITION OF INDIA INDEPENDENT INDIA : INDEPENDENT INDIA Jawaharlal Nehru assuming the office of the first prime minister, and Deputy Prime Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel invited Mountbatten to continue as Governor General of India. He was replaced in June 1948 by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Patel took on the responsibility of unifying 565 princely states, steering efforts by his “iron fist in a velvet glove” policies, exemplified by the use of military force to integrate Junagadh and Hyderabad state (Operation Polo) into India. PRESIDENT OF INDIA : PRESIDENT OF INDIA On 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed to draft a permanent constitution, with Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar as chairman. The Constitution of India came into effect only on 26 January 1950, 10.18 AM IST. Following elections on 21 January 1950, Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as the president of India, taking over from Governor General Rajgopalachari. PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA : PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA The Prime Minister of India is the most powerful person, chief of Government, head of Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The Prime Minister is generally the leader of party(or coalition of parties) that has majority in Lok Sabha, the lower house in parliament of India. The Prime Minister represents the country in various delegation, high level meetings and international organizations that require the attendance of highest Government office. PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA SINCE 1947 : PRIME MINISTERS OF INDIA SINCE 1947 1st Prime Minister of India Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru (Aug. 15, 1947 – May 27, 1964) : 1st Prime Minister of India Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru (Aug. 15, 1947 – May 27, 1964) He effectively coped with the formidable challenges of those times: the disorders and mass exodus of minorities across the new border with Pakistan, the integration of 500-odd princely states into the Indian Union, the framing of a new constitution, and the establishment of the political and administrative infrastructure for a parliamentary democracy. He set up a Planning Commission in 1951, encouraged development of science and technology, and launched three successive five-year plans. His policies led to a sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 : INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 Before and after the withdrawal of the British from India in 1947, the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu came under pressure from both India and Pakistan to agree to become part of one of the newly independent countries. However, the Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh tried to avoid accession to either country. Following a Muslim revolution in the Poonch and Mirpur area and an allegedly Pakistani backed Pashtun tribal intervention from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that aimed at supporting the revolution, the Maharaja asked for Indian military assistance. Slide 263: India set a condition that Kashmir must accede to India for it to receive assistance. The Maharaja complied. Indian troops were sent to the state to defend. The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference volunteers aided the Indian Army in its campaign to drive out the Pathan invaders. Pakistan was of the view that the Maharaja of Kashmir had no right to call in the Indian Army, because it held that the Maharaja of Kashmir was not a heredity ruler, that he was merely a British appointee after the British defeated Ranjit Singh who ruled the province before the British. INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 : Pakistan sent troops to Kashmir but by then the Indian forces had taken control of approximately two thirds of the former principality. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to ask UN to intervene. A UN cease-fire was arranged for the 31 December 1948. The terms of the cease-fire as laid out in a United Nations resolution of August 13, 1948, were adopted by the UN on January 5, 1949. INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 : This required Pakistan to withdraw its forces, both regular and irregular, while allowing India to maintain minimum strength of its forces in the state to preserve law and order. 1,500 soldiers died on each side during the war and Pakistan was able to acquire roughly two-fifths of Kashmir. On compliance of these conditions a plebiscite was to be held to determine the future of the territory. INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 : INDIA-PAKISTAN WAR OF 1947-48 1st Prime Minister of India Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru : 1st Prime Minister of India Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed Goa and Portugal's other Indian enclaves. The French ceded Chandernagore in 1951, and Pondicherry and its remaining Indian colonies in 1956,. The relationship with China suffered a major setback when, in 1959, Nehru accommodated the Tibetan religious leader at the time, the 14th Dalai Lama, who fled Lhasa after a failed Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule. THE SINO-INDIAN WAR : THE SINO-INDIAN WAR In August 1959, the People's Liberation Army, China's maps showed both the North East Frontier Area (NEFA) and Aksai Chin to be Chinese territory. Nehru declined to conduct any negotiations on the boundary until Chinese troops withdrew from Aksai Chin. The Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962. THE SINO-INDIAN WAR : THE SINO-INDIAN WAR Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang la in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre. The war ended when the Chinese declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, and simultaneously announced its withdrawal from the disputed area. After the war, India abandoned the Forward Policy, and the de facto borders stabilized along the Line of Actual Control. Second Prime Minister of India Gulzari Lal Nanda : He was the interim Prime Minister of India twice for thirteen days each: the first time after the death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, and the second time after the death of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966. (Both his terms ended after the ruling Indian National Congress party procedurally elected a new prime minister.) Second Prime Minister of India Gulzari Lal Nanda Third Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri(From June 9, 1964 to January 11, 1966) : Third Prime Minister of India Lal Bahadur Shastri(From June 9, 1964 to January 11, 1966) After the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964, Shastri was unanimously elected as the Prime Minister of India. In 1965, Pakistan tried to take advantage of India's vulnerability and attacked India. He and Pakistani President Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Agreement, agreeing to withdraw to pre-August lines. He died of heart attack on the same night after the declaration of the ceasefire. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 : INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 On March 20, 1965, and later in April 1965, fighting broke out between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch. In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson successfully persuaded both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. Pakistan awarded 350 square miles (900 km²) of the Rann of Kutch, as against its original claim of 3,500 square miles (9,100 km2). INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 : After its success in the Rann of Kutch, Pakistan, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962. On August 5, 1965 between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 : On September 1, 1965, Pakistan launched a counterattack, called Operation Grand Slam, with the objective to capture the vital town of Akhnoor in Jammu. India crossed the International Border on September 6, marking an official beginning of the war. The war was heading for a stalemate, with both nations holding territory of the other. The war lasted for five weeks. Indian army suffered 3,000 battlefield deaths, while Pakistan suffered 3,800. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 : The United States and the Soviet Union used significant diplomatic tools to prevent any further escalation in the conflict . The Soviet Union, led by Premier Alexei Kosygin, hosted ceasefire negotiations January 10, 1966 in Tashkent (now in Uzbekistan), where Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan signed the Tashkent Agreement, agreeing to withdraw to pre-August lines. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1965 Fourth Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi : Fourth Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi She was the Prime Minister of the India for three consecutive terms from 1966 to 1977 and for a fourth term from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, a total of fifteen years. She took bold decisions during the India-Pakistan war in 1971 that resulted in the liberation of Bangladesh. . In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "Smiling Buddha", INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 : INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 In 1970 Pakistani election, in which the East Pakistani Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman won and secured majority in lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament of Pakistan). He claimed the right to form the government. But the leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, refused to yield the premiership of Pakistan to Mujibur, President Yahya Khan called the military, dominated by West Pakistanis, to suppress dissent. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 : Pakistani military cracked down on Dhaka on the night of 25 March 1971. and Mujib was arrested. The Pakistan army conducted a widespread genocide against the Bengali population of East Pakistan, aimed in particular at the minority Hindu population, leading to approximately 10 million people fleeing East Pakistan and taking refuge in the neighboring Indian states. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 : The national Indian government repeatedly appealed to the international community, but failing to elicit any response, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on 27 March 1971 expressed full support of her government for the independence struggle of the people of East Pakistan. On 23 November, Yahya Khan declared a state of emergency in all of Pakistan. On the evening of 3 December, the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) launched a pre-emptive strike on eleven airfields in north-western India INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 : The Indian Air Force responded with initial air strikes that very night. The war ended in just 13 days and it is considered one of the shortest wars in history. The war came to an end after the Eastern Command of the Pakistani Armed Forces signed the Instrument of Surrender, the first and perhaps the only public surrender to date, on December 16, 1971. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 : East Pakistan seceded as the independent state of Bangladesh. India took approximately 90,000 prisoners of war, including Pakistani soldiers and their East Pakistani civilian supporters. They were released by India only after the negotiation and signing of the Simla Agreement on July 2, 1972. INDO-PAK WAR OF 1971 STATE OF EMERGENCY - 1975 : STATE OF EMERGENCY - 1975 On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice. The prime minister retained the support of her party, which issued a statement backing her. On 26 June 1975, her government recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency. In 1977 Indira Gandhi called for elections. The Congress lost the elections . Janata Party leader Morarji Desai became Prime Minister on March 24. Fifth Prime Minister of India Morarji Ranchhodji Desai : Fifth Prime Minister of India Morarji Ranchhodji Desai Desai worked to improve relations with neighbor and arch-rival Pakistan and restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war. He communicated with Zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations and diplomatic relations were also re-established with China. In 1979, Raj Narain and Charan Singh pulled out of the Janata Party, forcing Desai to resign from office and Charan Singh was sworn in as Prime Minister in June 1979. Sixth Prime Minister of India Chaudhary Charan Singh : Sixth Prime Minister of India Chaudhary Charan Singh After being promised by Mrs. Gandhi, the support of the Congress Party on the floor of the House in any efforts to form a government. He was sworn in as Prime Minister with the support of just 64 MPs. During his term as Prime Minister the Lok Sabha never met. The day before the Lok Sabha was due to meet, the Indian National Congress withdrew their support. He resigned and fresh elections were held six months later. PRIME MINISTER OF INDIAINDIRA GANDHI : PRIME MINISTER OF INDIAINDIRA GANDHI Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority in January, 1980 General Election. Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India again. In July 1982, Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale's Sikh group occupied the Golden Temple. On 6 June 1984, during one of the holiest Sikh holidays, enacting Operation Blue Star, the Indian army opened fire, killing a disputed number of Sikhs along with supporters of Bhindranwale. PRIME MINISTER OF INDIAINDIRA GANDHI : On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, assassinated her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. She held office for a total of 5,831 days, just 300 days short of her father, Pt. Nehru. After Indira Gandhi's death, Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister. PRIME MINISTER OF INDIAINDIRA GANDHI Seventh Prime Minister of India Rajiv Ratna Gandhi : Seventh Prime Minister of India Rajiv Ratna Gandhi Rajiv dissolved the Parliament and hold fresh elections. He won with a landslide victory . He increased government support for science and technology and associated industries, and reduced import quotas, taxes and tariffs on technology-based industries, especially computers, airlines, defense and telecommunications. The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed by Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri Lankan President J.R.Jayewardene, in Colombo on 29 July 1987. Seventh Prime Minister of India RAJIV RATAN GANDHI : Seventh Prime Minister of India RAJIV RATAN GANDHI In 1985 the Rajiv-Longowal Accord was signed which granted the Sikhs most of their demands. This agreement was also accompanied by accords in Assam and Mizoram. Gandhi's finance minister, V. P. Singh, uncovered compromising details about government and political corruption, to the consternation of Congress leaders. In the 1989 elections, the Congress suffered a major setback. Rajiv became the Leader of the Opposition 8th Prime Minister of India VISWANATH PRATAP SINGH : 8th Prime Minister of India VISWANATH PRATAP SINGH Singh hold office on 2 December 1989, with various regional parties including the DMK, TDP, and AGP, came into being, called the National Front (India) with its allies (BJP & Left Front). Singh also withdrew the IPKF from Sri Lanka. He decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission, which led to widespread protests among the non-OBC youth in urban areas in North India. 8th Prime Minister of India V. P. SINGH : BJP party president, Lal Krishna Advani, toured the northern states with the intention of drumming up support for the Ram Janmabhoomi agitation. He was arrested on Singh's orders on the charges of disturbing the peace and fomenting communal tension. BJP suspended of support to the National Front government. He lost the majority in parliament Nov. 10, 1990. 8th Prime Minister of India V. P. SINGH 9th Prime Minister of India CHANDRA SEKHAR SINGH : Chandra Sekhar Singh became the Prime Minister of India with the support of Congress (I) headed by Rajiv Gandhi. The relationship crumbled quickly, as the Congress party accused him of spying on Rajiv Gandhi, their leader at that time. The Congress Party then boycotted Parliament and as Shekhar's faction only had about 60 MPs, he resigned in a nationally televised address on 6 March 1991. 9th Prime Minister of India CHANDRA SEKHAR SINGH 10th Prime Minister of India PAMULAPARTI VENKATA "NARASIMHA RAO" : During the 10th Lok Sabha Elections campaign, the Congress President Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the LTTE suicide bomber at Sriperumbudur on 21 May 1991. The Congress won the largest number of seats in the 1991 elections. P. V. Nrasimha Rao got the opportunity to head the minority government as Prime Minister. He appointed a non-political economist Manmohan Singh as his finance minister. 10th Prime Minister of India PAMULAPARTI VENKATA "NARASIMHA RAO" 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO : Rao liberalized of the Indian economy by opening up to foreign investment, reforming capital markets, deregulating domestic business, and reforming the trade regime. Rao's government's goals were reducing the fiscal deficit, Privatization of the public sector, and increasing investment in infrastructure. Trade reforms and changes in the regulation of foreign direct investment were introduced to open India to foreign trade while stabilizing external loans. 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO : Rao began industrial policy reforms with the manufacturing sector. He slashed industrial licensing, leaving only 18 industries subject to licensing. India's economy grew by an average of 6.3% between 1991-2000, a growth rate that continues with a predicted rate of 6.7% for 2005. Rao also made diplomatic overtures to Western Europe, the United States, and China. 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO : The long-agitated VHP activists and nationalists attacked the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya on 6 December, 1992. This triggered one of the worst Hindu-Muslim riots in the country. In July 1993, Rao's government was facing a no-confidence motion. It was alleged that Rao, through a representative, offered millions of Rupees to members of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM), and possibly a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal, to vote for him during the confidence motion. The Rao government lost the credibility. 10th Prime Minister of India P. V. NARASIMHA RAO 11th Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : In the 1996 general elections Rao's Congress Party was badly defeated. The BJP won 161 seats, the single largest party. The President invited BJP leader A B Vajpayee to form the government. Vajpayee took over as Prime Minister on May 16 and tried to get support from regional parties in Parliament. He failed and resigned 13 days later. Third Front (a group of regional parties and Non-Congress and Non-BJP combine) led Mr. H. D. Deve Gowda for the Prime Minister's job. 11th Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE 12th Prime Minister of India H. D. DEVE GOWDA : He sworn in as the 12th Prime Minister of India on 1st June, 1996. Deve Gowda's government collapsed after less than a year, when the Congress Party withdrew its support in March 1997, forcing the third change in government in less than a year. He was in office from June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997 (for roughly 11 months). 12th Prime Minister of India H. D. DEVE GOWDA 13th Prime Minister of India INDAR KUMAR GUJURAL : Inder Kumar Gujral replaced Deve Gowda as the consensus choice for Prime Minister at the head of a 16-party United Front coalition. His tenure ended just after 10 months when the Congress Party again decided to withdraw support to the UF. He resigned office on Nov. 28. 1997. Elections were held following the premature dissolution of the Lok Sabha on December 4, 1997. 13th Prime Minister of India INDAR KUMAR GUJURAL Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : The BJP-led alliance won a working majority of some 265 seats. On March 19, Vajpayee took the oath as Prime Minister for second time. In May 1998, India conducted five underground nuclear tests in Pokhran, Rajasthan. Two weeks later, Pakistan responded with its own nuclear weapon tests. Vajpayee began a push for a full-scale diplomatic peace process with Pakistan. With the historic inauguration of the Delhi-Lahore bus service in February 1999. Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : On April 17, 1999, the AIADMK did pull the plug on the NDA. The BJP fell short of a single vote and the Vajpayee administration was reduced to a caretaker status pending fresh elections scheduled for October. Operation Vijay (1999): Launched in June 1999, the three-month long Kargil War. India pushed back the Pakistani militants and Northern Light Infantry soldiers. Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : The BJP-led NDA had won 303 seats in the 543 seat, thereby securing a comfortable, stable majority. On 13 October 1999, Atal Bihari Vajpayee took oath as Prime Minister of India for the third time. Vajpayee oversaw his National Highway Development Project and Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana begin construction. The economy had shown steady growth and the disinvestment of PSUs had been on track. Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : On December 13, 2001, a group of masked, armed men with fake IDs stormed the Parliament building in Delhi. Vajpayee ordered a mobilization of India's military forces along the international boundary bordering Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Kashmir. Pakistan responded with the same. For as long as two years, both nations remained perilously close to a terrible war. Between December 2001 and March 2002: The VHP held the Government hostage in a major standoff in Ayodhya over the Ram temple. The communal violence and breakdown of law and order situation hung over the nation. Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE : In late 2002-2003 the government pushed economic reforms, and the country's GDP growth accelerated at record levels, exceeding 6-7%. In July 2003,Vajpayee, visited China, and met with various Chinese leaders. He recognized Tibet, as a part of China, which was reacted to positively, by the Chinese leadership, who the following year, recognized Sikkim, as a part of India. In December 2003, BJP won three major state elections. BJP prepared for general elections in 2004. Prime Minister of India ATAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH : On May 13, the BJP conceded defeat and the Congress was able to put together a comfortable majority with the help of its allies (external support from BSP, SP, MDMK and the Left front) was called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). The UPA formed a government under Dr Manmohan Singh on 22 May 2004. He liberalized the Indian economy, allowing it to speed up development dramatically. 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH : In 2005, Singh's government introduced the Value added tax, replacing sales tax. In 2007, India achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world. Chinese President Hu Jintao visited India which was followed by Singh's visit to Beijing in January 2008. As of 2010, the People's Republic of China is the second biggest trade partner of India. Relations with Afghanistan have also improved considerably, with India now becoming the largest regional donor to Afghanistan. 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH : India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha April and May 2009, where congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA) won the mandate to lead the Lok Sabha. The Congress and its allies were able to put together a comfortable majority. On 22 May 2009, Manmohan Singh was sworn in as the Prime Minister and became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to win re-election after completing a full five-year term. 14th Prime Minister of India DR. MANMOHAN SINGH INDIAComprising Twenty-eight States and seven Union Territories : INDIAComprising Twenty-eight States and seven Union Territories INDIA - TODAY : INDIA - TODAY India is the world’s most populous democracy. Though over 80 percent of the population is Hindu, the country also has one of the world’s largest Muslim populations. Current Population of India in 2011 1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) Total Male Population in India 623,700,000 (623.7 million) Total Female Population in India 586,500,000 (586.5 million) Sex Ratio 940 females per 1,000 males. Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a minute. INDIA - TOMORROW : India's Population in 2001: 1.02 billion Population (In 1947 350 million). Age Structure : 0-14 years: 29.7% , 15-64 years: 64.9% & 65 years and over: 5.5% India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030. India has the largest illiterate population in the world. India is 137th Country in literacy with literacy rate of 74% (2011 est.) INDIA - TOMORROW INDIA IN WORLD : INDIA IN WORLD Largest producer in the world of milk, jute and pulses, Tea, Millet, Raw Sugar. Largest in Cell phone usage Largest in postal network Second in Population Second in Labor Force. Second largest cattle population. Second largest producer of Rice, Wheat, Sugarcane, Cotton yarn, Groundnuts and Tobacco, INDIA IN WORLD : 2nd Largest fruit and vegetable producer. 2nd Largest producer and the largest consumer of silk in the world. 2nd Largest in Arable Land and Irrigated Area. 2nd in Roadways – total 3rd in Area - Water 3rd Producer of Coal (Hard) 3rd Producer of Castor INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : 4th Largest economy in the world in PPP terms 4th Producer of Cement, Wheat and Cotton. 4th Global Military Power. 4th in Railways – total 4th in Internet Users 5th Producer of Egg(Hen) 5th in Oil consumption (2009 est.) 6th in Oil Imports 6th in Reserve of Foreign exchange & Gold (2010 est.) 6th in Electricity Production & Consumption INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : 7th in GDP – Real Growth Rate (2010 est.) 7th in Land Area in World 8th Position in Electricity generated. 8th in Fish Catching 10th in World Badminton 12th in terms of nominal factory output 13th in services output. 13th in Imports (2010 est.) 16th in Natural Gas consumption 17th in Natural Gas Imports (2009 est) 17th in Industrial Product growth (2009 est.) 17th in Shipping Tonnage INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : 22nd in Natural Gas Production (2009 est.) 22nd in Exports (2010 est.) 24th in Oil Production (2009 est.) 26th in Natural Gas Proved Reserve (2010 ) 28th in Debt External (2010 est.) 41st in Governance (2011 est.) 41st /106 Suicide Rate (2010 est.) 42nd in Public Debt (2010 est.) 53rd in Economy (2011 est.) 68th/139 in Tourism (2011 est.) INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : 73rd in Personal Freedom (2011 est.) 73rd / 77: Best Place to be Mother (2010 est.) 85th/110 Per Capita GDP Ranking (2011 est.) 87th /178 in TI Corruption Perception Index (2011 est.) 88th in Education 90th in Enterprenurship & Opportunity (2011 est.) 95th in Health (2011 est.) 97th in Safety & Security (2011 est.) INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : 104th in Social Capital (2011 est.) 118th in Unemployment. (2010 est.) 119/169 : UN Human Development Index(2011) 122nd / 178 : Press Freedom Index (2010 est.) 135/153 in Vision of Humanity Global Peace Index (2011 est.) 162nd in FIFA world ranking (2011 est.) 164th GDP-Per Capita (2010 est.) 173rd in Literacy – Total Population 205th in Inflation Rate (Consumer prices) 25% Population below poverty line (2007 est.) INDIA IN WORLD INDIA IN WORLD : The Swiss Bank once released its 2006 report : The top 5 Rich Countries (in ascending order) are: China – $96 billion Ukraine – $100 billion United Kingdom – $390 billion Russia – $470 billion India – $1,456 billions This all money is deposited by sex trade workers, corrupt politicians, industrialists, film actors, cricketers etc. INDIA IN WORLD INDIA – NATURAL RESOURCES : INDIA – NATURAL RESOURCES Total cultivable area : 1,269,219 km² (56.78% of total land area) decreasing due ever-growing population and increased urbanization. Average annual rainfall of 1,100 mm. Irrigation accounts for 92% of the water utilisation. World's third largest fishing industry in 2008. COAL : Fourth-largest reserves in the world. THORIUM : World's largest along Kerala's shores. INDIA – MINERAL RESOURCES : INDIA – MINERAL RESOURCES Mica Block & Mica Splitting: Largest producer in World. 3rd in Production of Chromites in World. 3rd in production of Coal & Lignite and Barites. 4th in Iron ore Production in World. 6th in Bauxite and manganese ore Production 10 in Aluminium Production 11th in Crude steel production in the World. Other major mineral resources are Manganese, Titanium ore, Natural gas, Diamonds, Petroleum and Limestone INDIA ECONOMY : INDIA ECONOMY Factors governing the Indian Economy (2010 est.) GDP (PPP) $4.046 trillion GDP - per capita (PPP) $3,400 GDP (official exchange rate) $1.43 trillion GDP - composition by sector Services: Agriculture: 19% ,Industries: 26.3% , Services: 54.7% INDIA ECONOMY : Factors governing the Indian Economy India Budget Revenues: $170.7 billion Expenditures: $257.4 billion (2010) Unemployment rate 10.8% (2010)Labour force: 478.3 million (2010) Labour force divided by occupation Agriculture: 52 percent Industry: percent Services: 34 percent (2009). Population below poverty line 25 percent (2007) INDIA ECONOMY INDIA - TV & CINEMA : INDIA - TV & CINEMA In terms of annual film output, India ranks first (2010 est.). A total about 15 million people see films in India everyday. There are currently 515 over-the-air and satellite television channels available in India. Almost 75 percent of population live in villages, their thoughts and actions consequently have a large influence on the country’s social, political and economic state. INDIA - TV & CINEMA : INDIA - TV & CINEMA Study has shown Television viewing occupied minimum of 10.9% of an adolescent time that is about 12 hours per week. This indicates that TV viewing is a typical family activity. The portrayal of women on television has challenged the ideal of homemakers and mothers and cultivated a new perception of womanhood for the Indian woman. Socially, one of the greatest problems plaguing India today is the consequences of Americanization. INDIA - EDUCATION : INDIA - EDUCATION With over 300 universities and 15,600 colleges spewing out 2.5 million graduates each year. 1522 degree-granting engineering colleges in India with an annual student intake of 582,000 plus 1,244 polytechnics with an annual intake of 265,000. However, these institutions face shortage of faculty and concerns have been raised over the quality of education. INDIA - EDUCATION : INDIA - EDUCATION Only 15% of Indian students reach high school, and just 7% graduate. India's post-secondary high schools offer only enough seats for 7% of India's college-age population. 25% of teaching positions nationwide are vacant, and 57% of college professors lack either a master's or PhD degree. INDIA – PRIMARY EDUCATION : INDIA – PRIMARY EDUCATION 80% of all schools are government schools. However, because of poor quality of public education, 27% of Indian children are privately educated. Private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities A study of 188 government-run primary schools found that 59% of the schools had no drinking water and 89% had no toilets. INDIA – HIGHER EDUCATION : INDIA – HIGHER EDUCATION India's higher education system is the third largest in the world. Over 52 % students of India are studying in private higher educational institutes 14 million students are enrolled in 31,000 higher educational institutions across India Today’s education produces only money making machines. The moral values are getting eroded. Students are getting imparted theoretical knowledge based education. Slide 330: INDIA IS ON RACE ARE YOU PART OF IT? NATIONAL PLEDGE : NATIONAL PLEDGE General Pledge India is my country. All Indians are my brothers and sisters. I Love my country. I am proud of its rich and varied culture. I shall always strive to be worthy of it. I shall love and respect my parents, teachers and elders. To my country and my people I pledge my devotion National Integration Pledge I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation. I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional means. In their well being and prosperity alone lies my happiness. Slide 332: email@example.com 2012 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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