Slide 1: Corporate Governance “Satyam Vada Dharmam Chara” - Taittariya Upanishad “Forever speak the truth and follow the dharma” Governance Concept in ‘Ramayana’ : Governance Concept in ‘Ramayana’ To provide “the maximum happiness for the maximum number of people for the maximum period, based on the principles of Dharma – righteousness and moral values.” - Ayodhya Kand Corporate GovernanceWhat is Governance? : Corporate GovernanceWhat is Governance? Purpose of corporate governance is to have a demonstrable
IMPACT on a corporation’s FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. “Corporate Governance is the application of best management practices, Compliance of law in true letter and spirit and adherence to ethical standards for effective management and distribution of wealth and discharge of social responsibility for sustainable development of all stakeholders”.
The Institute of Company Secretaries of India Driving Forces of CG in India : Driving Forces of CG in India 1) Unethical Business Practices
Security Scams ---Harshad Mehtha Security Scam
Equity allotments at discount rates to the controlling groups
Disappearance of Companies (1993-94) - around 4,000
companies with 25,000 crores without starting business
Misdeed of Companies
Plantation, Sheep rearing, etc.
2) Impact of Globalization
Integration with Foreign Market
Foreign Investors expectations
New Business Opportunities --- IT & ITES, BPO etc.,
New Capital formation – FII, FDI
3) Impact of Privatisation
New structure of ownership
Multinational Companies Slide 5: Unlike South-East and East Asia, the corporate governance initiative in India was not triggered by any serious nationwide financial, banking and economic collapse
The initiative in India was initially driven by an industry association, the Confederation of Indian Industry
In December 1995, CII set up a task force to design a voluntary code of corporate governance.
The final draft of this code was widely circulated in 1997.
In April 1998, the code was released. It was called Desirable Corporate Governance: A Code.
Between 1998 and 2000, over 25 leading companies voluntarily followed the code: Bajaj Auto, Hindalco, Infosys, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Nicholas Piramal, Bharat Forge, BSES, HDFC, ICICI and many others Brief history of corporate governance in India Slide 6: Following CII’s initiative, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) set up a committee under Kumar Mangalam Birla to design a mandatory-cum-recommendatory code for listed companies
The Birla Committee Report was approved by SEBI in December 2000
Became mandatory for listed companies through the listing agreement, and implemented according to a rollout plan:
2000-01: All Group A companies of the BSE or those in the S&P CNX Nifty index… 80% of market cap.
2001-02: All companies with paid-up capital of Rs.100 million or more or net worth of Rs.250 million or more.
2002-03: All companies with paid-up capital of Rs.30 million or more Brief history of corporate governance in India Slide 7: Following CII and SEBI, the Department of Company Affairs (DCA) modified the Companies Act, 1956 to incorporate specific corporate governance provisions regarding independent directors and audit committees.
In 2001-02, certain accounting standards were modified to further improve financial disclosures. These were:
Disclosure of related party transactions.
Disclosure of segment income: revenues, profits and capital employed.
Deferred tax liabilities or assets.
Consolidation of accounts.
Initiatives are being taken to (i) account for ESOPs, (ii) further increase disclosures, and (iii) put in place systems that can further strengthen auditors’ independence. Brief history of corporate governance in India Slide 8: Board of Directors: frequency of meetings and composition
Board must meet at least four times a year, with a maximum time gap of four months between two successive meetings.
If the chairman of the Company is a non-executive then one-third of the board should consist of independent directors, and 50% otherwise.
‘Independent’ defined as those directors who, apart from receiving director’s remuneration do not have any other monetary relationship or transactions with the company, its promoters, management or subsidiaries, which in the view of the board may affect independence of judgment. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 9: Board of Directors: frequency of meetings and composition
The frequency of board meetings and board committee meetings, with their dates, must be fully disclosed to shareholders in the annual report of the company.
The attendance record of all directors in board meetings and board committee meetings must be fully disclosed to shareholders in the annual report of the company.
Full and detailed remuneration of each director (salary, sitting fees, commissions, stock options and perquisites) must be fully disclosed to shareholders in the annual report of the company.
Loans given to executive directors are capped (no loans permitted to non-executives), and must be fully disclosed to shareholders in the annual report of the company. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 10: Board of Directors: information that must be supplied
Annual, quarter, half year operating plans, budgets and updates.
Quarterly results of company and its business segments.
Minutes of the audit committee and other board committees.
Recruitment and remuneration of senior officers.
Materially important legal notices and claims, as well as any accidents, hazards, pollution issues and labor problems.
Any actual or expected default in financial obligations.
Details of joint ventures and collaborations.
Transactions involving payment towards goodwill, brand equity and intellectual property.
Any materially significant sale of business and investments.
Foreign currency and other risks and risk management.
Any regulatory non-compliance. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 11: Board of Directors: Audit Committee
Audit Committee is mandatory.
Must have minimum of three members, all non-executive directors, the majority of whom are independent.
Chairman must be an independent director, and must be present at the annual shareholders’ meeting to answer audit or finance related questions.
At least one member must be an expert in finance/accounts.
Must have at least three meetings per year, including one before finalisation of annual accounts.
Must meet with statutory auditors and internal auditors; have the powers to seek any financial, legal or operational information from the management; obtain outside legal or professional advice. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 12: Board of Directors: Audit Committee functions
Oversight of the company’s financial reporting process to ensure that the financial statement is correct, sufficient and credible
Appointment / removal of external auditor and fixing of audit fees
Reviewing with management the annual financial statements before submission to the board, focusing on:
Changes in accounting policies and practices
Major accounting entries
Qualifications in draft audit report
Significant adjustments arising out of audit
The going concern assumption
Compliance with accounting standards, with stock exchange and legal requirements
Any related party transactions Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 13: Board of Directors: Audit Committee functions
Adequacy of internal audit and internal control systems, through discussion with internal and statutory auditors as well as management.
Significant findings, follow-up and action taken reports.
Discussion with internal and statutory auditors about scope and design of audits.
Reviewing financial and legal risks and company’s risk management policies.
Examining reasons behind any materially significant default to creditors, bond-holders, suppliers and shareholders. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 14: Disclosures to shareholders in addition to balance sheet, P&L
and cash flow statement
Board composition (executive, non-exec, independent).
Qualifications and experience of directors.
Number of outside directorships held by each director (capped at director not being a member of more than 10 board-level committees, and Chairman of not more than 5).
Attendance record of directors.
Remuneration of directors.
Relationship (familial or pecuniary) with other directors.
Warning against insider trading, with procedures to prevent such acts.
Details of grievances of shareholders, and how quickly these were addressed.
Date, time and venue of annual general meeting of shareholders. Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 15: Disclosures to shareholders in addition to balance sheet, P&L and cash flow statement
Dates of book closure and dividend payment.
Details of shareholding pattern.
Name, address and contact details of registrars and/or share transfer agents.
Details about the share transfer system.
Stock price data over the reporting year, and how the company’s stock measured up to the index.
Financial effects of stock options.
Financial effects of any share buyback.
Financial effects of any warrants that are to be exercised.
Chapter reporting corporate governance practices Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Slide 16: Disclosures to shareholders in addition to balance sheet, P&L and
cash flow statement
Detailed chapter on Management Discussion and Analysis focusing on markets, operations, finances, accounts, risks, opportunities and threats, internal control systems.
Consolidated financial statement, incorporating accounts of all subsidiaries (over 50% shares held by reporting company).
Details of all significant related party transactions.
Detailed segment reporting (revenues, costs, operating profits and capital employed).
Deferred tax liabilities and assets and debit/credit in the P&L for the reporting year Mandated CG guidelines and disclosures Recent Misconducts: The List Goes On… : Recent Misconducts: The List Goes On… Computer Associates:
Artificially inflated revenue and improperly rewarded top executives.
Overstated revenues in 2000 and 2001 thru ‘round trip’ energy trades?
Transactions to cut taxes and artificially increase cash flow ?
Suspected improper accounting for vendor allowances
Adjusted fiscal 2000 revenues by $679 million.
Several more names, respected world-over
AOL Time Warner, Bristol-Myers, Elan,Halliburton, ImClone Systems, Microstrategy, Mirant, Network Associates, Reliant Resources, Vivendi Universal, Xcel Energy, Xerox. Corporate Mis-Governance : Corporate Mis-Governance Theories of Corporate Governance : Theories of Corporate Governance Anglo-American model
German model of CG
Japanese model of CG Slide 20: & Infosys Technologies: The Best among Indian Corporates : Infosys Technologies: The Best among Indian Corporates As per the Credit Lyonnais Securities Analysis (CLSA), the corporate governance ratings of the Software firms are higher than those of other Indian firms.
Infosys, based in Bangalore, is a publicly held, ISO 9001 certified company offering information technology consulting & software services.
The software offered include application development, E-Commerce & Internet Consulting, Software Maintenance.
Respected across the country, with very strong systems, high ethical values & a nurturing working atmosphere.
Net income of US 1,155 million and revenue of US 4,176 million.
At present having US 20.4 billion market capitalisation. Achievements : Achievements Voted as the Best Managed Company in Asia.
Biggest exporters of Software.
First to follow the US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles before going for Nasdaq listing in 1991.
Championed Corporate Governance in India. Narayana Murthy’s Global Strategy : Narayana Murthy’s Global Strategy Global Delivery Model – Producing where it is most cost effective to produce & selling where it is most profitable to sell.
Moving up the Value Chain – Getting involved in a software development project at the earliest stage of its life cycle.
PSPD Model – Predictability of Revenues, Sustainability of Revenues, Profitability, De-risking. Slide 24: Best Governed Companies ICSI National Award for Excellence in Corporate Governance Concluding Observations : Concluding Observations Code of CG should be redesigned to reflect international best practices
Stringent enforcement of Law
More effective coordination and cooperation between SEBI, DCA
CG mechanism should be flexible and suitable
Overall ethical values in all segments should be promoted for effective
accounting, auditing, disclosure and transparent system. Slide 26: WINNING
EMPLOYEES XCELLENCE GROWING
Debojit Roy – H66
Sritanu Das Mahapatra – H57
Abhisek Sahu – H3
Krishnakant Pandey – H25
Biswajit Ghosh – H12