Nepal in Brief

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Brief introduction to Nepal, a beautiful country in the world.

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NEPAL:

NEPAL Dr. Narayan Bahadur Basnet DPA, MPA, MBBS, PG Ped ., Ph.D. ( Ped ., Ped . Card.; Univ. of Tokyo) Children’s Medical Diagnosis Center (CMDC) Chabahil , Kathmandu, Nepal. Email: nbbasnet777@hotmail.com Web: http://www.cmdc.com.np Extracts of the lecture given to the Japanese professor and students of Ochanomizu University [first women’s university,1875, of Japan], Aug 31, 2014, Kathmandu, Nepal

Brief History of Nepal:

Brief History of Nepal Prehistorical Nature Gopal & Aheer Dynasty: BC Kirant Dynasty: Post- Gopal period Rule of Lichhavies : 4 th -5 th Century to 9 th Century Malla Dynasty & others: 10 th to 18 th century Shah Dynasty: 1799 BS to 2064 BS (18 th to beginning of 21 st century) Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal: 2064 BS (2008 AD) ~

King Prithvi Narayan Shah the Unifier (1723-1775 A.D.) and Gorkha Palace:

King Prithvi Narayan Shah the Unifier (1723-1775 A.D.) and Gorkha Palace

Basic Geographic Facts:

Basic Geographic Facts Located between INDIA & CHINA Total area: 147181 sq. km; i.e. 0.03% of the world Altitude ranges: 70 to 8848 m Land covered by forest (of total area): 36% Width (north to south): 193 km Length (east to west): 885 km Mountain Peaks > 8000m: Mts. Everest, Kanchanjunga , Lhotse, Yalung Kang, Makalu I, Choyu , Dhawalagiri I, Manaslu , Annapurna I Deepest gorge: Kali Gandaki Gorge or Andha Galchi is gorge of Kali Gandaki (or Gandaki river). Kali Gandaki gorge is the deepest gorge in the world; 5,571 m or 18,278 ft less than Annapurna I Birds: Till date, 867 species of birds have been recorded in Nepal, which is approximately 8% of total bird species of the world

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Source : http://www.beautifulworld.com/asia/nepal/mount-everest Highest Landmark on Earth: ‘ Sagarmatha ’ or ‘Mount Everest’ or ‘ Chomolungma ’

Nepal:

Nepal

Amadablam Himal (6812 m): One of most beautiful mountains in the world:

Amadablam Himal (6812 m): One of most beautiful mountains in the world

Kali Gandaki Gorge, Nepal:

Kali Gandaki Gorge, Nepal

Kathmandu valley from Changunarayan Temple:

Kathmandu valley from Changunarayan Temple

Degrading topography of Kathmandu valley and poorly managed natural resources of Nepal:

Degrading topography of Kathmandu valley and poorly managed natural resources of Nepal Ill managed Koshi River, Chatara , Sunsari , Nepal Gradual desertation of Kathmandu valley; encroachment of surrounding mountains

Beauty of Tarai, Nepal:

Beauty of Tarai , Nepal

Ethnobiology:

Ethnobiology Total caste/ethnic groups of Nepal : 125 Total languages spoken: 123 Countries where Nepali is spoken: Nepal, India, Bhutan, Myanmar, UK Mother tongue based on caste/ethnicity: Nepali (44.6%), Maithali (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Newar (3.2%), Magar (3.0%), Bajjika (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and others (12.0%) Religion: Hinduism (81.3%), Buddhism (9.0%), Islam (4.4%), Kirat (3.1%), Christianity (1.4%), Prakriti (0.5%) and others (0.3%)

All Castes/Ethnic Groups, 2011:

All Castes/Ethnic Groups, 2011 Caste/ethnic groups (125): Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai / Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar / Harijan /Ram 1.3%, Koiri / Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19% [ musahar , kurmi , sanyasi / dashnami , dhanuk , dusadh / pasawan / pasi , mallaha , kewat , kathbaniyan , brahmantarai , kalwar , kanu , kumal , gharti / bhujel , hajam / thakur , rajbansi , sherpa , dhobi, tatma / tatwa , lohar , khatwe , sudhi , danuwar , haluwai , majhi , baraee , bin, nuniya , chepang / praja , sonar, kumhar , sunuwar , bantar / sardar , kahar , satar / santhal , marwadi , kayastha , rajput , badi , jhangad / dhagar , gangai , lodh , badhaee , thami , kulung , bangali , gaderi / bhedhar , dhimal , yakkha , ghale,tajpuriya , khawas , darai , mali , dhuniya , pahari , rajdhob , bhote , dom , thakali , kori , chhantyal / chhantel , hyolmo , bote , rajbhar , brahmu / baramo , punjabi / shikh , nachhiring , yamphu , gaine , chamling , aathpariya , jirel , dura , sarbaria , meche , bantaba , raji , dolpo , halkhor , byasi / sauka , amat , thulung , lepcha , pattharkatta / kushwadiya , mewahang , bahing , natuwa , hayu , dhankari / kharikar , lhopa , munda , dev, dhandi , kamar , kisan , sampang , koche , lhomi , khaling , topkegola , chidimar , walung , loharung , kalar , raute , nurag , kusunda , & all others].

Distribution of first ten castes/ethnic groups, 2011:

Distribution of first ten castes/ethnic groups, 2011

Mother tongue, 2011:

Mother tongue, 2011 Mother tongue (123): Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4% [ Bantawa , rajbanshi , sherpa , hindi , chamling , santhali , chepang , danuwar , uranw / urau , sunuwar , bangla , rajsthani , majhi , thami , kulung , dhimal , angika , yakkha , thulung , sampang , bhujel , darai , khaling , kumal , thakali , chhantyal , sign language, tibetan , dumi , jirel , wambule , puma, hyolmo / yholmo , nachhiring , dura,meche , pahari , lapcha , bote , bahing , koyee , raji , hayu / vayu , byansi , yamphu / yamphe , ghale , khariya , chhiling , lohorung , punjabi , chinese , english , mewahang , sanskrit , kaike , khamchi ( raute ), kisan , musalman , baram , tilung , jero / jerung , dungmali , oriya , lingkhim , kusunda , sindhi , koche , hariyanwi , magahi , sam , kurmali , kagate,dzonkha , kuki , chhintang , mizo , nagamese , lhomi , assami , sadhani , rai , tajpuriya , khash , athpariya , ganagai , achhami , kham , malpande , dhuleli , arabi , spanish , russian , doteli , belhare , phangduwali , waling/ walung , surel , baitadeli , bankariya , bajhangi , french , lhopa , dolpali , jumli , dailekhi , sonaha , dadeldhuri , bajureli , darchuleli , manange , gadhawali ], unspecified 0.2%

Demographic profile:

Demographic profile First population census was conducted in 1911 A.D. (1968 B.S.). However, census conducted in 1952/54 is considered to be the first modern census of Nepal. According to 1911 census population of Nepal was 5,638,749 Population on the census day (June 22, 2011) stands at 26,494,504 indicating population growth rate of 1.35 per annum Sex ratio (number of males per 100 females): 94.2, 2011 Population density: 180 per sq km Fastest decadal population growth rate in Kathmandu district (61.23 %), and least in Manang (-31.80 %) Working age population (15 to 59 years): approx 57% Total absent population (absent in household):1921494 Urban population living in 58 municipalities: 17.07%

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Age distribution of population, 2011 Male: 12849041, Female: 13645463; Total: 26494504

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Lord Buddha Pashupatinath Swayambhunath Religious Harmony

Education:

Education Pre-school education: Pre-school learning (kindergarten, Montessori or other form of pre-school education) does not yet form an integral part of the formal school education system School education    (a) Primary level    (b) Middle school/Lower secondary level    (c) High school/ Secondary level (S.L.C.)    (d) 10+2/ Higher secondary level Higher Education      (a) Bachelor's/Undergraduate level      (b) Master's level/Graduate/Degree level      (c) Post graduate, M. Phil. level      (d) Ph.D., Doctoral level

Education System:

Education System Level Class/Grade Duration Pupil's Age Certifying exams Core Subjects Primary I to V 5 Yrs 5(+)-10(+) District level primary school examination at end of class V Nepali, English, Math, Social Studies, Science Middle / Lower Secondary VI to VIII 3 Yrs. 10(+) -13(+) Dist. level lower secondary exam at end of class VII Nepali, English, Math. Social Studies, Science, Health and Environment High School/ Secondary IX&X 2Yrs. 13(+)-15(+) School Leaving certificate (SLC) exam at end of class X Nepali, English. Math, Social Studies, Science, Health and Environment Higher Secondary 10+2 XI to XII 2Yrs. 15(+)-17(+) HSEB exams on completion of XI and XII English. Nepali and 3 Core subjects of the chosen stream.

Educational Status, 2011:

Educational Status, 2011 % of English speakers: 46.49% [ List of countries by English-speaking population, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_English-speaking_population ; 10 August 2014 ] Overall literacy rate (of population aged 5 years and above): 65.9 (%) Male literacy rate, 75.1% compared to female literacy rate, 57.4% Highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3 %) and lowest in Rautahat (41.7%)

Literacy and educational attainment by first ten castes/ethnic groups, 1991:

Literacy and educational attainment by first ten castes/ethnic groups, 1991 Caste/Ethnicity Population, %, 1991 (2011) Literacy Rate 1991 Graduate and above (% of total), 1991 Chhetri 16.1 (16.6) 45.0 12.4 Brahman - Hill 12.9 (12.2) 61.6 34.1 Magar 7.2 (7.1) 39.3 0.9 Tharu 6.5 (6.6) 27.7 0.9 Tamang 5.5 (5.8) 27.8 0.7 Newar 5.6 (5.0) 60.4 23.7 Kami 5.2 (4.8) 26.0 0.3 Musalman 3.5 (4.4) 22.2 1.5 Yadav 4.1 (4.0) 26.3 2.4 Rai 2.8 (2.3) 44.5 1.1

Disability, 2011:

Disability, 2011 Approximately two percent (1.94%; 513,321) of total population reported to have some kind of disability Physical disability constitutes 36.3% of population with disability followed by Blindness/Low Vision (18.5%), Deaf/Hard to hearing (15.4%), Speech problem (11.5%), Multiple Disability (7.5%), Mental Disability (6%), Intellectual Disability (2.9%) and Deaf-Blind (1.8%)

Nepal Economy Profile, 2013 http://www.indexmundi.com/nepal/economy_profile.html :

Nepal Economy Profile, 2013 http://www.indexmundi.com/nepal/economy_profile.html GDP (purchasing power parity): $41.22 billion (2012 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (2012 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,300 (2012 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 38.1% , industries: 15.3%, services: 46.6% (2012 est.) Population below poverty line: 25.2% (2011 est.) Agriculture - products: pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops, milk, water buffalo meat Industries: tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills, cigarettes, cement and brick production Export commodities: clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, pashmina , jute goods [Partners: India 55.7%, US 10.1%, Germany 4.4% (2012)] Import commodities : petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine [Partners: India 51%, China 34.5% (2012)] Labor force : 18 million note: severe lack of skilled labor (2009 est.) Labor force - by occupation : Agriculture: 75% , Industries: 7% , Services: 18% (2010 est.) Source: CIA World Factbook : Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of February 21, 2013.

Basic Physical Facilities, 2011:

Basic Physical Facilities, 2011 Households: Total number of households in country is 5,427,302 with 5,423,297 individual households and 4,005 institutional households (barracks, hostels, monasteries etc) Source of drinking water (of total household), tap/pipe water: 47.78% Cooking fuel (of total household), firewood: 64% Source of lighting (of total household), electricity: 67.26% Absence of toilet in house (of total household): 38.17% Household having mobile phone: 64.63% Internet penetration rate (no. of people with internet access: 32.78% [Mid-June, 2014]

Health and Welfare:

Health and Welfare No universal insurance coverage Curative Care: Traditional healers ( dhami , jhakris , jharfuke etc.); Ayurvedic care ( Baidhyas , Kabiraj etc.); Homeopathic (homeopathic healers); Modern medical care (health workers of various grades, medical doctors, specialists and superspecialists ); Referral to other countries (India, Thailand, Singapore, UK, USA etc.) Preventive Care: Government projects supported by various international agencies: Immunization (EPI), Mobile Camps Promotive Care: Health clubs (private). Physical check up (clinics, polyclinics, specialized hospitals) Basic unit of care: Family, neighbors, private, public institutions, international support

Health Indicators, 2011:

Health Indicators, 2011 Crude birth rate (CBR): 24.3 Crude death rate (CDR): 8.3 Infant mortality rate (IMR): 46 Total fertility rate (TFR): 2.6 Average life expectancy at birth, 2006 (years): 64.1[male 63.6%, female 64.5%] Doctors (registered in Nepal medical council, NMC): 12571 Total pediatricians (NEPAS, 2013): 256

Preventive Health Care:

Preventive Health Care Birth and delivery care Immunization Prophylaxis of common illnesses such as malaria, filariasis , leprosy, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS Basic curative/treatment services Family planning services

Free Medical Camp in Chatara, East Nepal:

Free Medical Camp in Chatara , East Nepal

Women:

Women Women and girls face significant discrimination Many girls are not allowed to attend school or finish their education Child marriages are yet wide spread and girls are often married to much older men, have little chance to create their own future. Thirty percent of girls aged between 15 and 19 are married while 40% of Nepali women are married before they turn 18, according to national statistics Domestic violence: 64% of Nepalese women suffered from domestic violence, 2012 ( worecnepal ) Sexual abuse is also a serious issue. Three hundred forty three rape cases and 58 cases of attempted rape were registered in 2013/14 ( National Campaign against Rape ). Most cases are not registered and there is rarely any effective investigation

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6. It requires many months to obtain a divorce through court if women claim any property or custody of offspring. Social stigma associated with divorce is severe 7. Although, child labor is illegal, an estimated 1.6 million children aged between 5 to 17 years are working. Approximately three-quarters of these children are under 14 years, and most are girls Only 20% of women have some form of legal ownership rights over land. Deprivation of land rights is synonymous with poverty and inequality. In 2012 the Government changed the law and at present, there is a 30% discount on registration fee when land is registered under a woman’s name Persecution and killing of women accused of practicing witchcraft is yet prevalent Source: The Women’s Foundation Nepal http://www.womenepal.org/about-us/about-us/ Women, contd.

Children:

Children Population <14 has been considered as Children and comprises of 32.92% of total population Much improvement in neonatal morbidity and mortality An increasing tendency of attending kindergarten or preprimary school prior to primary school Health Care: Children <14 years are authorized to obtain curative care in government health institutions Legal age to obtain citizenship certificate: 16 years Legal age to vote: 18 years A tendency to opt for one-child norm

Children Population, 2011:

Children Population, 2011 Total population: 26494504 [M:12849041, F:13645463] Children <14 years: 8722254 [M:4445820, F:4276434] [32.92%]

Problems found in Children:

Problems found in Children Infectious diseases Non-infectious diseases Child raising problems Street children Adoption Children affected by conflict Children affected by immigration Effect of pollution on children Poverty and health problems: a vicious cycle

Research:

Research Community-based - Government collaboration - Universities Private institutions NGOs/INGOs

COOPERATIVES: Example, Durga Bhawani Savings & Credit Cooperative Society Ltd. [Durga Bhawani SACCOS]:

COOPERATIVES: Example, Durga Bhawani Savings & Credit Cooperative Society Ltd. [ Durga Bhawani SACCOS] There are a total number of 31,177 cooperatives, 2014 There are 12,916 Savings and Credit Cooperatives, 2013. Cooperatives hold Rs 163 billions Durga Bhawani SACCOS was e stablished in 1998 ( Asoj 05, 2055 BS) under Cooperative Act of Nepal Total members: 2619, women 45.13% Total deposit by all members Rs. 414 millions including share capital Total loan members 485 and total loan amount Rs. 322.61 millions Holds ownership of land and building in Dhumbarahi , Ktm

Principles of Savings & Credit Cooperative Union:

Principles of Savings & Credit Cooperative Union A. Democratic Structure Open and voluntary membership Democratic control Non-Discrimination B. Services to Members Service to member Distribution to members Building financial stability C. Social Goals On-going education Cooperation among cooperatives Social responsibility

Making Nepal environmentally healthy place to live:

Making Nepal environmentally healthy place to live Best methods to create a healthy Nepal : Preserve Kathmandu by complete cessation of excavating sands, stones, mud, rocks etc, of all surrounding hills and mountains as well as save forest and plant trees Implementation of strict regulations, education on trees as well as vigorous tree plantation programs, for example each house should have at least one live tree

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For High possibility of tourism Ample water resource Hard-working people Against Poorly managed resources Illiteracy, poor skills Poor application of science & technology in daily life Difficulties Lack of balanced use of extremely diverse resources, e.g. Topography Population of various caste/ethnic groups Culture Neighbors: located between two nations with politically diverse ideologies Nepal is NOT a poor country but there is a problem of lack of balanced use of resources

Conclusion:

Conclusion Multi-caste/ethnic representation in all decision-making institutions; scientific education, skill development and utilization as well as multicultural co-existence form a triad in which a beautiful Nepal and the development, progress and prosperity of all Nepalese is based on.

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Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Dr. Sangeeta Baral Basnet , B.Sc., MBBS, Ph.D. for her immense help in editing this work References Statistical pocket book of Nepal 2012. Government of Nepal National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal. National population and housing census 2011 (National Report). Volume 01, NPHC 2011. Government of Nepal National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, Nepal, November, 2012. http://cbs.gov.np/ Basnet NB (compiled, edited & written). Nepal at the dawn of 21st century: General, health & medical information. Department of Pediatrics (Reproductive, Developmental, and Aging Science), Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo- ku , Tokyo 113-8655, Japan; 2001. [ISBN 99933-620-0-X]. Gurung H. Nepal: Social demography and expressions. New Era, Kathmandu, Nepal, 1998. CBS, Nepal Population Census, 1991, vol. 1, part VII, Table 25, 26. Rutherford FJ, Ahlgren A. Science for all Americans. (2 edition). Oxford University Press Inc., New York, USA, 1991. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

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