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4 - 1 Learning: Theories and Program Design

ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to: : 

4 - 2 ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the five types of learner outcomes. Explain the implications of learning theory for instructional design. Incorporate adult learning theory into the design of a training program. Describe how learners receive, process, store, retrieve, and act upon information. Be able to choose and prepare a training site.

Objectives (continued) : 

4 - 3 Objectives (continued) Discuss the internal conditions (within the learner) and external conditions (learning environment) necessary for the trainee to learn each type of capability. Explain the four components of program design: Course parameters Objectives Lesson overview Detailed lesson plan

Introduction : 

4 - 4 Introduction Training at the Culinary Institute of America (CIA) is designed to teach aspiring chefs how to prepare food (knowledge) as well as develop the necessary motor skills (e.g., chopping onions). These are types of learning outcomes. CIA’s training programs illustrate several conditions necessary for learning to occur: Opportunities to learn by observing an expert Practicing Receiving feedback

Introduction (continued) : 

4 - 5 Introduction (continued) As CIA training illustrates, for learning to occur it is important to identify what is to be learned. Identify the learning outcomes. Understanding learning outcomes is crucial because they influence the characteristics of the training environment that are necessary for learning to occur. The design of the training program is also important for learning to occur.

What Is Learning? : 

4 - 6 What Is Learning? Learning is a relatively permanent change in human capabilities that is not a result of growth processes. These capabilities are related to specific learning outcomes.

Learning Outcomes : 

4 - 7 Learning Outcomes Verbal information Includes names or labels, facts, and bodies of knowledge Includes specialized knowledge employees need in their jobs Intellectual skills Include concepts and rules These are critical to solve problems, serve customers, and create products

Learning Outcomes (continued) : 

4 - 8 Learning Outcomes (continued) Motor skills Include coordination of physical movements Attitudes Combination of beliefs and feeling that pre-dispose a person to behave a certain way Important work-related attitudes include job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, and job involvement Cognitive strategies Regulate the process of learning

Learning Theories : 

4 - 9 Learning Theories Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories Need Theories Expectancy Theory Adult Learning Theory Information Processing Theory

Reinforcement Theory : 

4 - 10 Reinforcement Theory Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors. Positive reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Extinction Punishment

Reinforcement Theory (continued) : 

4 - 11 Reinforcement Theory (continued) From a training perspective, it suggests that for learners to acquire knowledge, change behavior, or modify skills, the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive )and negative). Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors.

Schedules of Reinforcement : 

4 - 12 Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule Continuous reinforcement Variable-ratio schedule Interval Schedules Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule

Social Learning Theory : 

4 - 13 Social Learning Theory Emphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable. Recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated. The models’ behavior or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer.

Social Learning Theory (continued) : 

4 - 14 Social Learning Theory (continued) Learning new skills or behavior comes from: directly experiencing the consequences of using behavior or skills, or the process of of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior Learning is also influenced by a person’s self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a person’s judgment about whether she can successfully learn knowledge and skills.

Processes of Social Learning Theory : 

4 - 15 Processes of Social Learning Theory Match Modeled Performance Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivational Processes Model Stimuli Trainee Characteristics Coding Organization Rehearsal Physical Capability Accuracy Feedback Reinforcement

Goal Theories : 

4 - 16 Goal Theories Goal setting theory assumes behavior results from a person’s conscious goals and intentions. Goals influence behavior by directing energy and attention, sustaining effort over time, and motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment. Research suggests that specific challenging goals have been shown to lead to high performance only if people are committed to the goal.

Goal Theories (continued) : 

4 - 17 Goal Theories (continued) Goal setting theory is used in training program design. It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives. The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans.

Need Theories : 

4 - 18 Need Theories Need theories help explain the value that a person places on certain outcomes. Need theories suggest that to motivate learning: trainers should identify trainees’ needs, and communicate how training program content relates to fulfilling these needs If the basic needs of trainees are not met, they are unlikely to be motivated to learn.

Expectancy Theory : 

4 - 19 Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory suggests that a person’s behavior is based on three factors: Expectancy Instrumentality Valance

Expectancy Theory (continued) : 

4 - 20 Expectancy Theory (continued) Expectancy theory suggests that learning is most likely to occur when employees believe: They can learn the content of the program (expectancy) Learning is linked to outcomes such as better job performance, a salary increase, or peer recognition (instrumentality) Employees value these outcomes

Expectancy Theory of Motivation : 

4 - 21 Expectancy Theory of Motivation X X = Effort Expectancy Instrumentality Valance Effort Performance Performance Outcome Value of Outcome Does Trainee Have Ability to Learn? Does Trainee Believe He Can Learn? Does Trainee Believe Training Outcomes Promised Will Be Delivered? Are Outcomes Related to Training Valued?

Adult Learning Theory : 

4 - 22 Adult Learning Theory Adult learning theory was developed out of a need for a specific theory of how adults learn. It is based on several assumptions: Adults have the need to know why they are learning something. Adults have a need to be self-directed. Adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation. Adults enter into a learning experience with a problem-centered approach to learning. Adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.

Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training: : 

4 - 23 Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training:

Information Processing Theory : 

4 - 24 Information Processing Theory These theories give more emphasis to the internal processes that occur when training content is learned and retained. This information can come from another person or the learner’s own observation of the results of his action. If the evaluation of the response is positive, this provides reinforcement that the behavior is desirable to be stored in long-term memory for use in similar situations.

The Learning Process : 

4 - 25 The Learning Process This material asks three questions: What are the physical and mental processes involved in learning? How does learning occur? Do trainees have different learning styles?

The Learning Process:Mental and Physical Processes : 

4 - 26 The Learning Process:Mental and Physical Processes LEARNING Expectancy Perception Working Storage Semantic Encoding Long –Term Storage Retrieval Generalizing Gratifying

The Learning Process:Learning Styles : 

4 - 27 The Learning Process:Learning Styles Diverger Concrete experience Reflective observation Assimilator Abstract conceptualization Reflective observation Converger Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation Accommodator Concrete experience Active experimentation

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: : 

4 - 28 Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: Employees need to know why they should learn. Employees need meaningful training content. Employees need opportunities to practice. Employees need to commit training content to memory.

Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (continued) : 

4 - 29 Implications of the Learning Process for Instruction: (continued) Employees need feedback. Employees learn through: Observation Experience Interacting with others Employees need the training program to be properly coordinated and arranged.

Training Objectives : 

4 - 30 Training Objectives Employees learn best when they understand the objective of the training program. The objective refers to to the purpose and expected outcome of training activities. Training objectives based on the training needs analysis help employees understand why they need the training. Objectives are useful for identifying the types of training outcomes that should be measured to evaluate a training program’s effectiveness.

A training objective has three components: : 

4 - 31 A training objective has three components: A statement of what the employee is expected to do (performance or outcome). A statement of the quality or level of performance that is acceptable (criterion). A statement of the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform the desired outcome (conditions).

Training administration involves: : 

4 - 32 Training administration involves: Communicating courses and programs to employees Enrolling employees in courses and programs Preparing and processing any pre-training materials such as readings or tests Preparing materials that will be used in instruction Arranging for the training facility and room Testing equipment that will be used in instruction

Training administration involves: (continued) : 

4 - 33 Training administration involves: (continued) Having backup equipment should equipment fail Providing support during instruction Distributing evaluation materials Facilitating communications between trainer and trainees during and after training Recording course completion in the trainees’ records or personnel files

How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and Instruction Conducive to Learning: : 

4 - 34 How Trainers Can Make the Training Site and Instruction Conducive to Learning: Creating A Learning Setting Preparation Classroom Management Engaging Trainees Managing Group Dynamics

Program Design : 

4 - 35 Program Design Course Parameters Objectives Detailed Lesson Plan Lesson Plan Overview

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