kingdom fungi

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By prof. Dr. M.Kumar

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KINGDOM FUNGI:

KINGDOM FUNGI Dr. M. Kumar , Assistant Professor, Madras Christian College

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WHAT ARE FUNGI? Fungi are NOT plants True root, stem, flower, seed and leaves absent Vascular system absent Stored food products are mainly glycogen and fats Alexopoulos (1962) used the term fungus to “include nucleated, spore bearing, non- chlorophyllous organisms which reproduce sexually and asexually, and whose usually filamentous, branched somatic structures are typically surrounded by cell walls containing fungal cellulose or chitin or both”. They are achlorophyllous , heterotrophic, eukaryotic and spore bearing organisms with definite cell wall made up of chitin and/or other complex organic molecules.

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF FUNGI:

GENERAL CHARACTERS OF FUNGI Heterotrophic mode of nutrition Lack chlorophyll, chloroplast and photosynthetic mechanism Plant body is thalloid, with unicellular or multicellular organisation containing fine tubular hyphae . Hyphae are often coenocytic

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True root, stem, flower, seed and leaves absent Vascular system absent Fungal hyphae grow at their tips and have cell walls made up of fungal cellulose Stored food products are mainly glycogen and fats Plant body non-motile. Mobility restricted only to free reproductive cells in certain cases, by means of flagella

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Cell contains true membrane bound nuclei, mitochondria, lomasomes, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum etc They are found in aquatic or moist terrestrial substrata containing plenty of organic matter Reproduction occurs mostly by asexual or sexual methods. Sex organs are unicellular or coenocytic

ULTRA STRUCTURE OF FUNGAL CELL:

ULTRA STRUCTURE OF FUNGAL CELL Eukaryotic cell with a rigid cell wall Cell wall bound by plasma membrane Plasma membrane is a tri-partite structure composed of two electron dense regions made of phospholipid bilayer separated by a transparent region Proteins & sterols form a large part of cell membrane

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Cytoplasm contains nucleus, mitochondria, microbodies, golgi bodies, ribosomes, vacoules, vesicles, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum & microtubules Specialised organelles like lomasomes & plasmalemmasomes seen Plasmalemmasome – The various membrane configurations which are external to the plasmalemma, often in a pocket projecting into the cytoplasm and less embedded in the wall material

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Lomasome – Membraneous vesicular material embedded in the wall external to the line of the plasmalemma Nucleus – small in size, have nuclear envelope, nucleolus & chromatin. Double layered nuclear envelope with numerous pores or annuli seen. Pores help in exchange of materials between nucleus & cytoplasm Ribosomes – proteinaceous bodies with high RNA content. Concerned with protein synthesis. Polysomes are also seen

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Cytoplasmic microtubules – seen everywhere except at hyphal tip. Associated with cytoplasmic movement & maintainance of cell shape Vacoule – provide turgour for cell growth & maintainance of cell shape Chief storage products are glycogen & lipid – present as granules

Fungal Ecology:

Saprobes Decomposers Mostly of plants, some animals Parasites Harm host Mostly on plants, some animals Mutualists Symbiotic -Lichens Mycorrhizal Others Fungal Ecology

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WHAT IS THE STUDY OF FUNGI? Mycology: Study of fungi Mykos - mushroom Logos - discourse Pier’ Antonio Micheli - Founder of mycology (Nova plantarum genera) Elias Fries - Linnaeus of mycology

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WHY STUDY FUNGI? Recycling – degradation Food, timber and textiles – affected 1000’s of diseases of plants Important in brewing, baking, cheese, wine, etc. Antibiotics, drugs and vitamins In research – physiology, genetics, microbiology and biochemistry.

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VEGETATIVE BODY Fungi exhibit great variation in their body types Non- mycelial type Mycelial type Modified mycelium Rhizomorph Sclerotia Appresorium Haustorium stroma

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NON-MYCELIAL TYPES In some lower fungi the vegetative phase is represented by free living, naked, multinucleate, acellular , protoplasmic mass called the plasmodium which shows amoeboid movements ( Eg : Myxomycetes , Plasmodiophora ) or single cellular yeast like ( eg . Saccharomyces ). MYCELIAL FUNGI In most fungi, hyphae (long fine branched filamentous structure) compose the units of body structure which originate by germination of spores. A tangled and interwoven mass of hyphae is called mycelium . It is mat-like in appearance. The hyphae may be septate or aseptate . The aseptate hypha are coenocytic . Septate hypha shows uninucleate , binucleate or multinucleate conditions.

Vegetative structure - mycelial:

Vegetative structure - mycelial Hyphae - long fine branched filaments Mycelia - mass of more or less loosely interwoven hyphae constituting the vegetative body of most of the fungi have a huge surface area mycelium germinating spore Hyphae

Vegetative structure - mycelial:

Coenocytic – unicellular & multinucleate condition of hyphae eg . Phycomycetes and zygomycetes Septate – uninucleate or binucleate condition Vegetative structure - mycelial

General fungal traits:

General fungal traits Some hyphae lack crosswalls (coenocytic hyphae) Some hyphae have crosswalls ( septate hyphae )

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MODIFIED MYCELIAL TYPES In some cases, a large number of hyphae grow together, some intertwine or lie parallel to each other forming a compact tissue like texture called plectenchyma . If the hyphae do not fuse with each other and maintain their individuality, it is called prosenchyma . When the hyphae fuse together and loose their individuality to form a mass, it is called pseudoparenchyma .

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RHIZOMORPH Mycelium organised as a compact root like body by parallel or longitudanal aggregation of hyphae . Dark brown in colour , Profusely branched, Formed under unfavourable condition, Seen in wood destroying fungi. SCLEROTIA Hard, compact resting bodies formed by aggregation of hyphae Formed under unfavourable conditions, Outer tissue - compact, dark coloured and rough due to thick walled resistant hyphae , Inner tissue - soft, thin walled hyphae , less compactly woven, store organic food products, For perennation & vegetative propagation. Eg : Claviceps purpurea STROMA Compact psuedoparenchymatous mass of hyphae with numerous fruiting bodies. Fruiting zones are called pycnidia , sporodochia , hymenia and acervuli in which spore bearing sporophores are arranged in particular manner, Sporophore bearing sporangia is called as sporangiophore . Eg : Peronospora , Mucor , Phytophthora . HAUSTORIUM Intercellular mycelium which sends out lateral outgrowths penetrate host cells and come in direct contact with protoplasm are called haustoria . Absorb these organic nutrient materials for parasitic mycelium Eg : Albugo (globular), Puccinia (fingerlike projection) Cont…

Hyphae:

Hyphae Tubular Hard wall of chitin Crosswalls may form compartments ( ± cells) Multinucleate Grow at tips

General fungal traits:

General fungal traits Most cells are threadlike and tubular (hyphae) Mass of hyphae called mycelium.

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mycelium fruiting bodies both are composed of hyphae

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NUTRITION Fungi lack plastids & are completely heterotrophic. On the basis of obtaining nutrients fungi are of following types: Biotrophs – obtain nutrients slowly from living host tissues without killing them. They secrete chemicals that cause host cell membrane to become permeable to sugars or aminoacids . Fungus absorbs these nutrients with the help of haustoria . Some fungi parasitize on mycelia of other fungi called as biotrophic mycoparasites . Necrotrophs – attack living hosts & kill the host cell in the course of parasitism. Secrete toxins that kill host cells by damaging plasma membrane. Necrotrophic mycoparasites parasitize other fungi & kill them .

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Because of the cell wall, hydrostatic pressure can build up inside the hyphae . This allows them to exert force, which is how they penetrate living tissues. A special part of a hypha forms, called as appresorium . It has a thick cell wall (to resist pressure) around all but the side facing the host. Hydrostatic pressure builds up, and an outgrowth of the appresorium penetrates the host’s surface layer. The fungus can then grow inside and feed on the host. Appresorium

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Haustoria – ( Haustor – drinker/sucker) enlargement of Lateral branches of hyphae knob like ( Albugo ), sac like ( Peronospora parasitica ) or branched filamentous ( Peronospora ), branched elongated ( Erysiphe ) absorptive structure. Found in obligate parasitic fungi.

Heterotrophic by Absorption:

Heterotrophic by Absorption Fungi get carbon from organic sources Hyphal tips release enzymes Enzymatic breakdown of substrate Products diffuse back into hyphae Enzymes Enzymatic breakdown Products Product diffuses back into hypha and is used Nucleus hangs back and “directs” Saprotrophs attack dead organic matter by secreting digestive enzymes. Enzymes convert substrate polymers into monomers for absorption

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Mutualistic Symbionts – fungi form partnerships with other organisms and get benefitted nutritionally. Eg: Lichens (fungi & algae) and mycorrhiza (fungi & roots of vascular plants)

REPRODUCTION:

REPRODUCTION Vegetative Asexual Sexual Holocarpic – Entire thallus become reproductive body eg . Synchytrium Eucarpic – Part of the thallus become reproductive body eg . majority of fungi

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Asexual- ( imperfect stage ) spores formed by mitosis some fungi exhibit only asexual reproduction (imperfect fungi) Sexual- ( perfect stage ) gametes are produced in the gametangia zygotic meiosis, with modifications…. a FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

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Spores/reproductive cells Sexual Asexual Formed : Directly on hyphae Inside sporangia Fruiting bodies Amanita fruiting body Pilobolus sporangia Penicillium hyphae FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

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sexual spore terms vary asexual spores = conidia , formed on conidiophores a FUNGAL REPRODUCTION

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VEGETATIVE SPORES ( Thallospore – thallus develops into spore like bodies ) A rthrospores – Thick walled rectangular cells, segmented from hyphae . M ycelium fragments simultaneously into a large number of successively arranged segments or cells which round off into thin walled oidia or oidiospores or arthrospores . Produced when adequate quantity of sugars are present. Eg . Geotrichum B lastospores – simple buds formed from the hyphae eg . Saccharomyces , Candida C hlamydospores – Thick walled rounded resting cells of the hyphae (terminal, lateral and intercalary). Eg . Ustilago Fragmentation – Hyphae break into small fragments & each fragment develop into new mycelium. In lichens, soredia & isidia type vegetative bodies are formed. Fission – Vegetative cell divide without a mitotic spindle apparatus. Cytoplasm divide by a constriction or transverse wall or both. Budding – Parent cell buds out smaller vegetative outgrowth which later separates to grow into a new individual. Some remain attached to form psuedomycelium . Perennating bodies – Formed from vegetative mycelium under unfavourable conditions. Sclerotia & rhizomorphs are such structures.

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Asexual reproduction Pleomorphic fungus – that produces several distinct types of spores in its complete life cycle Sporophores / Phialospores produce exogenous spores by exogenous budding Sporangiophore produces endogenous spores by endogenous free cell division Zoospores – spores with flagella inside the sporangia. Aplanopores – spores without flagella and inside the sporangia Conidiophore / conidia – spores not in a sac

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SPORANGIOSPORES

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Pycnidium – Complex structure, flask shaped cavities in mycelial fructification. conidiophore arranged parallely produce pycniospores that are shed through ostiole . May also act as spermatia (male gametes) Eg : Puccinia , Phoma , Septaria . Sporodochia – Cushion shaped loose mass of conidiophores arises from a superficial mass of aggregated hyphae on mycelial stroma . Eg . Nectaria , Tubercularia . Synnemata – conidiophores aggregate/cement together to form parallel fascicles of closely appressed hyphae like structure called synnemata at the tip of which conidia are produced. It is otherwise called as Coremium . Eg : Arthrobotryum . Podosporium Acervulus – Pseudoparenchymatous aggregation of hyphae which develop beneath the integument or host plant eg . Colletotrichum Aecidia – cup shaped structure on diploid fungal fruiting body. Binucleate aeciospores are produced from conidiophores Eg : Puccinia Teleutosorus & Uredosorus – single celled uredospore or biceled teleutospore produced by sporophores in a sorus Eg : Puccinia Phialospores – conidia cut off from conidiophores called phialides or sterigmata Eg : Pencillium , Aspergillus

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CONIDIOSPORES

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SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Gametes formed in special sexual cells called gametangia Gametes similar in morphology and physiology & no distinction of sexes are called isogametes and they fuse to produce zygospores Dissimilar gametes are called heterogametes . Male gamete called antherozoid borne on antheridium & female gamete called ovum borne on Oogonium fuse to form Oospore . Fertilization – plasmogamy may or may not be followed by karyogamy Male and female gametangia on individual mycelium – monoecious or homothallic &on separate mycelia – dioecious or heterothallic Various types of sexuality behaviours are: Amphimixis – union of two spatially separated sexual cells and their nuclei by copulation between them Automixis – self fertilisation between two closely related sexual cells or nuclei

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Sexual apparatus in fungi Planogametic copulation – two naked gametes , one or both being motile, fuse while their gametangia remain separate. Motile gametes are called planogametes Gametangial contact – male gametes are transferred to the female gametangium through a pore at contact point or through fertilisation tube Gametangial copulation – two gametangia of opposite sexes come in contact and their contents fuse with each other forming zygospore Spermatization – spermatia carried passively to female gametangia where they attach on trichogyne part. Dissolution of wall occurs through which male protoplast passes to female gametangia Somatogamy – fusion of somatic hyphae /vegetative hyphae by fusion of nuclei of opposite sexes where sex organs are reduced or absent Automixis – copulation between cells of same parent mycelium ie ., self fertilisation .

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Zygotic Meiosis – zygote directly undergoes meiosis meiosis fertilization 1N 2N 2N (zygote) gametes 1N 1N mitosis

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zygotic meiosis, with modifications…. plasmogamy cells fuse their plasma membranes results in dikaryotic cells if nuclei do not fuse (N+N instead of true diploid) karyogamy nuclei fuse, making a true diploid (2N) this makes the zygote that undergoes meiosis Fungal reproduction

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HOMOTHALLISM Blakeslee (1904) In many fungi there is no or scanty control over the type of nuclei fuse. Thus self fertilization occurs as in Rhizopus sexualis . This situation in each individual has the competence to elobrate sexual organs and complete the sexual cycle in isolation is homothallism . Predominent in lower fungi, common in Ascomycetes and rare in Basidiomycetes . It represent the primitive condition from which heterothallism evolved. Every thallus is self sterile and self compatible. Sexual reproduction takes place in a colony derived from single spore. Eg . Allomyces , Puccinia

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Condition where two complementary mating types needed for sexual reproduction Defined by A.F Blakeslee (1904) who designated the two types as + & - strains Whitehouse recognized two types of heterothallism – Morphological heterothallism- Morphologically distinct male & female sex organs present in two closely associated mycelia – morphological heterothallism Eg : Phytophthora , Peronospora 2. Physiological heterothallism Two morphologically similar but physiologically different hyphae . Have different incompatibility factors – physiological heterothallism or haploid incompatibility Eg : Puccinia , Ustilago HETEROTHALLISM

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A a A - + a + - A1 A2 A3 A4 A1 - + + + A2 + - + + A3 + + - + A4 + + + - A1B1 A1B2 A2B1 A2B2 A1B1 - FL B + A1B2 FL - + B A2B1 B + - FL A2B2 + B FL - PHYSIOLOGICAL HETEROTHALLISM Two allele heterothallism Tetrapolar ( unifactorial ) heterothallism Bipolar ( Bifactorial ) heterothallism Multiple allele heterothallism

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HORMONAL REGULATION OF MATING Regulation of gamete differentiation, approaching of gametes to form zygote (a complex process) controlled by diffusible substances Hormones or pheromones Hormones are chemical substance which act on the same individual that produce them Pheromones are chemical substance which act on different individuals. Produced in small quantities, constitutively or complementary.

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Burgeff (1924) first reported diffusible hormones in regulating seual reproduction. ‘ Trisporic acids ’ involved in induction of zygophore by Mucorales . Trisporic acid B ( Ketone ) and Trisporic acid A (alcohol) induce sexual differentiation (+ & -) from asexual. Sirenin in Allomyces ( Chytridiomycetes ) water mold, is an chemical attractant (10 -10 to 10 -5 ). Zoospores, gametes (male and female), zygote (n & 2n) only male gamete responds to sirenin . Awaits completion of gametogenesis . ( Machalis , 1958) Antheridiol and Oogoniol (sterol) in Achlya ( Oomycetes ) water mold. ( Raper , 1951& 52). Four ‘ sequentially acting hormone ’ and five ‘ modifying substances ’

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Genetic recombination occurs but not by sexual reproduction Plasmogamy , karyogamy , meiosis takes place but not at specified time. Common occurrence in Deuteromycetes MECHANISM OF PARASEXUAL CYCLE Formation of heterokaryotic mycelium for genetic recombination – anastomosis of somatic hyphae of different genetic constitution is the common method Nuclear fusion or formation of heterozygous diploid nucleus Multiplication of diploid nuclei Occasional mitotic crossing over – this gives the advantage of sexuality in parasexual cycle Sorting of diploid nuclei – by incorporation into conidia & its germination Occasional haploidization of diploid nuclei Sorting of new haploid strains PARASEXUALITY

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Resulting nuclei after parasexual cycle Haploid nuclei in both mycelia Some haploid nuclei of new genetic constitution by genetic recombination Several types of diploid homozygous nuclei Several types of diploid heterozygous nuclei

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APPLICATIONS OF PARASEXUALITY Better strains are developed for use in industry as fungi important to industry belong to imperfecti group which reproduce by parasexual cycle In the analysis of genetic & physiological processes of perfect & imperfect fungi In the genetic control of pathogenecity & host range Eg : Fusarium

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Thallus (n) Asexual Reproduction Gametes Fusion Zygote Reduction Division Thallus (2n) Asexual Reproduction Spores/ Gametes (n) Fusion Zygote Reduction Division Haplobiontic haploid life cycle Haplobiontic diploid life cycle

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Thallus (n+n) Asexual Reproduction Basidiospores Fusion Mature basidium RD Thallus (2n) Asexual Reproduction Spores/ Gametes (n) Fusion Zygote Reduction Division Diplobiontic life cycle Haplobiontic diploid (modified) life cycle Thallus (n) Karyogamy Dikaryotic basidiocarp Dikaryotic basidiocarp (+) Dikaryotic basidiocarp (-)

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ENDOGENOUS SPORES Sporangiospores Zoospores – produced in zoosporangia. Uni -nucleate, without cell wall and motile by flagelle Eg : Albugo , Phytophthora Aplanospores – produced in aplanosporangium . Non-motile, non-flagellate, uni or multi-nucleate with distinct two layerad cell walls. Wall layers are outer episporium which is ornamented & inner endosporium which is smooth and thin Eg : Rhizopus , Mucor Ascospores – haploid aplanospores produced in ascus . 4 or 8 or more non-motile ascospores with cell walls are produced in each ascus EXOGENOUS SPORES Spores are called conidia which are borne on conidiophores Acervulus , Pycnidium , Sporodochia , Synnemata , Aecidia, Teleutosorus & Uredosorus , Phialospores , Oidia , Phialospores , Blastospores , Chlamydospores and Basidiospores .

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WHITTAKER’S FIVE KINGDOM

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Monera Monera are the only kingdom composed of prokaryotic organisms, they have a cell wall, and lack both membrane-bound organelles and multicellular forms. The Archaebacteria, the most ancient of this kingdom, are so different that they may belong to a separate kingdom. Other groups of Monera include the cyanobacteria (autotrophic) and eubacteria (heterotrophic). Protista The most ancient eukaryotic kingdom, protists include a variety of eukaryotic body (single-celled-colonial-multicellular?) and nutritional heterotrophic, autotrophic, and both) forms. Perhaps they are best defined as eukaryotes that are NOT fungi, animals, or plants. Fungi Fungi are a eukaryotic, heterotrophic, usually multicellular group having multinucleated cells enclosed in cells with cell walls. They obtain their energy by decomposing dead and dying organisms and absorbing their nutrients from those organisms. Some fungi also cause disease (yeast infections, rusts, and smuts), while others are useful in baking, brewing, as foods, drugs and sources for antibiotics. Plantae Plants are immobile, multicellular eukaryotes that produce their food by photosynthesis and have cells encased in cellulose cell walls. Plants are important sources of oxygen, food, and clothing/construction materials, as well as pigments, spices, dyes, and drugs. Animalia Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that are capable of mobility at some stage during their lives, and that have cells lacking cell walls. Animals provide food, clothing, fats, scents, companionship, and labor.

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Kingdom Nature of Organism Mode of Nutrition Organism Monera Unicellular & no definite nucleus Heterotrophic & autotrophic Bacteria, cyanobacter (BGA) Protista Unicellular or multicellular with definite nucleus Heterotrophic & autotrophic Algae & protozoa Plantae Multicellular & Uninucleated Autotrophic Angiosperms & other forms Fungi Multicellular & multinucleated Heterotrophic Yeasts & molds Animalia Multicellular & uninucleate Heterotrophic Mammals, arthropods etc.

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Kingdom – Fungi Division – Myxomycota (4 Classes) Acrasiomycetes Hydromycetes Myxomycetes Plasmodiophoromycetes . Division – Eumycota (5 Subdivisions) 1.Mastigomycotina 2. Zygomycotina 3. Ascomycotina 4.Basidiomycotina 5. Deuteromycotina Mastigomycotina Class – Chytridiomycetes Hyphochytridiomycetes Plasmodiophoromycetes Oomycetes ( Phytophthora , Pythium , Albugo ) Zygomycotina Class – Zygomycetes ( Rhizopus , Mucor ) Trichomycetes Ascomycotina Class – Hemiascomycetes Plectomycetes ( Penicillium , Aspergillus ) Pyrenomycetes ( Powdery Mildew: Erysiphae , Phyllactinia , Uncinula , Levillula ) Discomycetes Laboulbeniomycetes Loculoascomycetes Basidiomycetes Class – Teliomycetes ( Rust: Puccinia , Uromyces , Hemilia , Phragmidium , Melamsora ; Smut : Ustilago , Tillitia ) Hymenomycetes ( Agaricus , Fomes , Polyporus , Pleurotus , Schizophyllum , Gasteromycetes ( Lycoperdon , Geastrum , Nidularia ) Deuteromycotina Class – Blastomycetes Hyphomycetes ( Fusarium , Alternaria , Cercospora , Helminthosporium .) Coelomycetes ( Colletotrichum , Pestalotiopsis ) CLASSIFICATION OF FUNGI –RECENT TRENDS G.C.Ainsworth – Dictionary of Fungi 1966. The fungi – An advanced Treatise 1973.

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Kingdom: MYCETEAE Div: Gymnomycota SD: Plasmodiogymnomycotina C: Acrasiomycetes C: Protosteliomycetes C: Myxomycetes SC:Ceratiomycetidae SC:Myxogasteromycetidae SC:Stemonitomycetidae SD: Acrasiogymnomycotina Div: Mastigomycota SD: Haplomastigomycotina C: Oomycetes C:Chytridiomycetes C:Hyphochytridiomycetes C:Plasmodiophoromycetes SD: Diplomastigomycotina Classification of Fungi according to Alexopoulos & Mims (1979) C:Zygomycetes C:Trichomycetes SD: Zygomycotina SD: Ascomycotina SC: Hemiascomycetidae SC:Plectomycetidae SC:Hymenoascomycetidae SC:Laboulbeniomycetidae SC:Loculoascomycetidae Div: Amastigomycota SC:Blastomycetidae SC:Coelomycetidae SC:Hyphomycetidae SD: Deuteromycotina C: Ascomycetes C: Deuteromycetes SD: Basidiomycotina SC:Holobadidiomycetidae SC:Phragmobasidiomycetidae SC:Teliomycetidae C: Basidiomycetes

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Kingdom: MYCETEAE Classification of Fungi according to Ainsworth G.C (1973) Div: Myxomycota C: Acrasiomycetes (Cellular slime molds) Free living assimilatory phase of amoebae unit as a pseudoplasmodium before reproduction C: Plasmodiophoromycetes (Parasitic slime molds) Presence of parasitic plasmodium within host cells C: Labyrinthulales (Net slime molds) net plasmodium is present C:Myxomycetes (True slime molds) Presence of free living saprobic plasmodium SD: Zygomycotina Zoospores absent, perfect state spores- zygospores C:Hemiascomycetes C:Loculoascomycetes C:Plectomycetes C:Laboulbeniomycetes C:Pyrenomycetes C:Discomycetes Div: Eumycota C:Teliomycetidae C:Hymenomycetes C:Gasteromycetes C:Blastomycetes C:Coelomycetes C:Hyphomycetes SD: Deuteromycotina Perfect state spores absent SD: Basidiomycotina Perfect state spores- basidiospores SD: Mastigomycotina Zoospores present, perfect state spores- oospores C:Chytridiomycetes C:Hyphochytridiomycetes C:Oomycetes C:Zygomycetes C:Trichomycetes SD: Ascomycotina perfect state spores- ascospores

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PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION BY ALEXOPOLOUS ET AL ., (1996) KINGDOM FUNGI KINGDOM STRAMENOPHILA PROTISTS PHYLUM CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA PHYLUM ZYGOMYCOTA PHYLUM ASCOMYCOTA PHYLUM BASIDIOMYCOTA PHYLUM OOMYCOTA PHYLUM HYPHOCHYTRIOMYCOTA PHYLUM LABRINTHULOMYCOTA PHYLUM PLASMODIOPHOROMYCOTA PHYLUM DICTYOSTELIOMYCOTA PHYLUM ACRASIOMYCOTA PHYLUM MYXOMYCOTA

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Universal Phylogenetic Tree

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Evolution of the fungi

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Four Major Groups of Fungi: Phylum Chytridomycota Phylum Zygomycota Phylum Ascomycota : sac fungi Phylum Basidiomycota : club fungi Imperfect Fungi: asexual reproduction only Kingdom Fungi classification Alexopoulos ( phylogenetic )

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Classification & Phylogeny motile spores zygosporangia asci basidia

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Myxomycetes General Characteristic Feature Commonly called true slime molds or plasmodial slime molds Myxomycetes occur in cool and moist shady places-decaying woods, leaves, dung, organic substrates. Represented by 450 species. Vegetative phase in free living plasmodial - multinucleate, naked and acellular mass of protoplasm Plasmodium – aphanoplasmodium (small microscopic body) and Phaneroplasmodium (networks or large sheet like) Protoplasmic streaming is present Sporophores produced under unfavourable condition Hyphothallus – membranous, spongy, horny or disc-like structure formed by by deposition beneath sporophore Myxamoebae or zoospores ( uniflagellate or biflagellate whiplash) formed by spore germination Asexual reproduction – fission or fragmentation Sexual reproduction – fusion of myxamoebae or zoospores

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Classification of Myxomycetes Ceratiomyxomycetidae – Spores in single and are external in individual stalks. One order ( Ceratiomyxales ) one family ( Ceratiomyxaceae ) and one genus ( Ceratiomyxa ) Myxogastromycetidae - spores in large mass, borne internally in sporophores , development myxogastroid . Four orders ( Echinosteliales , Liceales , Physarales and Trichiales ) Stemonitomycetidae - spores in large mass, borne internally in sporophores , development stemonitoid . One order ( stemoninales ). The later two subclasses are called myxomycetes . The members contain endospores within fructification covered by thin membrane ( Peridium )

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Life Cycle of Myxomycetes

Chytridiomycota – “chytrids”:

Chytridiomycota – “chytrids” Simple fungi Produce motile spores Mostly saprobes and parasites in aquatic habitats Could just as well be Protists Chytridium growing on spores

Zygomycota – “zygote fungi”:

Zygomycota – “zygote fungi” Sex - zygosporangia Asex - common Hyphae have no cross walls Grow rapidly Mycorrhizas Rhizopus on strawberries

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Life cycle of Rhizopus You are not responsible for this life cycle Life cycle is predominantly haploid Asexual sporangium with spores inside Sexual zygsporangium with one zygospore

Ascomycota – “sac fungi”:

Ascomycota – “sac fungi” Sex. – asci Asex. – common Cup fungi, morels, truffles Important plant parasites & saprobes Yeast - Saccharomyces Most lichens A cluster of asci with spores inside

Yeasts:

Yeasts Single celled fungi Adapted to liquids Plant saps Water films Moist animal tissues Candida Saccharomyces

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Schizosaccharomyces octospora – fermenter of Palm Wine 10 μ m

Basidiomycota – “club fungi”:

Basidiomycota – “club fungi” Sex – basidia Asex – not so common Long-lived dikaryotic mycelia Rusts & smuts – primitive plant parasites Mushrooms, polypores, puffballs Enzymes decompose wood Mycorrhizas SEM of basidia and spores

Mushroom Life Cycle:

Mushroom Life Cycle Nuclear fusion in basidium Meiosis Hyphal fusion of haploid mycelia haploid mycelium young basidia - the only diploid cells mycelium and fruiting body are dikaryotic N 2N N+N

Mycorrhizas:

Mycorrhizas “Fungus roots” Mutualism between: Fungus (nutrient & water uptake for plant) Plant (carbohydrate for fungus) Several kinds Zygomycota – hyphae invade root cells Ascomycota & Basidiomycota – hyphae invade root but don’t penetrate cells Extremely important ecological role of fungi!

“Ecto”mycorrhizas:

“Ecto”mycorrhizas Russula mushroom mycorrhizas on Western Hemlock root Fungal hyphae around root and between cells Mycorrhiza cross sections

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A rust growing on a currant leaf 0.5 cm Yeasts Molds Mycorrhizas Lichens

Molds:

Molds Rapidly growth Asexual spores Many human importance's Food spoilage Food products Antibiotics, etc. Antibiotic activity Noble Rot - Botrytis

Lichens:

Lichens “Mutualism” between Fungus – structure Alga or cyanobacterium – provides food Form a thallus Foliose Fruticose Crustose

Lichen internal structure:

Lichen internal structure Lobaria

Lichens as biomonitors:

Lichens as biomonitors Thalli act like sponges Some species more sensitive Which species are present can indicate air quality (Most resistant species can also be analyzed for pollutants) Northwest Air Net Project Species chart Table of sensitivities

Lichen diversity:

Lichen diversity

PowerPoint Presentation:

Fungi are NOT plants Hyphae = Long, slender filaments, tubular units of construction. Mycelium- mass of hyphae Heterotrophic by absorption Reproduce by spores Ecologically pivotal roles Efficient biotechnological tool SUMMARY

PowerPoint Presentation:

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