Canadian Diesel Fuel

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CANADIAN DIESEL FUEL CURRENT TOPICS : 

1 CANADIAN DIESEL FUEL CURRENT TOPICS Dr. Andy Pickard Senior Advisor, Fuels Petro-Canada North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001

DIESEL FUEL TOPICS : 

2 DIESEL FUEL TOPICS Fuel Standards and Specifications; Canadian & American; OEM Emissions Issues Fuel Qualities <=> operations / problems Miscellaneous Diesel Fuel Issues

CAN/CGSB-3.6 & -3.517 : 

3 CAN/CGSB-3.6 & -3.517 National Standards of Canada for Regular Sulphur Diesel Fuel and Automotive Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel. Consensus standards Provinces must legislate for legal standing Minimum standard in practice. [www.pwgsc.gc.ca/cgsb]

U.S. Diesel Fuel Standard : 

4 U.S. Diesel Fuel Standard ASTM D 975 - consensus standard RSD & LSD State Responsibility California Diesel Fuel: “CARB Diesel” [www.astm.org]

OEM FUEL SPECIFICATIONS : 

5 OEM FUEL SPECIFICATIONS Individual OEM companies may spell out fuel requirements or recommendations. World Wide Fuel Charter EMA, AAM; JAMA; ACEA 4 categories of diesel fuel www.engine-manufacturers.org

EMISSIONSEMISSIONS EMISSIONS : 

6 EMISSIONSEMISSIONS EMISSIONS Driver: Air quality in urban areas. Particulates & Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Forcing most engine and fuel changes. On-highway versus off-highway. Fuel: low sulphur & ultra low sulphur

EMISSIONSEMISSIONS EMISSIONS : 

7 EMISSIONSEMISSIONS EMISSIONS Major engine changes electronics higher fuel injection pressures timing changes / more soot EGR NOx catalysts and particulate traps

IMPACTS on FUELS : 

8 IMPACTS on FUELS Electronics: hotter fuel; thermal stability; fire safety issue. Injection pressure: lubricity / wear. Soot: lighter fuel / lower aromatics. EGR: -- NOx catalysts: “no” sulphur. Particulate traps: lighter fuel / lower aromatics.

FUEL QUALITIES:OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS : 

9 FUEL QUALITIES:OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS Individual specification requirements will be discussed, with implications for diesel engine operations or problems.

FUEL QUALITIES:OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS : 

10 FUEL QUALITIES:OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS CLEANLINESS !!!! Clean & Dry is critical, and is the most important single quality requirement!! Dirt / particles will plug filters, restrict fuel flow / power, and lead to wear in pumps and injectors. Water can cause rusting, corrosion, erosion, wear & catastrophic failure.

CETANE NUMBER : 

11 CETANE NUMBER Diesel fuel combustion quality Higher cetane = quicker combustion ( shorter ignition delay ) Cetane number = engine test result. Cetane index = calculation to predict cetane number. No correlation to fuel density.

CETANE NUMBER : 

12 CETANE NUMBER 40 cetane number is minimum standard in North America ( typically 41 - 46 ). Higher cetane is desirable, but expensive. Cetane quality effects cold starting: white smoke warm-up (smooth or rough) noise level Cetane requirement drops when engine hot.

SYNCRUDE: OIL SANDS : 

13 SYNCRUDE: OIL SANDS

SULPHURin Diesel Fuel : 

14 SULPHURin Diesel Fuel Organic sulphur compounds in crude oil. Regular (high) sulphur diesel = < 0.5 % S ( RSD, <5,000 ppm sulphur ) Low sulphur diesel fuel = < 0.05 % S ( LSD; < 500 ppm sulphur ) Ultra low sulphur diesel fuel = < 15 ppm S ( ULSD, June, 2006 )

SULPHURin Diesel Fuel : 

15 SULPHURin Diesel Fuel Sulphur in diesel fuel: burns to form SOx Corrosive to engine and exhaust system SOx + H2O ---> H2SO3, H2SO4 Air pollutant increases particulates degrades engine oil

LOW SULPHURin Diesel Fuel : 

16 LOW SULPHURin Diesel Fuel Lower particulate emissions Lower SOx emissions Less engine / exhaust corrosion Less engine oil degradation (longer oil drain or better quality oil)

LUBRICITY : 

17 LUBRICITY The ability of fuel to lubricate parts of fuel systems (pumps and injectors). Most fuels have good lubricity. Low lubricity fuels require lubricity additive in Canada (but not in U.S.). Laboratory lubricity tests are poor, and may not show the presence of additives.

LUBRICITY : 

18 LUBRICITY Rotary and distributor pumps are most vulnerable. Unit or in-line units (which are oil-lubricated) are less effected by fuel lubricity, and more likely to be ‘gummed’ by excessive lubricity additive or reaction of additive with engine oil.

VISCOSITY : 

19 VISCOSITY The “flow” property of diesel fuel; Minimum and maximum limits; Effects: nozzle spray pattern & droplet size; “slippage” past pump; possible filter restriction; lubricity / wear.

DENSITY: ENERGY CONTENT : 

20 DENSITY: ENERGY CONTENT kg / L @ 15 ºC; typically 0.855 kg / L Energy content is related to density: Higher density = higher energy content Better fuel economy or higher power Total range only about 7 % in energy (0.800 to 0.875 kg / L) Typically < 2 % variation winter to summer.

API GRAVITY(Obsolete term) : 

21 API GRAVITY(Obsolete term)

TYPICAL TRUCK TERMINAL : 

22 TYPICAL TRUCK TERMINAL

LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES : 

23 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Cloud point normally used. Obsolete term: pour point. “2.5 % low end design temperature” (2.5 % of hourly temperature readings are lower than the design temperature.) Not required in U.S. D 975.

DIESEL FUEL NAMES : 

24 DIESEL FUEL NAMES Names related to temperature: Seasonal diesel fuel - seasonally adjusted. Identified by Celsius cloud point. Obsolete names: Diesel 40 or P-40 negative Fahrenheit pour point: -40 ºF. Other names: Arctic Diesel / No. 1 Diesel / Diesel 50 / “Diesel Light”,

LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS : 

25 LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS Icing: most common winter problem; ice crystals or layer of ice plug fuel filter. Note: engine may run for a while before stalling. Actions: change filter / drain water when warm; change fuel for winter fuel.

WATER & ICE : 

26 WATER & ICE No free water, however No limit on dissolved water. Solubility of water in diesel fuel decreases as the temperature drops. Excess water separates as a haze or as ice crystals, which cause fuel filter plugging. Action: drain any water while fuel is hot.

LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS : 

27 LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS Waxing or gelling: rare problem. Wax crystals separate below cloud point and plug filter; eventually fuel ‘gels’ and goes solid. Action: Warm up & change fuel; replace fuel filter. (It takes a lot of kerosene to ‘cut’ waxy fuel!)

LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS : 

28 LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS Fuel flow restriction: Symptom: engine runs but does not develop full power. Causes: fine filtration; partly plugged filter; high viscosity fuel. Actions: replace filter / use higher porosity filter; change fuel.

DISTILLATION : 

29 DISTILLATION Boiling range of diesel fuel. Higher boiling (heavier) components increase soot and deposits. Only real “choice” is between Type B (No. 2 - heavier fuel; seasonal diesel fuel) and Type A (No. 1 - lighter fuel).

FLASH POINT : 

30 FLASH POINT The temperature of the fuel at which the vapours will burn when ignited with a spark or flame. Minimum +40 ºC; typically +50 to +70 ºC. Safety issue; not a diesel engine issue. Auto-ignition: 225 ºC

HIBERNIA : 

31 HIBERNIA

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY : 

32 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY Safety issue: Canadian diesel fuels must have suitable conductivity to dissipate static electrical charges that may develop during pumping. Minimum 25 pS/m; typically > 100 pS/m Not a requirement in the U.S.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS : 

33 OTHER REQUIREMENTS These specification requirements are usually “non-issues”: Copper corrosion Acidity (total acid number) Carbon residue Ash

MISCELLANEOUS : 

34 MISCELLANEOUS “Bad Fuel”: usually the sign of a mechanic who does not know what’s wrong! Identify the real issue: e.g. dirt, water. Differentiate between symptoms and causes. Talk to local fuel suppliers!

MISCELLANEOUS : 

35 MISCELLANEOUS “Bad Fuel” continued: When there is a genuine fuel quality problem, there are usually many vehicles effected. When a single vehicle is effected, it may be due to dirty or contaminated fuel in that vehicle, but not to ‘all fuel’.

HARMONIZATION : 

36 HARMONIZATION Harmonization of fuels: Canada will follow U.S. fuel developments in order to benefit from lower emissions from new engine designs. e.g. 15 ppm ULSD “at point of sale” for on-highway diesel fuel.

QUALITY : 

37 QUALITY Quality Control / Quality Assurance Many refineries and laboratories are now following ISO 9000 practices to ensure quality products. Still work to be done on quality practices in distribution and at point-of-sale.

QUALITY PROBLEMS : 

38 QUALITY PROBLEMS # 1 issue is cleanliness: clean & dry!! # 2 issue is water / ice at low temperatures. All other fuel-related problems are minor by comparison.

INVESTIGATION of COMPLAINTS : 

39 INVESTIGATION of COMPLAINTS What is the problem? What was really observed, not possible causes. When did it start? Where is the problem? Where is the problem not occurring? Test possible causes for consistency.

HEALTH & SAFETY : 

40 HEALTH & SAFETY Use normal ‘good hygiene’ practices in handling diesel fuel: Minimize skin contact. Remove any fuel-soaked clothing. Wash with soap and water before eating or smoking. See MSDS

FUTURE DIESEL FUEL : 

41 FUTURE DIESEL FUEL All changes driven by lower emissions. June 1, 2006: ULSD = 15 ppm sulphur for on-road diesel fuel. Harmonized with U.S. 2007?: off-road diesel fuel: 500 ppm S ? 2010?: possible limits on cetane / density / aromatics / < 10 ppm sulphur?

QUESTIONS ?? : 

42 QUESTIONS ?? Are there any questions on fuel topics? There are no silly questions… There are only people who make silly mistakes because they didn’t ask simple questions!

HIGH QUALITY DIESEL FUEL : 

43 HIGH QUALITY DIESEL FUEL Dr. Andy Pickard Senior Advisor, Fuels Petro-Canada pickard@petro-canada.ca (403) 296-8019 North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001

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