IS421-Lecture01(Intro to Knowledge Management Systems)

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Definition of Knowledge Management  Forces Driving Knowledge Management Data, Information and Knowledge  Importance of Knowledge  Managing Knowledge  Organizational Learning  Through Knowledge Management  Knowledge-based Economy

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1 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Information Systems Department College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University 1 Introduction to Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge Management Systems IS421 Lecture 1 Irma Becerra-Fernandez Avelino Gonzalez Rajiv Sabherwal 2004 Knowledge Management: Challenges Solutions and Technologies Prentice Hall 2 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Topic list  Definition of Knowledge Management  Forces Driving Knowledge Management Data Information and Knowledge  Importance of Knowledge  Managing Knowledge  Organizational Learning  Through Knowledge Management  Knowledge-based Economy  Components of Knowledge Management Systems  KM Information Technologies  Components of Knowledge Management Systems  Approaches to Knowledge Management  Objectives of Knowledge Management  Essence of KM  Knowledge Repositories  Knowledge Management System Cycle  KM Benefits  KM Integration  Factors Leading to Success and Failure of Systems  Knowledge Management Issues

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2 3 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Definition of Knowledge Managment  Knowledge management KM is defined as doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources.  KM focuses on organizing and making available important knowledge wherever and whenever it is needed.  KM is a clear and certain perception of something understanding learning 4 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Definition of Knowledge Management cont…  KM is what is perceived or grasped by the mind  KM is a practical experience and skill which is organized information applicable to problem solving  KM is a collection of specialized facts procedures and judgment rules.  KM is also related to the concept of intellectual capital.

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3 5 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Forces Driving Knowledge Management 1. Increasing Domain Complexity: Intricacy of internal and external processes increased competition and the rapid advancement of technology all contribute to increasing domain complexity. 2. Accelerating Market Volatility: The pace of change or volatility within each market domain has increased rapidly in the past decade. 3. Intensified Speed of Responsiveness: The time required to take action based upon subtle changes within and across domains is decreasing. 4. Diminishing Individual Experience: High employee turnover rates have resulted in individuals with decision- making authority having less tenure within their organizations than ever before. 6 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University  Data  Data represents raw numbers or assertions  Data comprises facts observations or perceptionsRefers to isolated facts such as individual measurements.  Data are raw facts about the organisation and its business transactions.  No meaning on their own  Do not signify anything  Useless unless placed in some sort of context.  Most data items have little meaning and use by themselves. Data Information and Knowledge

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4 7 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Data Information and Knowledge cont…  Information: It is data with semantics.  Information is data that has been refined and organised by processing and purposeful intelligence.  Information purposeful intelligence is crucial to the definition  People provide the purpose and the intelligence that produces true information.  Information is data with context and relevance  In contrast data can include millions of useless garbage bits which are nothing more than uninterpretable zeros and ones  Information involves manipulation of raw data  Often information can be used to obtain a more meaningful indication of trends or patterns 8 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Data Information and Knowledge cont…  Knowledge: It is information with direction. Knowledge is information with decision- making and action-directed utility and purpose Knowledge is defined by some as “a justified true belief” Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995 Different from data information  Knowledge is at the highest level in a hierarchy with information at the middle level and data to be at the lowest level  It is the richest deepest most valuable of the three.

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5 9 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University 9 Data are raw facts that constitute building blocks of information.  Information science defines data as unprocessed information.  Information is data that have been organized and communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner.  Data is converted into information and information is converted into knowledge.  Knowledge: information that is evaluated and organized so that it can be used purposefully. Data Information and Knowledge cont… 10 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Data Information and Knowledge cont…

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6 11 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Importance of Knowledge  Knowledge  Knowledge consists of symbols the relationships between them and rules or procedures for manipulating them  Adds context to the information providing greater meaning and therefore much greater use and value  It is dynamic and changes with time 12 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University

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7 13 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Importance of Knowledge cont…  Explicit knowledge: Explicit knowledge refers to knowledge that has been expressed into words and numbers. Can be shared formally and systematically in the form of data. Objective rational technical Policies goals strategies papers reports Codified Leaky knowledge 14 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Importance of Knowledge cont…  Tacit knowledge: Tacit knowledge includes insights intuitions and hunches that are not verbalized or documented. Can be convert to explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge. Subjective cognitive experiential learning Highly personalized Difficult to formalize Sticky knowledge

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8 15 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University 16 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Importance of Knowledge cont…  General knowledge is possessed by a large number of individuals and can be transferred easily across individuals  Specific knowledge or “idiosyncratic knowledge” is possessed by a very limited number of individuals and is expensive to transfer.

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9 17 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University 18 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University

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10 19 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Types of Knowledge cont…  Subjective View of knowledge:  Knowledge reality is entirely dependent on human perception and is socially constructed through interactions with individuals.  Knowledge has no existence independently of social practices and human experiences.  Knowledge is not an independent object.  Knowledge has no single location.  Knowledge is viewed as an ongoing accomplishment which continuously affects and is influenced by social practices.  Knowledge as State of Mind  Knowledge as Practice 20 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Types of Knowledge cont…  Objective Subjective View of knowledge:  Reality is independent of human perceptions and can be structured in terms of a priori categories and concepts.  Knowledge can be located.  Knowledge as Objects  Something that can be stored transferred and manipulated.  Object-oriented programming analogy: instances of structs classes.  Knowledge as Access to Information  Knowledge enables access and utilization of information.  Object-oriented programming analogy: Interfaces and methods are more important than structs.  Knowledge as Capability  Not merely access to information – instead emphasizes knowledge as a strategic capability that can potentially be applied to seek a competitive advantage.

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11 21 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Types of Knowledge cont…  Declarative knowledge or substantive knowledge:  Focuses on beliefs about relationships among variables.  Can be stated in the form of logical propositions expected correlations or formulas relating concepts represented as logical symbols and/or mathematical variables.  Often characterized in KM circles as “know-what”.  Procedural knowledge:  Focuses on beliefs relating procedures or processes: sequences of steps or actions to desired or undesired outcomes. 22 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Managing Knowledge  KM is a process that helps organizations identify select organize disseminate and transfer important information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory.  KM is the process of systematically and actively managing and leveraging stores of knowledge in an organization

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12 23 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Managing Knowledge cont…  Systematic and active management of ideas information and knowledge residing within organization’s employees.  Knowledge management systems Use of technologies to manage knowledge Used with turnover change downsizing Provide consistent levels of service 24 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Organizational Learning  Learning organization Ability to learn from past To improve organization must learn Issues  Meaning management measurement Activities  Problem-solving experimentation learning from past learning from acknowledged best practices transfer of knowledge within organization Must have organizational memory way to save and share it

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13 25 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Organizational Learning cont…  Organizational learning Develop new knowledge Corporate memory critical  Organizational culture Pattern of shared basic assumptions  Organizations are realizing how important it is to "know what they know" and be able to make maximum use of the knowledge.  Preventing “reinvent the wheel” many times. 26 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Organizational Learning cont…  Organizations need to know: what their knowledge assets are how to manage and make use of these assets to get maximum return.  KM can improve organization efficiency by providing framework tools and techniques to reuse captured intellectual assets.

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14 27 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Examples of Organizational Learning cont…  “We have four people in Makkah who know how to solve this problem. How can we get them to help our team in Madinah”  "People are leaving the company with a lifetimes experience. How can we capture and re-use that"  "We had a team that did a successful proposal for aerospace five years ago. Why did they make the decisions they did How did they deal with the customer What made the team tick" 28 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Examples of Organizational Learning cont…  "How do we start learning from our experiences and help our people stop repeating others mistakes"  "Were involved in an exciting project with four other companies. How can we all learn how these virtual teams tick"  "Needs change often these days and were always bringing new people into projects. How can we get them up to speed and contributing quickly"

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15 29 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Knowledge-based Economy  Rapid changes in the business environment cannot be handled in traditional ways. Firms are much larger with higher turnover and require better tools for collaboration communication and knowledge sharing. Firms must develop strategies to sustain competitive advantage by leveraging their intellectual assets for optimum performance.  Managing knowledge is now critical for firms spread out over wide geographical areas and for virtual organizations. 30 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Components of Knowledge Management Systems  Technologies  Communication  Access knowledge  Communicates with others Collaboration  Perform group-work  Synchronous or asynchronous  Same place/different place Storage and retrieval  Capture storing retrieval and management of both explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative systems

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16 31 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University KM Information Technologies The KMS challenge is to identify and integrate the following three technologies:  Communication technologies allow users to access needed knowledge and to communicate with each other--especially with experts.  Collaboration technologies provide the means to perform group work.  Storage and retrieval technologies use a database management system to capture store and manage knowledge. 32 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University KM Information Technologies  Information technology facilitates sharing as well as accelerated growth of knowledge. Information technology allows the movement of information at increasing speeds and efficiencies Knowware are technology tools that support KM. Collaboration tools or groupware were the first used to enhance collaboration for tacit knowledge transfer within an organization. KM suites are complete KM solutions out-of- the-box. Knowledge Servers contain the main KM software including the knowledge repository.

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17 33 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Components of Knowledge Management Systems  Supporting technologies  Artificial intelligence  Expert systems neural networks fuzzy logicIntelligent agents  Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance  Knowledge discovery in databases  Process used to search for and extract information  Internal data and document mining  External model marts and model warehouses  XML Extensible Markup Language  Enables standardized representations of data  Better collaboration and communication through portals 34 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Sharing Knowledge Some people are reluctant to share knowledge due to the following reasons:  No skill in knowledge management techniques.  Willing to share but not enough time to do so.  Don’t understand knowledge management and benefits.  Lack of appropriate technology.  No commitment from senior managers.  No funding for knowledge management.  Culture does not encourage knowledge sharing.

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18 35 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Discussion 1. Why knowledge management KM is important to organizations 2. How knowledge management KM can help organizations in their competitive advantage 3. What we mean by knowledge sharing in knowledge management KM 4. How sharing knowledge can be made available to those who need it 5. How do you manage your personal knowledge so you can best reuse it 6. How do you share your knowledge with others 36 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University 36 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Faculty of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University Reference  Irma Becerra-Fernandez Avelino Gonzalez Rajiv Sabherwal: Knowledge Management: Challenges Solutions and Technologies. Prentice Hall 2004.  Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Lecture Notes Taibah University 2010.

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