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Why GIS use is prevalent in natural resource management Evolution of the development of GIS technology and key figures Common spatial data collection techniques and input devices that are available


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Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University Michael G. Wing and Pete Bettinger 2008: Geographic Information Systems: Applications in Natural Resource Management 2 nd Editon. Oxford University Press. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems IS344 Chapter 1 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Information Systems Department College of Computer Science Engineering Taibah University

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Chapter 1 Objectives  Why GIS use is prevalent in natural resource management  Evolution of the development of GIS technology and key figures  Common spatial data collection techniques and input devices that are available  Common GIS output processes that are typical in natural resource management  The broad types of GIS software that are available.

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What is a GIS  Multitude of definitions and applications are possible  Geographic Information Systems  GIS provides tools for solving specific problems related to spatial data  GIS can also be an acronym for GIScience  the identification and study of issues that are related to GIS use affect its implementation and that arise from its application Goodchild 1992

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GIS Definitions  There are various definitions of a GIS that have evolved from different uses and disciplines.  A GIS minimally consists of a database location information and a digital link between them.  Or a digital connection that tells us where something is and what it is  Most GIS definitions identify the nature of geographic or spatial data in making distinctions from other software programs.

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Non-spatial and spatial data River Length Nehalem 258761 N. Santiam 128433 Rogue 194639 Gauge Latitude Longitude 1 424210 1244292 2 456889 1238951 3 446867 1230064 4 440157 1241338

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GIS Applications  The digital mapping capabilities of GIS allows us to examine landscapes in ways that would be impossible or nearly impossible with other tools  GIS capabilities that benefit natural resource applications include:  Measurements of landscapes or structures  Resource mapping  Overlays or integration of multiple information layers  Modeling resources

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Brief GIS history  Written records of property boundary locations date to 1400 BC  The term “geographic information system” dates to the 1960s  Many associate overlay analysis with modern day GIS

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Stand Types Hydrology Roads Composite Layers Topography Figure 1.1. GIS theme overlay.

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Overlay analysis history  The integration of multiple sources of information  Demonstrated manually in 1854 by Dr. John Snow in his isolation of cholera sources in London  Demonstrated again:  1954 Jacqueline Tyrwhitt Town Country Planning Text Book  1969 Ian McHarg Design with Nature  Wouldn’t it be great to do this digitally  The origin of modern day GIS…

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GIS history  1960s saw the development of spatial databases of land cover  USGS US NRCS  Mapping programs began to appear  IMGRID CAM SYMAP  CIA produces World Data Bank  Coastlines major rivers political borders through out the world  US Census Bureau produces method for linking census information to locations for the 1970 census  Based on respondent addresses

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GIS history  Roger Tomlinson drives the creation of the Canada Geographic Information System CGIS in 1964  First national GIS system  Land Use and Natural resource Inventory System  LUNR New York 1967  Minnesota Land Management System  MLMIS Minnesota 1969

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GIS history  The genesis of ArcGIS: Odyssey  Produced by Harvard University in 1977  Graduate student Jack Dangermond worked on Odyssey  ArcInfo introduced in 1981  First major commercial GIS venture  MapInfo corporation appears in 1986  The personal computer concept progresses during the 1980s and becomes standard during the 1990s

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Why GIS and natural resources  The origins of modern day GIS are with initial databases that described natural resource conditions  CGIS LUNR MLMIS  Managing natural resources is a complicated business and GIS is particularly well suited as a mapping and analytical tool to support management decision-making  Spatial considerations are paramount for natural resource monitoring and management  Software and hardware developments have brought GIS to the desktop of many natural resource personnel  Many employees now need to be at least conversant about GIS and related technology  Technological developments GPS LiDAR Satellite imagery make spatial data availability much more affordably and readily than in the past  Educational opportunities for GIS and related tools training is now widely available

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Data collection processes input devices  Technology is constantly on the move  Enhancements in digital technology for measurement applications are frequent  A multitude of tools are available for spatial data capture but two important data considerations must always be taken into account regardless of the sophistication of the tool: accuracy and precision

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Accuracy and precision: two different animals  Accuracy  The ability of a measurement to describe a landscape feature’s true location size or condition.  Accuracy is typically described in terms of a range or variance that details a threshold within which we would expect to find the likely value.  Precision  Relates to the degree of specificity to which a measurement is described.  Can also describe the relative consistency among a set of measurements.

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A B D C Figure 1.2. Examples of accuracy and precision. Part A shows accurate and precise locations of data around the circle center Part B shows precise but not very accurate data Part C shows accurate but not very precise data and Part D shows neither precise nor accurate data around the circle center.

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Digitizing  Board has sensors that record instructions from a “puck”  Typically digitize from a hard-copy medium  Need at least four points of known locations  These are transferred to board as a series of “tics” or registration points Quad example  Puck is used to record points lines or polygons

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Digitizer Figure 1.3. Modern digitizing table.

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Scanning of images Figure 1.4. Small format scanner.

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Aerial photography Digital camera On-board computer Camera field of view Figure 1.5. Digital camera mounted on airplane.

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0 50 100 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 Laser scanner Number of laser shots Height m Figure 1.6. LIDAR system on aircraft courtesy Dr. Jason Drake U.S. Forest Service.

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Figure 1.8. Aerial photograph.

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Figure 1.9. Mirror stereoscope.

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Figure 1.10. Stereoplotter.

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Digital Total Station Figure 1.11. Digital Total Station

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Handheld Data Collectors

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Figure 1.12. GPS schematic. Satellite Satellite Satellite Satellite Receiver Earth

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Figure 1.13. GPS receiver and antenna.

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Figure 1.14. Example of multipath error in data collected through GPS. Trail location Multipath error

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Figure 1.15. Screen display.

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Figure 1.16. Graphic image.

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GIS software  Several major packages  QGIS ArcGIS MGE Microstation ERDAS Imagine  Many smaller less featured programs  MapInfo Geomedia ArcView 3.2  Evaluating a program is complicated  Prices capabilities compatibility support user groups are all factors that need to be carefully considered  Bernard A.M. Prisley S.P. 2005. Digital mapping alternatives: GIS for the busy forester. Journal of Forestry 1034 163–8.  Examined nine GIS software packages costing less than 500Michael G. Wing and Pete Bettinger 2008:

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Reference Geographic Information Systems: Applications in Natural Resource Management 2nd Editon. Oxford University Press.

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