APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVES

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This shows how chemistry is used in our overy day lives

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APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVES:

APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY IN OUR EVERYDAY LIVES

Chemistry in everyday life:

Chemistry in everyday life Chemistry is a big part of your everyday life. You find chemistry in the foods you eat, the air you breathe, your soap, your emotions and literally every object you can see or touch. Here's a look at some everyday chemistry.

Elements in the human body:

Elements in the human body 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of only six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus. Every organic molecule contains carbon. Since 65-90% of each body cell consists of water (by weight), it isn't surprising that oxygen and hydrogen are major components of the body. Here's is a look at the major elements in the body and what these elements do.

Food Preservatives:

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and the related compound butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are phenolic compounds that are often added to foods to preserve fats. BHA and BHT are antioxidants. Oxygen reacts preferentially with BHA or BHT rather than oxidizing fats or oils, thereby protecting them from spoilage. In addition to being oxidizable, BHA and BHT are fat-soluble. Both molecules are incompatible with ferric salts. In addition to preserving foods, BHA and BHT are also used to preserve fats and oils in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. BHA is found in butter, meats, cereals, chewing gum, baked goods, snack foods, dehydrated potatoes, and beer. It is also found in animal feed, food packaging, cosmetics, rubber products, and petroleum products. Food Preservatives

Soaps and Detergents:

Soaps and Detergents Detergents and soaps are used for cleaning because pure water can't remove oily, organic soiling. Soap cleans by acting as an emulsifier. Basically, soap allows oil and water to mix so that oily grime can be removed during rinsing. Detergents were developed in response to the shortage of the animal and vegetable fats used to make soap during World War I and World War II. Detergents are primarily surfactants, which could be produced easily from petrochemicals. Surfactants lower the surface tension of water, essentially making it 'wetter' so that it is less likely to stick to itself and more likely to interact with oil and grease.

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Modern detergents may be made from petrochemicals or from oleochemicals derived from plants and animals. Alkalis and oxidizing agents are also chemicals found in detergents. Here's a look at the functions these molecules serve: Petrochemicals/Oleochemicals These fats and oils are hydrocarbon chains which are attracted to the oily and greasy grime. Oxidizers Sulfur trioxide, ethylene oxide, and sulfuric acid are among the molecules used to produce the hydrophilic component of surfactants. Oxidizers provide an energy source for chemical reactions. These highly reactive compounds also act as bleaches. Alkalis Sodium and potassium hydroxide are used in detergents even as they are used in soapmaking. They provide positively charged ions to promote chemical reactions.

How does soap work?:

How does soap work? Soaps are sodium or potassium fatty acids salts, produced from the hydrolysis of fats in a chemical reaction called saponification . Each soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain, sometimes called its 'tail', with a carboxylate 'head'. In water, the sodium or potassium ions float free, leaving a negatively-charged head.Soap is an excellent cleanser because of its ability to act as an emulsifying agent. An emulsifier is capable of dispersing one liquid into another immiscible liquid. This means that while oil (which attracts dirt) doesn't naturally mix with water, soap can suspend oil/dirt in such a way that it can be removed. A soap micelle has a hydrophilic head that is in contact with the water and a center of hydrophobic tails, which can be used to isolate grime.

Jewellery Chemistry:

WHITE GOLD White gold is a popular alternative to yellow gold, silver or platinum. Some people prefer the silver color of white gold to the yellow color of normal gold, yet may find silver to be too soft or too easily tarnished or the cost of platinum to be prohibitive. While white gold contains varying amounts of gold, which is always yellow, it also contains one or more white metals to lighten its color and add strength and durability. The most common white metals that form the white gold alloy are nickel, palladium, platinum and manganese. Sometimes copper, zinc or silver are added. The purity of white gold is expressed in karats, the same as with yellow gold. Jewellery Chemistry

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This is a white gold ring. White gold consists of gold with one or more silver metals, usually silver, but sometimes palladium, platinum or nickel. White gold is plated with rhodium to give it its shiny appearance.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Diamonds Diamonds are hard and beautiful, but did you know a diamond could be the oldest material you might own? While the rock in which diamonds are found may be 50 to 1,600 million years old, the diamonds themselves are approximately 3.3 billion years old. This discrepancy is because the volcanic magma that solidifies into rock where diamonds are found did not create them, but only transported the diamonds from the Earth's mantle to the surface. Diamonds also may be formed under the high pressures and temperatures at the site of meteorite impacts. The diamonds formed during an impact may be relatively 'young', but some meteorites contain star dust, debris from the death of a star, which may include diamond crystals. One such meteorite is known to contain tiny diamonds over 5 billion years old. These diamonds are older than our solar system!

Sunscreen:

Sunscreen Sunscreen combines organic and inorganic chemicals to filter the light from the sun so that less of it reaches the deeper layers of your skin. Like a screen door, some light penetrates, but not as much as if the door wasn't present. Sun block, on the other hand, reflects or scatters the light away so that it doesn't reach the skin at all. The reflective particles in sun blocks usually consist of zinc oxide or titanium oxide. In the past, you could tell who was using a sun block just by looking, because the sun block white out the skin. Not all modern sun blocks are visible because the oxide particles are smaller, though you can still find the traditional white zinc oxide. Sunscreens usually include sun blocks as part of their active ingredients. Theo Walcott of England applies sun block during the FIFA Soccer World Cup.

Fireworks:

Fireworks There are different types of fireworks. Firecrackers, sparklers, and aerial shells are all examples of fireworks. Firecrackers are the original fireworks. In their simplest form, firecrackers consists of gunpowder wrapped in paper, with a fuse. Gunpowder consists of 75% potassium nitrate (KNO3), 15% charcoal (carbon) or sugar, and 10% sulphur. The materials will react with each other when enough heat is applied. Lighting the fuse supplies the heat to light a firecracker. The charcoal or sugar is the fuel. Potassium nitrate is the oxidizer, and sulphur moderates the reaction. Carbon (from the charcoal or sugar) plus oxygen (from the air and the potassium nitrate) forms carbon dioxide and energy. Potassium nitrate, sulphur, and carbon react to form nitrogen and carbon dioxide gases and potassium sulphide. The pressure from the expanding nitrogen and carbon dioxide explode the paper wrapper of a firecracker. The loud bang is the pop of the wrapper being blown apart.

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