Category: Education

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By: chhini2909 (125 month(s) ago)


By: palguna143 (125 month(s) ago)


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Slide 1: 

Fear Anger Sad Horror Worry Loneliness Grief Guilt Agony Jealousy Contempt Hostility Annoyance Pride Contentment Bliss Fondness Infatuation Love Joy

Emotion : 

Emotion Emotions are feelings that generally have both physiological & cognitive elements and that influence behavior. Emotional expressiveness – the extent to which persons show outward expressions of their inner feelings.

Functions of Emotions : 

Functions of Emotions Prepares us for action Shapes future behavior Helps us to regulate social interactions

Perception : 


Perception : 

Perception Process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. The process of perception allows us to interpret what out sensory organs sense as objects, events, people, and situations.

Slide 6: 


The law of proximity : 

The law of proximity The law of proximity states that the closer objects are to one another, the more likely we are to mentally group them together.

The law of similarity : 

The law of similarity The law of similarity leads us to link together parts of the visual field that are similar in color, lightness, texture, shape, or any other quality.

The law of continuity : 

The law of continuity The law of continuity leads us to see a line as continuing in a particular direction, rather than making an abrupt turn.

The law of closure : 

The law of closure The law of closure, we prefer complete forms to incomplete forms.

The law of common fate : 

The law of common fate The law of common fate leads us to group together objects that move in the same direction.

Law of prägnanz, or simplicity : 

Law of prägnanz, or simplicity law of prägnanz, or simplicity states that people intuitively prefer the simplest, most stable of possible organizations

Perceiving Self : 

Perceiving Self

Self : 

Self Self is the sum total of all an individual which S/he can call hers / his. It is the core of ones being. Self Concept - One’s self identity, organized collection of beliefs and feelings about oneself. (past and future)

Slide 15: 

Self perception Self serving bias – tendency to attribute our own positive out comes to internal causes but negative outcomes or events to external causes. Self presentation Real self Ideal self

Social Perception (perceiving others) : 

Social Perception (perceiving others) Is an active process (or set of process) through which we seek to know and understand others. We try to understand other persons current feelings, moods &emotions and the more lasting causes behind others behavior We use observation and attribution to perceive others.

Observation : 

Observation Non verbal clues Body language Touching

Attribution : 

Attribution Is the process though which we seek to identify the causes of others behavior and so gain knowledge of their stable traits and dispositions.

Correspondent Inference : 

Correspondent Inference We use others behavior as a basis for inferrening their stable dispositions. (personality, behavior)

Attentional Resources and Trait Attribution : 

Attentional Resources and Trait Attribution Three tasks are accomplished when we infer other traits for their behavior: We Categorize an individuals behavior, decide what it is all about. We Characterize the behavior, use it to infer specific traits We Correct our inferences about this persons traits in the light of information about the situation in which it has occurred.

Casual Attributions : 

Casual Attributions How we answer the question Why? (internal / external cause) We focus on information relating to three dimensions: Consensus – the extent to which reactions by one person are shown by others. Consistency – the extent to which an individual responds in the same way on different occasions (i.e across time) to the same stimuli or situation. Distinctiveness – the extent to which an individual reacts in the same manner to other, different stimuli or events.

Slide 22: 

Augmenting principle - we assign extra weight to a factor that might facilitate a specific behavior if the behavior occurs despite the presence of other factors that tend to prevent it ( inhibitory factors) Discounting Principle – we reduce the importance of any given potential cause of a persons behavior to the extent that other potential causes also exist.

Perceiving groups : 

Perceiving groups

Stereotypes : 

Stereotypes Cognitive frameworks consisting of knowledge and beliefs about specific social groups. It involves generalizations about the typical characteristics of members of various social groups. It has powerful effects on our thinking about others. It allows us to make quick and dirty judgments about others without engaging in complex and more effortful thought. which are often wrong)

Prejudices : 

Prejudices A preformed and unsubstantiated judgment or opinion about an individual or a group, either favorable or unfavorable in nature. An unfavorable or hostile attitude toward other people based on their membership in another social or ethnic group. They serve as mental shortcuts, reducing the cognitive effort we must exert to understand others, form impressions or them or make judgments about them.

Prejudices : 

Prejudices People who are prejudiced tend to process information about these groups different from the way they process information about other groups. Negative feelings / emotions on part of the prejudiced persons when they are in the presence of or merely think about members of the group they dislike. It may involve tendencies to act in negative ways toward those who are objects of prejudice.

sexism : 

sexism Belief that rights and roles in society should be governed by one's sex. Historically, sexism has been male-driven and accompanied by a belief in the inferiority of women. (prejudice based on gender)

Racism : 

Racism Racism implies a belief in the superiority of one's own race. making the race of other people a factor in attitudes or actions concerning them.

Attitudes : 


Attitudes : 

Attitudes Attitudes are lasting evaluations of various aspects of the social world Attitudes often function as schemas- cognitive frameworks that hold and organize information about specific concepts, situations or events. Attitudes are learnt.

Formation of Attitudes & Behavior : 

Formation of Attitudes & Behavior

Change : 

Change Persuasion – efforts to change attitudes Characteristics of the target Central route – occurs when individuals find the message interesting, important or personally relevant and when they pay careful attention to it. Peripheral route- message content that induces positive feelings such as a very attractive model or a beautiful scenery.

Slide 33: 

Message source – who is delivering the message Characteristics of the message – positive / negative Reciprocity – we tend to change attitudes or public expression of them in response to persuasion from others who have previously changed their views in response to our own efforts at persuasion.

Resistance to change : 

Resistance to change Reactance – negative reactions to threats to one’s personal freedom Fore warning – advance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion. Selective avoidance – tendency to direct attention away from information that challenges existing attitudes.

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