Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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presentation gives idea on stocking density, heterogeneous individual growth, and feeding

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Advances in stocking and feeding strategies of Macrobrachium rosenbergii:

Advances in stocking and feeding strategies of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Biju I.F Aquaculture Division Central institute of fisheries education V ersova , M umbai

Current status of production:

Current status of production Giant river prawn year Production (t) 2005 195860 2006 189074 2007 226828 2008 219142 2009 224037 2010 215029

Country wise production Giant river prawn (2010):

Country wise production Giant river prawn (2010) country Production (t) China 125203 Bangladesh 30636 Thailand 25606 India 13525 Vietnam 8190 Taiwan 6318 Myanmar 2881

Status of India (Giant river prawn):

Status of India ( Giant river prawn) year Production (t) 2005 42820 2006 30115 2007 27262 2008 12800 2009 6600 2010 13525

Other species :

Other species Macrobrachium nipponense Produced only in china Production in 2010 – 2,25,645 t Macrobrachium malcolmsonii Produced only in India 2006 4039 (t) 2007 4100 2008 - 2009 - 2010 9474

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Macrobrachium lar Also known as the monkey river prawn Commercial culture by wild caught juveniles Very limited farmed production <0.5t/year. Macrobrachium amazonicum Also known as amazon river prawn Culture practice promoted in brazil.

Constraints:

Constraints Hatchery phase is about twice as long as for marine shrimp. Freshwater prawns cannot be reared in grow out systems as intensively as marine shrimps. Prawns require more care in processing than the marine shrimp. Heterogeneous individual growth rate (HIG).

Culture methods:

Culture methods Extensive system- 0.5 – 2/ sq m using post larvae or juvenile. Productivity below 500kg/ha/yr. Semi intensive – 3-20/ sq m Yields vary from 500 – 5000kg/ha/yr. Intensive - >20/ sq m Not compatible with the biology of the species.

Strategies to reduce differential growth:

Strategies to reduce differential growth Mainly two methods are adopted – continuous and modified batch culture system. These systems are used for the management of semi intensive systems. Continuous system M ultiple stocking and multiple harvesting for 3-5 years Takes advantages of year round water supply and growing season.

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Cull harvesting is practised in these systems Disadvantages Incomplete seine harvesting Large prawns impact on newly stocked post larvae. Productivity tend to decline with time. Predatory and weed fish tend to become established. In T aiwan annual yields more than 4000 kg/ha.

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Combined system C ull harvesting starts when the first prawns attain market size. Prawns >50g are harvested by a seine net with mesh size 3.8 to 5cm. There is no restocking. Ponds are drained after 6 – 12 months and final harvesting is done.

Modified batch system:

Modified batch system First reared in 1000sq m nursery pond at density of 200-400 PL/ sq m for 60-90 days. 0.3-0.5g juveniles were harvested and stocked at 20 to 30/m2 in empty juvenile ponds . After 2-3 months, seine harvesting of these juvenile ponds begin and this is repeated every month . R emoved animals of 9 to 15 g, which were then stocked into ponds with existing populations of small prawns.

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The juvenile ponds were either converted to adult ponds or drained for reuse. This method reduces the effect of fast growing prawns on the other small prawns. Results in improved FCR value.

Poly culture:

Poly culture Polyculture with tilapia and grass carp is potentially more profitable than monoculture. Survival is better if juveniles of 2-5 g are used rather than post larvae. The most profitable density is 2/ sq m. Experiment in Bangladesh shows; Prawns at density 12000 – 18000/ha and five carp species at 8500/ha for 10 months. Yield of prawn 162-428kg/ha, fish yield 4604- 5821 kg/ha.

Monosex culture (All male):

Monosex culture (All male) Post larvae reared for 45-60 days to 3-5g in nursery ponds. Stocked at densities of 1-1.5juveniles/ sq m. Partial harvesting is done after 90-120 days (>70g). Seining is carried out once every month and completing the culture in 6-8 months. Feed conversion low 1.2:1 than 1.9:1 in mixed system.

Monosex culture (All female):

Monosex culture ( A ll female)

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Male prawns display a highly skewed, highly variant, size distribution. Most of the male biomass is in the small male size class which has less value than females . P rawn females display a uniform and moderate size distribution.

Effect of claw ablation:

Effect of claw ablation Both cannibalism and social suppression of growth may be influenced by the retention or absence of claws. The second pair of claws were ablated. Partial claw-ablation or claw immobilization resulted in uniform growth. Survival was also higher for the ablated group.

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide (Gly-SIFamide) Modulates Aggression:

GYRKPPFNGSIFamide ( Gly-SIFamide ) Modulates Aggression SIFamides are a family of arthropod peptides recently identified in the central nervous system of insects and crustaceans. linked to olfaction, sexual behavior , and gut endocrine functions. One of the six SIFamide isoforms, GYRKPPFNGSIFamide ( Gly-SIFamide ), is highly conserved among decapod crustaceans such as crabs and crayfish . Injecting gly-SIFamide increased aggression among interacting blue and orange claw prawns.

Rotational paddy cum prawn culture:

Rotational paddy cum prawn culture Paddy cultivation is carried out during November to February. The culture is extensive in nature; 10,000- 20,000/ha with feeding and <5000/ha without feeding. Major carps are also stocked @ 100-1200/ha. Harvesting usually during October to November.

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Average marketable size 70g is obtained in 6-8 months Yield of about 500-750kg/ha with feeding and 150-250kg/ha without feeding. Yield of fishes ranges from 125-200kg/ha.

Prawn culture in inland saline waters:

Prawn culture in inland saline waters Culture attempts in Punjab and Haryana showed promising results. Salinity was reduced to <10ppt by canal water. Polyculture with carps yielded 270kg of prawn and 2655kg of fish from 1.8ha of saline area.

Prawn culture in reservoirs:

Prawn culture in reservoirs Culture trials have been carried out in two reservoirs in Kerala. Post larvae was stocked at low density 467/ha. Prawns attained an average weight of 500g in 6 months. Gill nets were used to catch the prawns. Harvesting is difficult due to depth and area.

Feeding strategies:

Feeding strategies In the past farmers have heavily relied on commercial pellet feed. 25-30% of the big and medium sized farms formulated their own farm made feed. The formula was finalized by trial and error. Local feed mills were selected for the manufacture for costs ranging from US$ 340 to 450/t. While commercial brands of feeds would cost US$ 580–710 a tonne.

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Feed formula using locally available ingredients has been developed at CIFA. Dry sugarcane yeast, Saccharum officinarum , a by-product of alcohol production can be used upto 20% in a 30% protein diet for grow-out stages. Addition of several chemo attractants such as taurine , betaine , glycine and proline in diets enhances voluntary feed intake and growth of juveniles . Generally no exogenous feed is required until the prawn biomass reach 18g/m2 in the pond.

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For grow-out culture of prawns feed are initially given at 5-8% of the body weight/day . The feeding rate declines as the animals grow about 1.5-2% bwt when the animals are about 20 g in size. C ultured prawns are fed twice daily with feeds that contain protein levels ranging from 20 to 35%. It can grow well even with 15 % protein feed in ponds with sufficient natural food.

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Three feeds are used in Bangladesh. Commercial feeds Home made feed combining oil cakes, fish meal, rice bran, wheat bran, boiled vegetables and other ingredients in fixed proportion. Snail meat

References :

References Michael B New & C Mohanakumaran Nair(2012) Global scale of freshwater prawn farming. Aquaculture research 43, 960-969. C Mohanakumaran Nair & K R Salin (2012) Current status and prospects of farming the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) and the monsoon river prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H.M. Edwards) in India. Aquaculture reseach 43, 999–1014. Spencer Malecha (2012) The case for all-female freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), culture. Aquaculture Research 43 , 1038–1048.

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Helcio Luis de Almeida Marques & Patricia M C Moraes-Valenti (2012) Current status and prospects of farming the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879 ) and the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller 1862)) in Brazil. Aquaculture research 43, 984–992. Gopa M itra , D. N. Chattopadhyay Nutrition and feeding in freshwater prawn. Michael B New, W. C. Valenti , J. H. Tidwell, M. N. Kutty . Freshwater prawns biology and farming. C. Mohanakumaran Nair, D. D. Nambudiri , Susheela Jose, T. M. Sankaaran , K. V. Jayachandran , K. R. Salin . Freshwater prawns, Advances in biology, aquaculture and marketing.

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Shivakumar , M ., Naveenkumar , B.T ., Shivananda Murthy, Ramachandra Naik , A.T., and C. Vasudevappa . STUDIES ON EFFECT OF CLAW-ABLATION ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man) International Journal of Science , Environment and Technology, Vol. 1, No 5, 2012, 491 – 498.

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