Responsible aquaculture

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Responsible aquaculture:

Responsible aquaculture Biju i f AQC MA2 02

Aquaculture industry:

Aquaculture industry Increasing demand for seafood and the limited supply of wild fish. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about three-quarters of wild stocks are either fully exploited or over exploited. Small-scale producers make up the majority with limited resources. Uncontrolled development of the sector. Range of environmental, aquatic animal health and food safety concerns.

Definition :

Definition advancing environmentally and socially responsible aquaculture and a safe supply of seafood to meet growing world food needs. ‘ Successful management of natural resources ... to satisfy human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources’ The words sustainability and responsibility are sometimes used synonymously.

Impacts of aquaculture:

Impacts of aquaculture Mangrove destruction Water pollution Use of chemicals Escapement of exotic species Disease out breaks Conflicts among resource utilization Food safety issues

Land and water use :

Land and water use Land and water should be, and typically are, used rather than consumed. Land and water must take into account the requirements of natural flora and fauna. A producer’s use of land and water should not marginalize the other users of this resource through depletion, restriction of access, or pollution of the resource. Photo courtesy; A 30-million-square-meter shrimp farm in Indonesia

Energy use:

Energy use Land scarce – high intensity culture – high energy use High amount of aeration or pumping of water is necessary. Distance to which aquaculture products are shipped (food miles) to reach consumers. Examine carbon emissions in aquaculture. Target efficiency improvements.

Chemicals and therapeutants:

Chemicals and therapeutants Responsible use of therapeutants requires being aware of and recording their use, and using them only when necessary. over-use of therapeutants is unnecessary and wasteful. Contribute to development of disease resistant pathogens. Negative implications for producers, the environment, and human health.

Food safety:

Food safety Banned chemicals can have negative effects on the environment, the users of these chemicals and the end consumer. Banned chemicals detected in exported product will result in batch rejections. Negatively affects the export market. In the absence of a traceability system this places an unfair burden on producers in the region that are abiding by the regulatory framework.

Net loss of fish protein:

Net loss of fish protein Culture of carnivorous fish results in the net loss of protein. Use of wild fish/organisms increases pressure on wild stocks to fuel aquaculture production. Important to note that wild fish resources are utilized by rural poor in Asia. Depleting these resources also directly affects those persons dependent on these resources as livelihoods.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Use of wild fish resources for seed or juveniles for grow-out on farms which also increase pressure on wild stocks. The capture of seed and juveniles for grow-out is not sustainable Artificial propagation of some of these species provide an opportunity to mitigate this impact.

Social responsibility:

Social responsibility Unfair labour practices create a social environment where farm employees are less likely to respect appropriate procedures and regulations. worker behaviour can decrease production efficiency, increase environmental impact, and even endanger employee health. Awareness about the welfare of the communities surrounding aquaculture facilities.

Aquaculture The responsible way:

Aquaculture The responsible way

Environmental management in aquaculture:

Environmental management in aquaculture Impact identification. Formulation of standards. Adoption of management practices to comply with standards. Monitoring to prove compliance. Correction for non-compliance.

Environmental impact assessment:

Environmental impact assessment common reasons for failure of aquaculture farms and for adverse environmental impacts is location of farms on inferior sites. In cage culture characteristic of the water body plays a crucial role. All of the information required in a proper site evaluation must be obtained in an environmental impact assessment (EIA). Also must provide a detailed description of, 1) The ecosystem to be affected 2) Describe the proposed project 3) Predict negative environmental impacts 4) Provide a mitigation plan and monitoring program

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thus, site evaluation, environmental impact assessment, and farm layout and design for aquaculture projects should be integrated. The developer can determine if it is technically and economically possible to develop a sustainable project on a given site.

Effluent regulations :

Effluent regulations Ways of regulating 1)Discharge not allowed 2)Discharge allowed only if effluent quality is within specified limits. 3)Discharge allowed only if BMPs are used 4)Discharge is allowed but user fees are applied to effluent pollution loads.

Best management practices:

Best management practices Practice used to prevent water pollution and other negative environmental impacts. A BMP is considered to be the best available and practical means of preventing a particular environmental impact while still allowing production to be conducted in an economically efficient manner. List of procedures and practices to be followed. Set of standards to be followed. Example (BMP for preventing effluent discharge).

Feed and feed management:

Feed and feed management Better practice: Use of high quality feeds, efficient use of fish meal Feed monitoring Feeding according to demand Low FCR Economic benefits: Substantial increase in profitability

Exotic species:

Exotic species Countries should have policies about importation, quarantine, and distribution of non-native species. Culture systems should be designed to prevent escape, but experience indicates that it is difficult to assure that no animals will escape. Strict guidelines for disease inspection and quarantine. Application of the OIE aquatic animal health code . (Office International des Epizooties)

Global aquaculture alliance:

Global aquaculture alliance Organized in 1997, The non-profit NGO develops the Best Aquaculture Practices certification standards and encourages the use of responsible aquaculture practices.

Certification of food products:

Certification of food products Consumers more conscious about health issues. Wholesomeness of the product. Recent events in food safety. Stringent export regulations.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Food safety Adds value to the brand

Traceability :

Traceability Traceability is an integral part of Best Aquaculture Practices certification. It interconnects links in the aquaculture seafood production chain and allows each processed lot to be traced back to the pond and inputs of origin. Traceability assures purchasers that all steps in the production process were taken in compliance with environmental, social and food safety standards. All certified facilities must maintain internal electronic or paper-based records of the required data to document essential information and establish “one up, one down” traceability.

Rural aquaculture:

Rural aquaculture Many rural aquaculture practices integrated with the crop and/or livestock production. Considered as the poorest of the poor aquaculture. Responsible aquaculture can contribute in many ways to social and economic development in rural areas. Aquaculture Asia , Edwards (2001,a) noted that the ‘blue revolution’ in aquaculture has not yet taken place outside china. Rural aquaculture have unfulfilled potential to contribute to food security and poverty alleviation. An understanding of the knowledge, problems and priorities of local people is necessary.

Other organizations:

Other organizations Food and agricultural organization Code of Conduct of Responsible Fisheries Responsible aquaculture at the production level (CCRF Article 9.4) "States should promote responsible aquaculture practices in support of rural communities, producer organizations and fish farmers.“ Coastal aquaculture authority of India 1)Regulates the coastal aquaculture

Crop rotation :

Crop rotation Crop rotation is practiced as an preventive measure against pests. To maximize economic yield. Maximum resource utilization. Use a single pond space for a diversity of marketable products. Species stocked depend on the season. 1)Fish can be cultured as an intermediate crop between the harvesting and next replanting in rice fish culture. 2)Sometimes p.monodon and L.vannamei is cultured in rotational basis to avoid the outbreak of WSSV.

PowerPoint Presentation:

In a sustainable system young tilapia are stocked in the ponds in January and grow out from February to May. In May the fish are harvested and the young shrimp are added to the ponds. As shrimp grow out from June to September, mudcrabs are raised/fattened in pens within mangroves. In October ponds can be drained, dried and prepared for next culture cycle. 1)Culture of the freshwater Cray fish procambarus clarkii and rice in China.

Role of biotechnology:

Role of biotechnology Food security will be a major issue facing mankind in the coming millennium. Biotechnology can provide the means to increase the intensity and capacity of the operation. 1) Microsatellite, RFLP and QTL analysis a) These DNA fingerprinting and mapping technologies are primarily used for stock identification and breeding selection. b)identification of genetic markers for important traits such as growth enhancement and disease resistance in the genome. 2) Gene mapping and genomics a) for characterisation of gene sequences b)characterisation of genetic markers of important traits.

PowerPoint Presentation:

3) DNA vaccines a)Involves the use of naked DNA to express the antigen in the host itself as part of the vaccination process. 4 ) DNA chips a) Which is capable of analysing the expression profiles of tens of thousands of genes in a microchip, has already revolutionized the biotech industry. b)applied for mutation and polymorphism detection. 5) Proteomics a) it is a fast and sensitive method for large-scale protein characterization. b) a powerful means to identify proteins that are expressed or altered under experimental conditions.

PowerPoint Presentation:

5) Transgenic technology a) Used to generate transgenic animals and plants with defined phenotypes. b)Development of freeze resistant transgenic fish. c)Development of disease transgenic fish. 6) Ploidy manipulation and cryopreservation. 7) Sex determination and sex reversal. 8) Molecular characterisation of neuropeptides . 9)DNA bar coding of fishes (forensic identification of meat of endangered aquatic species)

Reference :

Reference Best Management Practices for Responsible Aquaculture by Claude E. Boyd. RESPONSIBLE AQUACULTURE: IS THIS A SPECIAL CHALLENGE FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? By Michael B. New. The role of aquatic biotechnology in aquaculture by Choy L. Hew. Penaeid genetics and biotechnology by J.A.H. Benzie Aquaculture Asia pacific, www.aquaasiapac.com www.fao.org www.oie.int www.gaa.in www.caa.gov.in

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