APUS UNIT 3 MAIN Washington - Madison 2010-2011

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

By: menamohap2020 (41 month(s) ago)

amazing

Presentation Transcript

Master Review Unit 3 : 

Master Review Unit 3 A.P. U.S. History

Shaping a New Nation 1789-1824 : 

2 Shaping a New Nation 1789-1824 Presidents: Washington Adams Jefferson Madison Monroe

George Washington : 

3 George Washington Trivia Myths… wooden teeth anyone, Cherry tree lie (Parson Weems) Talents… breeding mules (male donkey, female horse) “Royal Gift” First Lady…? French and Indian War (1754-1763) Commander of Continental Army – Revolutionary War Articles of Confederation Weak central government, strong state government Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Shays Rebellion, 1786 Constitutional Convention, 1787 Separation of powers – Executive, Legislative, Judicial Checks and balances Electoral College, Congressional Caucus (picked candidates) Ratification of Constitution Federalists vs. Anti-federalists The Federalist Papers Bill of Rights 1791 Cabinet Hamilton’s “5 Point” Economic Plan Bargain National Bank for Washington D.C. Implied powers, “strict vs. loose” Hamilton vs. Jefferson Strong central gov. vs. states rights Life terms for senators vs. limited terms pro-British v. pro-French Whiskey Rebellion, 1791 French Revolution Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Britain vs. France Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 TESTS to Neutrality Proclamation Citizen Genet Impressment British encouraged Native American attacks in NW frontier Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794 General “Mad” Anthony Wayne Treaty of Greenville, 1795 Jay’s Treaty, 1794 Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795 Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 Warned against: Permanent alliances Political parties Avoid sectionalism Cotton Gin – 1793, Eli Whitney, slavery died in north grew in south American painters who went to Europe to paint historical scenes Benjamin West John Singleton Copley Portrait painting popular in late 1700s: Gilbert Stuart “hook me up with a George Washington” Charles Wilson Peale OTHER ITEMS: Newburg Conspiracy, 1783 Annapolis Convention, 1786 Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Connecticut Compromise 3/5ths Compromise Judiciary Act of 1789

Trivia : 

4 Trivia Myths… thanks Parson Weems wooden teeth anyone? cherry tree lie (Parson Weems) Talents… breeding mules (male donkey, female horse) “Royal Gift”

Martha? : 

5 Martha?

Prior to becoming president…the war hero? : 

6 Prior to becoming president…the war hero? French and Indian War Fort Necessity Commander of the Continental Army (Revolutionary War)

Articles of Confederation : 

7 Articles of Confederation Features: weak central government strong state government Successes: Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Land Ordinance of 1785 : 

8 Land Ordinance of 1785 A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

Northwest Ordinance 1787 : 

9 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Creates 3-5 new territories in Northwest Population of 5,000 may elect Assembly Population of 60,000 may petition for statehood Bill of Rights provided Slavery outlawed

Shays’ Rebellion, 1786 : 

10 Shays’ Rebellion, 1786 Who: Led by Captain Daniel Shays What: Uprising against - high state taxes imprisonment for debt Where: Shays led 2000 rebels to Springfield, MA to storm the arsenal Result: showed weaknesses of Articles strengthens support for strong central government

Constitutional Convention, 1787 : 

11 Constitutional Convention, 1787 Separation of powers: Executive, Legislative, Judicial Checks and balances Electoral College (chooses president) Congressional Caucus (picked candidates for president until nominating conventions)

Electoral College : 

12 Electoral College The President is elected indirectly, not directly States chose their “electors” who then voted for president. Each Elector was given two votes The person with the second highest total served as Vice President Electoral votes come from the total number of representatives a state in the congress

Ratification of Constitution : 

13 Ratification of Constitution Federalists vs. Anti-federalists The Federalist Papers Bill of Rights 1791

Judiciary Act, 1789 : 

14 Judiciary Act, 1789 Created the federal court system: Set up Supreme Court Federal District Court Supreme Court rules on constitutionality of decisions: Chief Justice and 5 associate judges John Jay – 1st Chief Justice

Cabinet : 

15 Cabinet Washington established a cabinet (heads of the executive branch departments) Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury – Alex Hamilton Secretary of War – Henry Knox Attorney General – Edmund Randolph These departments make up cabinet, which advises President

Hamilton’s “5 Point” Economic Plan : 

16 Hamilton’s “5 Point” Economic Plan WHAT: All debts paid at face value (funding at par). To help establish credit and get support from the rich! Federal government would assume all of the debts owed by the states. Would tie the states more to the federal government! Excise tax on liquor used to pay interest on the debt. Tariffs – taxes on foreign goods For revenue (money) For protection of new American industry Create a strong National Bank. KEY: Bargain National Bank for Washington D.C.

Hamilton vs. Jefferson : 

17 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Differences: Strong central government. vs. states rights Life terms for senators vs. limited terms pro-British v. pro-French Check out the football cartoon!

Implied powers, elastic clause : 

18 Implied powers, elastic clause Article I, Section 8 contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forfegoing powers.“ Sometimes called "implied" powers A.k.a. "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched” How much power does this clause grant to Congress?

Whiskey Rebellion, 1791 : 

19 Whiskey Rebellion, 1791 WHEN: 1794 WHAT: farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey RESULT: several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army (13,000), led by Washington, put down the rebellion. SIGNIFICANE: swiftly and effectively SHOWED POWER of NEW FEDERAL GOVERNMENT!

French Revolution : 

20 French Revolution Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Britain vs. France

French Political Cartoons : 

21 French Political Cartoons

French Revolution : 

22 French Revolution WHAT: Inspired by American Revolution The French people overthrew the King Louis XVI guillotine a series of unsuccessful democratic governments followed Britain fought against France Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799. U.S. RESPONSE: The U.S. did nothing to aid either side.

George Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 : 

23 George Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 WHY: Britain and France went to war. The American public was torn over which nation to support. WHAT: George Washington’s response to the division: the U.S. would stay out of the war IMPACT: Starts a long tradition of isolationism

TESTS to Neutrality Proclamation : 

24 TESTS to Neutrality Proclamation FRENCH: Citizen Genet (wanted U.S. to help the French) BRITISH: Impressment (British taking looking for deserters, taking anyone w/o identification) British encouraged Native American attacks in NW frontier Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794 General “Mad” Anthony Wayne Treaty of Greenville, 1795

Jay’s Treaty, 1794 : 

25 Jay’s Treaty, 1794 Didn’t we just beat the British down? We need to put them in their place! If we could avoid war, we will be powerful for the future!

Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795 : 

26 Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795

Washington’s Farewell Address, 1797 : 

27 Washington’s Farewell Address, 1797 He warned: Against making “permanent” alliances in foreign affairs Not to form political parties To avoid sectionalism About not brushing and flossing…

Cotton Gin – 1793 : 

28 Cotton Gin – 1793 Eli Whitney, slavery died in north grew in south

Painting : 

29 Painting WHAT: Portrait painting popular in America during late 1700s and early 1800s: Gilbert Stuart “hook me up with a George Washington” Charles Wilson Peale Famous American painters who went to Europe to paint historical scenes Benjamin West John Singleton Copley

Miscellaneous Washington : 

30 Miscellaneous Washington OTHER ITEMS: Newburg Conspiracy, 1783 Annapolis Convention, 1786 Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan Connecticut Compromise 3/5ths Compromise Judiciary Act of 1789

John Adams : 

31 John Adams Trivia Forget Xbox 360, we’ve go - kites, marbles, and toy boats Lawyer - defended 9 British soldiers in Boston Massacre Nominated Washington to be “Commander in Chief” during Revolution Helped with Declaration of Independence Last words “Jefferson still survives” 50th anniversary of Declaration 7/4/1826 (no texting here, Jefferson was already dead!) Campaign of 1796 – Adams vs. Jefferson (Federalist vs. Democratic-Republican) “American King” vs. Demagogue Jefferson lost, but became Vice-President First Lady – Abigail Adams Business woman - Bond speculator “remember the ladies” Challenges to Neutrality: Neutrality=big business (sell to both sides)! French raids on shipping Encouraged pirates…Where’s Captain Jack when you need him? (Following Washington’s advice) X,Y,Z Affair Led to war fever! “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.” Stopped trading with the French and used British Navy for protection Navy was built up and further developed. Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 Went against those who opposed the Federalists (i.e. French and Democratic-Republicans) 10 Democratic-Republican Newspaper editors jailed Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Compact Theory Nullification “Quasi-War” 1798-1800 Unofficial war - U.S. Navy vs. French Ended with treaty in 1800 French recognized U.S. neutrality U.S. increased trade with France Popularity…decline Popular until Quasi-War and Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists upset that he didn’t declare war on France (they were pro-British after all) People felt their rights were infringed upon. Election of 1800 – Jefferson v. Adams again… Jefferson tied with Aaron Burr Election decided in House of Representatives (tied after 35 separate votes) Alexander Hamilton’s influence helped Jefferson win and started animosity between him and Burr (duel time!) Midnight Appointments or judges Wanted to keep federalist policies in place All created near the end of his term. Led to Marbury v. Madison Education late 1700s Wealthy – good schools Farmers (most people) School between planting seasons Daughters less Free people of color and slaves even less! In North, churches became centers of education for free people of color In South, slaves barred from church Johnny Appleseed John Chapman – sold apple seedlings to people settling the frontier Myths – wandering vagabond who loved nature and was peaceful to Native Americans

John Adams – 2nd President (1 Term) PARTY - Federalist : 

32 John Adams – 2nd President (1 Term) PARTY - Federalist

John Adams Trivia : 

33 John Adams Trivia Did you know?: Forget Xbox 360, we’ve go - kites, marbles, and toy boats Lawyer - defended 9 British soldiers in Boston Massacre Nominated Washington to be “Commander in Chief” during Revolution Helped with Declaration of Independence Last words “Jefferson still survives” 50th anniversary of Declaration 7/4/1826 (no texting here, Jefferson was already dead!)

Campaign of 1796 – Adams vs. Jefferson : 

34 Campaign of 1796 – Adams vs. Jefferson (Federalist vs. Democratic-Republican) “American King” vs. Demagogue Jefferson lost, but became Vice-President First true election Adams was a Federalist (victorious by 3 electoral votes) 71-68 Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican (became vice president). I win you sucka…

First Lady – Abigail Adams : 

35 First Lady – Abigail Adams Business woman - Bond speculator Got rich from Hamilton’s Economic Program (funding at par – pay debts at full face value) “remember the ladies”

Challenges to Neutrality: : 

36 Challenges to Neutrality: Neutrality=big business (sell to both sides)! British impressment French raids on shipping Encouraged pirates…Where’s Captain Jack when you need him?

X,Y,Z Affair : 

37 X,Y,Z Affair WHAT: Adams (Following Washington’s advice) sent negotiators to sign treaty w/ France Problem: French diplomat RESULT: Led to war fever! “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.” Stopped trading with the French and used British Navy for protection Navy was built up and further developed. I need money to keep my hair looking this good!

Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 : 

38 Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 WHAT: Went against those who opposed the Federalists (i.e. French and Democratic-Republicans) 10 Democratic-Republican Newspaper editors jailed RESULT: Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Compact Theory Nullification

“Quasi-War” 1798-1800 : 

39 “Quasi-War” 1798-1800 WHAT: Unofficial war - U.S. Navy vs. French RESULT: Ended with treaty in 1800 French recognized U.S. neutrality U.S. increased trade with France

John Adams Popularity…decline : 

40 John Adams Popularity…decline TROUBLES: Popular until Quasi-War and Alien and Sedition Acts Federalists upset that he didn’t declare war on France (they were pro-British after all) People felt their rights were infringed upon. Being President is tough!

Election of 1800 – Jefferson v. Adams again… : 

41 Election of 1800 – Jefferson v. Adams again… PROBLEM: Jefferson tied with Aaron Burr SOLUTION: Election decided in House of Representatives (tied after 35 separate votes) Alexander Hamilton’s influence helped Jefferson win and started animosity with Burr (duel time!) SIGNIFICANCE: 12th Amendment added to Constitution (separate balloting for president and vice-president) 1st change in political parties in power (from Federalist to Democratic-Republicans)

Midnight Appointments or judges : 

42 Midnight Appointments or judges WHAT: John Adams wanted to keep federalist policies in place All created near the end of his term. SIGNIFICANCE: Led to Marbury v. Madison (judicial review)

Education late 1700s : 

43 Education late 1700s Wealthy – good schools Farmers (most people) School between planting seasons Daughters less Free people of color and slaves even less! In North, churches became centers of education for free people of color In South, slaves barred from church

Johnny Appleseed : 

44 Johnny Appleseed WHO: John Chapman – sold apple seedlings to people settling the frontier Myths wandering vagabond who loved nature and was peaceful to Native Americans

END Chapter 6 : 

45 END Chapter 6

Thomas Jefferson : 

46 Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President (2 Terms) PARTY – Democratic-Republican Trivia: - nickname: Red Fox Youngest delegate to first Continental Congress, wrote the Declaration of Independence (slave trade talk deleted) Jefferson an architect? Think Monticello, his home in Virginia! Oui, Oui, Jefferson was an ambassador to France during the Articles of Confederation! Election “Revolution” of 1800 First change in party power! - Inaugural address “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” (unity theme) Jeffersonian Democracy Make government smaller, less involved Reduced size of military Recalled diplomatic (w/foreign countries) missions Review of government spending (cut debt by ½!) – Albert Gallatin Secretary of Treasury (free trade, repealed excise tax) Barbary Wars aka Tripolitan Wars U.S. paid tribute to pirates off coast of N. Africa for safe passage of ships in Mediterranean Jefferson sent Navy to deal with pirates Stephen Decatur became a hero by destroying a captured American ship (Philadelphia) to keep it out of pirate hands! Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Judiciary Act of 1801 – “Midnight Appointments” of John Adams to keep Federalists in power! Jefferson refused William Marbury his commission and he sued for it! Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist) declared pt. of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional established “Judicial Review” (Supreme Court can void an act of congress if it violates the Constitution!) Louisiana Purchase, 1804 Napoleon needed money doubled size of U.S. (gained 828,000 square miles); 4 cents an acre brought up strict v. loose construction argument Other Explorers – Zebulon Pike (think Pike’s Peak, CO - 1805-1807) He also spied on Spanish while exploring! Major Stephen Long – explored middle of Louisiana Purchase region, called it a “Great American Desert” Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804 - Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s personal secretary) and William Clark 30 soldiers, 10 civilians (experts in botany, zoology, sign language, and navigation) Explored and documented St. Louis to Pacific Ocean Sacajawea – 16 year old, Shoshone helped communicate with tribes suspicious of Lewis and Clark Election of 1804 – Jefferson big win, he was popular and Federalists weren’t a factor! 12th Amendment (separate voting for pres. and vice pres.) added in 1804 to prevent trouble (think Election 1800) Aaron Burr dropped and replaced w/George Clinton Jefferson planned to expand infrastructure to West (roads and canals), but then came the challenges! Burr Conspiracy - Burr joined the Essex Junto – powerful group of New England Federalists Burr wanted to become gov. of NY and secede NY from the union and join Massachusetts as a new country! Duel – Alexander Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr (1804) after Hamilton made comments insulting Burr’s character Burr planned to join mercenaries and take over the southern Louisiana Territory to eventually secede from the union, but Gov. James Wilkinson informed Jefferson and Burr was arrested! Burr acquitted of treason by John Marshall (precedent made it hard for President to use treason as a political tool) Challenges to NEUTRALITY under Jefferson Barbary Wars Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 1807 British Ship (Leopard) fired on American ship the Chesapeake (21 casualties) Public wanted war, but Jefferson remembered Washington’s warning, wanted to stay neutral! Embargo Act, 1807 Jefferson issued embargo NO TRADE WITH EUROPE…period! He wanted to force the British and French to respect American neutrality. Result=DISASTER – farmers suffered, jobs in the shipping industry lost, businesses took huge hits! Unintended consequence – American industry grew (no goods from Europe so we had to make them!) Repealed just before Jefferson left office, in 1809 Revolution in transportation – Steamboat – Robert Fulton , Clermont 1807 Benjamin Banneker Super scholar, self taught, published an almanac from 1791-1802 (asked Jefferson to use influence to help blacks! Triangular Trade Slave trade banned in 1808, (remember 3/5ths Compromise?) but smuggling continued. Triangle=RUM from New England distilleries, to West Africa for SLAVES, to West Indies for MOLASSES, then molasses traded for RUM…over and over and over again Slaves from West Indies sold to both North and South America Middle Passage – deadly journey of slaves from West Africa to the West Indies Noah Webster – published dictionary that reflected the new “American” English! (12,000 more words than other)! Justice Samuel Chase A Federalist Supreme Court judge (Revolutionary War hero, signer of the Declaration of Independence) Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration Chase was acquitted by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.) OTHER ITEMS: Religious freedom (Jefferson was a Deist (believed in a single creator that set universe in motion) for Virginia in 1786; Jefferson Dynasty (family of rulers – think Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe – all from Virginia!); Sally Hemmings controversy (fathered at least 1 or 2 children w/slave)

Trivia : 

47 Trivia nickname: Red Fox Youngest delegate to first Continental Congress, wrote the Declaration of Independence (slave trade talk deleted) Jefferson an architect? Think Monticello, his home in Virginia! Oui, Oui, Jefferson was an ambassador to France during the Articles of Confederation!

Election “Revolution” of 1800 : 

48 Election “Revolution” of 1800 First change in party power! Inaugural address “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” (unity theme) A change in regime need not be disastrous! And you know what, that’s ok!

Jeffersonian Democracy : 

49 Jeffersonian Democracy WHAT: Make government smaller, less involved HOW: Reduced size of military Recalled diplomatic (w/foreign countries) missions Review of government spending (cut debt by ½!) – Albert Gallatin Secretary of Treasury (free trade, repealed excise tax)

Barbary Wars aka. Tripolitan Wars : 

50 Barbary Wars aka. Tripolitan Wars SITUATION: U.S. paid tribute to pirates off coast of N. Africa for safe passage of ships in Mediterranean RESPONSE Jefferson sent Navy to deal with pirates Stephen Decatur became a hero by destroying a captured American ship (Philadelphia) to keep it out of pirate hands!

Marbury v. Madison, 1803 : 

51 Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Judiciary Act of 1801 “Midnight Appointments” of John Adams to keep Federalists in power! PROBLEM: Jefferson refused William Marbury his commission and he sued for it! RESULT: Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist) declared pt. of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional established “Judicial Review” (Supreme Court can void an act of congress if it violates the Constitution!)

Louisiana Purchase, 1804 : 

52 Louisiana Purchase, 1804 WHY: Napoleon needed money WHAT: doubled size of U.S. (gained 828,000 square miles); 4 cents an acre PROBLEM: brought up strict v. loose construction argument

Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804 : 

53 Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804 WHO: Meriwether Lewis (Jefferson’s personal secretary) and William Clark 30 soldiers, 10 civilians (experts in botany, zoology, sign language, and navigation) Sacajawea 16 year old, Shoshone helped communicate with tribes suspicious of Lewis and Clark WHAT: Explored and documented St. Louis to Pacific Ocean

Other Explorers – : 

54 Other Explorers – WHO: Zebulon Pike (think Pike’s Peak, CO - 1805-1807) He also spied on Spanish while exploring! WHO: Major Stephen Long – explored middle of Louisiana Purchase region, called it a “Great American Desert”

Election of 1804 : 

55 Election of 1804 WHAT: Jefferson big win, he was popular and Federalists weren’t a factor! 12th Amendment (separate voting for pres. and vice pres.) added in 1804 to prevent trouble (think Election 1800) Aaron Burr dropped and replaced w/George Clinton Jefferson planned to expand infrastructure to West (roads and canals), but then came the challenges!

Burr Conspiracy : 

56 Burr Conspiracy RADICAL: Burr joined the Essex Junto – powerful group of New England Federalists Burr wanted to become gov. of NY and secede NY from the union and join Massachusetts as a new country! Duel – Alexander Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr (1804) after Hamilton made comments insulting Burr’s character! CONSPIRACY: Burr planned to join mercenaries and take over the southern Louisiana Territory to eventually secede from the union, but Gov. James Wilkinson informed Jefferson and Burr was arrested! RESULT: Burr acquitted of treason by John Marshall (precedent made it hard for President to use treason as a political tool)

Challenges to NEUTRALITY under Jefferson : 

57 Challenges to NEUTRALITY under Jefferson WHAT: Barbary Wars Chesapeake-Leopard Incident, 1807 British Ship (Leopard) fired on American ship the Chesapeake (21 casualties) Public wanted war, but Jefferson remembered Washington’s warning, wanted to stay neutral! RESULT: Jefferson passed the Embargo Act of 1807

Embargo Act, 1807 : 

58 Embargo Act, 1807 WHAT: Jefferson issued embargo NO TRADE WITH EUROPE…period! WHY: He wanted to force the British and French to respect American neutrality. Result DISASTER – farmers suffered, jobs in the shipping industry lost, businesses took huge hits! Unintended consequence – American industry grew (no goods from Europe so we had to make them!) Repealed just before Jefferson left office, in 1809

Justice Samuel Chase : 

59 Justice Samuel Chase WHO: A Federalist Supreme Court judge (Revolutionary War hero, signer of the Declaration of Independence) PROBLEM: Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration RESULT: Chase was acquitted by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. Vicious dogs were named after him! SIGNIFICANCE: Only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice. Set precedent…(it just doesn’t happen)

OTHER ITEMS - Jefferson : 

60 OTHER ITEMS - Jefferson Religious freedom for Virginia in 1786 Jefferson was a Deist believed in a single creator that set universe in motion Jefferson Dynasty family of rulers – think Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe – all from Virginia! Sally Hemmings controversy fathered at least 1 or 2 children w/slave

Enter Madison… : 

61 Enter Madison…

James Madison : 

62 James Madison Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President (2 Terms) PARTY – Democratic-Republican James Madison – 4th President (2 Terms) PARTY – Democratic-Republican Trivia First president to wear trousers instead of knee breeches! “Father of the Constitution” (Hey, he took good notes!) He authored the Kentucky Resolutions in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts Secretary of State under Jefferson, dealt with Marbury v. Madison (judicial Review) “slow in taking ground, but firm when the storm rises” Keeping America NEUTRAL - Embargo Act of 1807 (JEFFERSON - failed, repealed) Non-Intercourse Act, 1809 – U.S. traded w/everybody EXCEPT Britain and France until neutrality respected Macon’s Bill #2, 1810 – U.S. will trade with the first country that respects it’s neutrality! French under Napoleon agreed first (mainly to hurt the British) Native Americans - (pushed all over the place after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794) JEFFERSON – let’s assimilate them! Treaties w/Native Americans were not honored – 100,000,000 acres acquired by 1810! Tecumseh Shawnee Chief wanted to form confederacy along frontier from Canada to Florida! His Brother Tenskwatawa (The Prophet) Realized that alcohol was a major problem for Native Americans. Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 – William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh’s confederacy (when he was in the South recruiting) led by the Prophet (even thought he was told not to engage the army) William Henry Harrison became war hero! (Old Tippecanoe) War Hawks – young politicians who wanted war w/Britain (b/c Britain wasn’t respecting our neutrality)! Henry Clay (Kentucky) John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) – raised on frontier/backwoods Wanted to expand country by taking over Canada, conquering Florida, and taking land from Native Pressured Madison to go to war against the British! Mr. Madison’s War – The War of 1812 Reasons for War of 1812 Impressment of sailors by the British The British did not respect our neutrality (seizure of our ships) Britain kept inciting Native American attacks on the northwestern frontier agenda of War Hawks (get Canada and Florida) OPPOSITION – Came from Federalists in New England (pro-British and big business) Many boycotted the war by the British (refused state militias to help, sold supplies to both sides and became rich)! Madison called for 50,000 volunteers only 5,000 showed up…oops! (free people of color and slaves enlisted to fill void EVENTS – War of 1812 Madison’s invasion of Canada (from Detroit) failed. (why? Canada b/c of super British Navy) Burning of Washington (White House) Francis Scott Key (prisoner during the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, MD – wrote the Star Spangled Banner Treaty of Ghent December, 1814 - Peace talks in Ghent, Belgium - British demanded a lot but Henry Clay called their bluff and they eventually they gave in. Battle of New Orleans – January, 1815 oops, the war was over! (Andrew Jackson only lost 21 men, the British lost over 2,000) Hartford Convention, 1815 – Federalists from Mass. Conn., and R.I. discussed states being able to nullify federal acts; seceding from the union (this extreme measure pushed by the Essex Junto). Led to the death of the Federalist Party (public opinion=unpatriotic, treasonous) RESULTS - War of 1812 War over, but nothing changed (status quo ante bellum)! British U.S. relations closer (has been that way ever since)! U.S. is more respected than before! NEW HEROES - War of 1812 Oliver Hazard Perry (won control of Lake Erie); William Henry Harrison (defeated Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames River, 1813; Thomas McDonough; and Andrew Jackson (Battle of Horseshoe Bend and Battle of New Orleans) Election of 1812 – first during a war! Madison v. Dewitt Clinton (promised everything to everybody, mistake) - Madison won! Francis Cabot Lowell – opened first mechanized textile factory in U.S., 1814 (good wages, clean quarters, hired local farm girls) helped change New England’s focus from shipping to manufacturing (industry) Sports Boxing – Tom Molineaux (freed slave, first to fight an English Champion, lost in 2 fights) Other sports: horse racing, bowling, rowing, and my favorite “gouging” (talk about backwoods!) Other notes: Uncle Sam (based off New York businessman Samuel Wilson who stamped beef barrels with U.S.); gerrymandering; Beau Brummel; medicine=leeches and cayenne pepper! First Lady…Dolley Madison – quick thinking when British marched on Washington during the War of 1812 saved the Declaration, national seal, a portrait of Washington and her parrot (arrwk Thank you, arrwk Thank you!)

Madison - Trivia : 

63 Madison - Trivia First president to wear trousers instead of knee breeches! “Father of the Constitution” (Hey, he took good notes!) He authored the Kentucky Resolutions in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts Secretary of State under Jefferson, dealt with Marbury v. Madison (judicial Review) “slow in taking ground, but firm when the storm rises”

Jefferson/Madison - Keeping America NEUTRAL : 

64 Jefferson/Madison - Keeping America NEUTRAL Embargo Act of 1807 JEFFERSON - failed, repealed Non-Intercourse Act, 1809 U.S. traded w/everybody EXCEPT Britain and France until neutrality respected Macon’s Bill #2, 1810 U.S. will trade with the first country that respects it’s neutrality! French under Napoleon agreed first (mainly to hurt the British)

Native Americans : 

65 Native Americans TROUBLES: pushed all over the place after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794) Treaties w/Native Americans were not honored – 100,000,000 acres acquired by 1810! JEFFERSON – let’s assimilate them!

Tecumseh : 

66 Tecumseh WHO: Shawnee Chief wanted to form confederacy along frontier from Canada to Florida! His Brother Tenskwatawa (The Prophet) Realized that alcohol was a major problem for Native Americans. TROUBLES LED TO: Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 – William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh’s confederacy led by the Prophet RESULT: William Henry Harrison became war hero! Old Tippecanoe

Battle of Tippecanoe : 

67 Battle of Tippecanoe When: 1811 What: The Prophet and league of tribes was defeated by American army led by William Henry Harrison RESULT: Put an end to Tecumseh’s venture to unite all tribes east of Mississippi River. Infuriates many Americans because of British aid to Indians Led Tecumseh to join with the British

War Hawks : 

68 War Hawks WHO: young politicians who wanted war w/Britain (b/c Britain wasn’t respecting our neutrality)! Henry Clay (Kentucky) John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) – raised on frontier/backwoods WHAT: Wanted to expand country by taking over Canada, conquering Florida, and taking land from Native SIGNIFICANCE: Pressured Madison to go to war against the British!

Mr. Madison’s War – The War of 1812Reasons for War of 1812 : 

69 Mr. Madison’s War – The War of 1812Reasons for War of 1812 Impressment of sailors by the British The British did not respect our neutrality (seizure of our ships) Britain kept inciting Native American attacks on the northwestern frontier agenda of War Hawks (get Canada and Florida)

OPPOSITION to War of 1812 : 

70 OPPOSITION to War of 1812 WHO: Federalists in New England (pro-British and big business) Many boycotted the war by the British (refused state militias to help, sold supplies to both sides and became rich)! New England merchants “Quids” or “Old” Republicans – the war violated commitment to limited federal government and peace PROBLEM: Madison called for 50,000 volunteers only 5,000 showed up…oops! (free people of color and slaves enlisted to fill void What ever happened to limited government?

Election of 1812 : 

71 Election of 1812 First election during a war! RESULT: Madison v. Dewitt Clinton (promised everything to everybody, mistake) - Madison won!

Strange War of 1812 : 

72 Strange War of 1812 1814-three-pronged English attack campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain campaign in the Chesapeake results in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore campaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815 Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814

EVENTS – War of 1812 : 

73 EVENTS – War of 1812 Madison’s invasion of Canada (from Detroit) failed. (why? Canada b/c of super British Navy) Burning of Washington (White House) Francis Scott Key prisoner during the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore, MD – wrote the Star Spangled Banner Treaty of Ghent December, 1814 Peace talks in Ghent, Belgium - British demanded a lot but Henry Clay called their bluff and they eventually they gave in. Battle of New Orleans January, 1815 oops, the war was over! (Andrew Jackson only lost 21 men, the British lost over 2,000) Hartford Convention, 1815 Federalists from Mass. Conn., and R.I. discussed states being able to nullify federal acts; seceding from the union (this extreme measure pushed by the Essex Junto). Led to the death of the Federalist Party (public opinion=unpatriotic, treasonous)

Frances Scott Key : 

74 Frances Scott Key WHAT: wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about British attack on Fort McHenry in Baltimore (“our flag was still there”) poem was later set to the tune of an old English bar song

USS Constitution : 

75 USS Constitution “Old Ironsides” Raised American morale by sinking a British ship off the coast of Nova Scotia

RESULTS - War of 1812 : 

76 RESULTS - War of 1812 RESULTS: War over, but nothing changed (status quo ante bellum)! British U.S. relations closer (has been that way ever since)! U.S. is more respected than before!

NEW HEROES - War of 1812 : 

77 NEW HEROES - War of 1812 Oliver Hazard Perry won control of Lake Erie William Henry Harrison defeated Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames River, 1813 Thomas McDonough Stopped British invasion from Canada with victory on Lake Champlain! Andrew Jackson Battle of Horseshoe Bend and Battle of New Orleans

Oliver Hazard Perry : 

78 Oliver Hazard Perry Led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” Paved way for victory at Battle of Thames River where Tecumseh was killed

Thomas Macdonough : 

79 Thomas Macdonough 1814 Defeated British fleet on Lake Champlain British abandoned plan to attack New England area

Andrew Jackson : 

80 Andrew Jackson “Old Hickory” Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March, 1814) – defeated the Creek nation (British ally) Battle of New Orleans – (January, 1815) – British effort to control Mississippi River ended

Battle of New Orleans : 

81 Battle of New Orleans When: January, 1815 WHAT: British invasion force was defeated by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans HOW: Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. RESULTS: 2200 British soldiers were killed or captured only 21 men U.S. soldiers were killed PROBLEM: Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. SIGNIFICANCE: This victory inspired American nationalism. Andrew Jackson became a war hero!

Treaty of Ghent : 

82 Treaty of Ghent When: December 24, 1814 What: Ended War of 1812 Status Quo Ante Bellum: the state in which things were before the war Returned all conquered territory to they way it was before war started Recognized the prewar boundary of Canada and U.S. Most problems left unaddressed U.S. claimed success in a "second war of independence“

Results of War of 1812 : 

83 Results of War of 1812 Gave Americans a feeling of national pride (inspired nationalism) and new respect The War of 1812 had cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce goods on its own (economic independence) OTHERS: closer ties to British; Federalist Party died; nullification issue (brought up again); Native Americans lose more land, new war heroes,

Essex Junto : 

84 Essex Junto Who: a group of extreme Federalists What: advocated New England’s secession from the U.S. the major force behind the calling of the antiwar Hartford Convention

Hartford Convention : 

85 Hartford Convention When: December, 1814 Who: New England Federalists What: opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812 proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored It turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.

gerrymandering : 

86 gerrymandering WHAT: the deliberate rearrangement of the boundaries of congressional districts to influence the outcome of elections HOW: created in 1812 by Massachusetts governor Elbridge Gerry, who crafted a district for political purposes that looked like a salamander

End UNIT 3 Chapters 6-7 : 

87 End UNIT 3 Chapters 6-7