AP US History Exam Review Part II Revolu

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AP Exam Review: Part II - The American Revolution and Constitution : 

AP Exam Review: Part II - The American Revolution and Constitution 2008-2009

He helped start the French and Indian War and ended up surrendering Fort Necessity to the French. : 

2 He helped start the French and Indian War and ended up surrendering Fort Necessity to the French. George Washington The American Revolution/Constitution

The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). After he ignored it, he issued a Prohibitory act, which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. Thus, Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. : 

3 The Second Continental Congress issued this petition to King George III on July 5, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). After he ignored it, he issued a Prohibitory act, which declared all colonies in a state of rebellion no longer under his protection. Thus, Americans prepared for an all out war with Britain. Olive Branch Petition The American Revolution/Constitution

Slide 4: 

4 Albany Plan/French and Indian War The American Revolution/Constitution

British prime minister who changed the strategy in the French and Indian War leading the British to invade Canada and win the war. : 

5 British prime minister who changed the strategy in the French and Indian War leading the British to invade Canada and win the war. William Pitt The American Revolution/Constitution

It ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.Britain became dominant power in North America! : 

6 It ended the Seven Years War in Europe and the parallel French and Indian War in North America. Under the treaty, Britain won all of Canada and almost all of the modern United States east of the Mississippi.Britain became dominant power in North America! Treaty of Paris ( 1763) The American Revolution/Constitution

The the name given to local militiamen who fought against the British during the Revolutionary War. They were called this because of their supposed ability to be ready very quickly. : 

7 The the name given to local militiamen who fought against the British during the Revolutionary War. They were called this because of their supposed ability to be ready very quickly. Minutemen The American Revolution/Constitution

Name given to colonists who fought for freedom versus the British? : 

8 Name given to colonists who fought for freedom versus the British? Patriots The American Revolution/Constitution

It was created in the 1760’s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimore. It was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War. : 

9 It was created in the 1760’s to set the boundary between the colonial charters of William Penn and Lord Baltimore. It was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War. Mason and Dixon Line The American Revolution/Constitution

The series of twelve letters published by John Dickinson denounced the Townshend Duties by demonstrating that many of the arguments employed against the Stamp Act were valid against the Townshend Duties as well. The letters inspired anti-British sentiment throughout the colonies. : 

10 The series of twelve letters published by John Dickinson denounced the Townshend Duties by demonstrating that many of the arguments employed against the Stamp Act were valid against the Townshend Duties as well. The letters inspired anti-British sentiment throughout the colonies. Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer The American Revolution/Constitution

He was the King of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts After carried out in his name. He rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant. : 

11 He was the King of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts After carried out in his name. He rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant. King George III The American Revolution/Constitution

He became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, he took up the cause of the strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, he organized the national government by Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality. : 

12 He became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, he took up the cause of the strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, he organized the national government by Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality. Thomas Jefferson The American Revolution/Constitution

Passed in 1774, they were meant to punish the colonists after the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. They were seen by American colonists as the blueprints for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress. : 

13 Passed in 1774, they were meant to punish the colonists after the 1773 Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. They were seen by American colonists as the blueprints for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress. Intolerable Acts The American Revolution/Constitution

Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established Roman-Catholicism as the official religion in Quebec, making Protestants angry. Also, Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers, but was in turn, given no legislature. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims, further angering colonists. IT MADE COLONISTS MAD!!! : 

14 Parliament passed this greatly detested law which established Roman-Catholicism as the official religion in Quebec, making Protestants angry. Also, Canada’s government was awarded an abundance of powers, but was in turn, given no legislature. The law also extended Quebec’s 1774 land claims, further angering colonists. IT MADE COLONISTS MAD!!! Quebec Act The American Revolution/Constitution

During the Revolutionary War, he served as an ambassador to France. He was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution (Famous for “Join or Die cartoon in support of Albany Plan of Union). He has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment thought in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy. : 

15 During the Revolutionary War, he served as an ambassador to France. He was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution (Famous for “Join or Die cartoon in support of Albany Plan of Union). He has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment thought in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy. Benjamin Franklin The American Revolution/Constitution

It convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. It endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system. : 

16 It convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. It endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system. First Continental Congress The American Revolution/Constitution

Led by Alexander Hamilton, they believed in a strong central government. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. Their influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention. : 

17 Led by Alexander Hamilton, they believed in a strong central government. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. Their influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention. Federalists The American Revolution/Constitution

A series of newspaper articles written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, they listed the arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the Anti-Federalists. : 

18 A series of newspaper articles written by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton, they listed the arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the Anti-Federalists. The Federalist Papers The American Revolution/Constitution

Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, it stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies. : 

19 Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, it stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies. Declaratory Act The American Revolution/Constitution

It was approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it formalized the colonies’ separation from Britain and laid out the Enlightenment values (best expressed by John Locke) of natural rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” upon which the American Revolution was based. : 

20 It was approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, it formalized the colonies’ separation from Britain and laid out the Enlightenment values (best expressed by John Locke) of natural rights to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” upon which the American Revolution was based. Declaration of Independence The American Revolution/Constitution

English - Enlightenment thinker who challenged divine right of kings and stressed natural rights (life, liberty, and property). He insisted that if the government didn’t protect your natural rights, then it was your responsibility to overthrow it. : 

21 English - Enlightenment thinker who challenged divine right of kings and stressed natural rights (life, liberty, and property). He insisted that if the government didn’t protect your natural rights, then it was your responsibility to overthrow it. John Locke The American Revolution/Constitution

In response to the Annapolis Convention’s suggestion, Congress called for the states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation. Delegates came to the convention in May 1787, and drafted an entirely new framework that would give greater powers to the central government. This meeting created the Constitution. : 

22 In response to the Annapolis Convention’s suggestion, Congress called for the states to send delegates to Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation. Delegates came to the convention in May 1787, and drafted an entirely new framework that would give greater powers to the central government. This meeting created the Constitution. Constitutional Convention The American Revolution/Constitution

It outlines the operation and central principles of American government. As opposed to the Articles of Confederation, which it replaced, it created a strong central government with broad judicial, legislative, and executive powers, though it purposely restricted the extent of these powers through a system of checks and balances. Written at the Constitutional Convention, it was ratified by the states in 1789. : 

23 It outlines the operation and central principles of American government. As opposed to the Articles of Confederation, which it replaced, it created a strong central government with broad judicial, legislative, and executive powers, though it purposely restricted the extent of these powers through a system of checks and balances. Written at the Constitutional Convention, it was ratified by the states in 1789. Constitution The American Revolution/Constitution

Ending weeks of stalemate, it solved troubles of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for determining legislative representation in Congress. It established equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives. : 

24 Ending weeks of stalemate, it solved troubles of the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for determining legislative representation in Congress. It established equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives. Connecticut Compromise The American Revolution/Constitution

Thomas Paine published this pamphlet in 1776, in which he argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals—one that would protect man’s natural rights. It became so popular and influential in the colonies that many historians credit it with dissolving the final barriers to the fight for independence. : 

25 Thomas Paine published this pamphlet in 1776, in which he argued that the colonists should free themselves from British rule and establish an independent government based on Enlightenment ideals—one that would protect man’s natural rights. It became so popular and influential in the colonies that many historians credit it with dissolving the final barriers to the fight for independence. Common Sense The American Revolution/Constitution

They were organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, and were a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. They sent delegates to the First Continental Congress. : 

26 They were organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, and were a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. They sent delegates to the First Continental Congress. Committees of Correspondence The American Revolution/Constitution

The Constitution set forth this and it represented the solution to the problem of how to empower the central government while also protecting against corruption and despotism. : 

27 The Constitution set forth this and it represented the solution to the problem of how to empower the central government while also protecting against corruption and despotism. Checks and balances The American Revolution/Constitution

Boston patriots organized it to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Following the meeting, approximately 50 young men dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped the cargo into Boston Harbor. : 

28 Boston patriots organized it to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Following the meeting, approximately 50 young men dressed as Mohawk Indians boarded British ships and dumped the cargo into Boston Harbor. Boston Tea Party The American Revolution/Constitution

In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared, and five colonists were killed. Paul Revere’s engraving of it was used as anti-British propaganda : 

29 In March 1770, a crowd of colonists protested against British customs and the presence of British troops in Boston. Violence flared, and five colonists were killed. Paul Revere’s engraving of it was used as anti-British propaganda Boston Massacre The American Revolution/Constitution

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that this would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. It, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens. : 

30 Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that this would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. It, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens. Bill of Rights The American Revolution/Constitution

He emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of The Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington. He spearheaded the government’s Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States (think about his economic plan) : 

31 He emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of The Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington. He spearheaded the government’s Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States (think about his economic plan) Alexander Hamilton The American Revolution/Constitution

Article I, Section VIII, of the Constitution states that Congress shall have the power “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying in execution…powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the U.S.” It was a point of contention between those who favored a loose reading of the Constitution and those who favored a strict reading. : 

32 Article I, Section VIII, of the Constitution states that Congress shall have the power “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying in execution…powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the U.S.” It was a point of contention between those who favored a loose reading of the Constitution and those who favored a strict reading. Elastic Cause The American Revolution/Constitution

Influenced be the spirit of rationalism, they believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws. : 

33 Influenced be the spirit of rationalism, they believed that God, like a celestial clockmaker, had created a perfect universe and then had stepped back to let it operate according to natural laws. Deists The American Revolution/Constitution

Also known as the Age of Reason, it was an intellectual movement that spread through Europe and America in the eighteenth century. Followers championed the principles of rationalism and logic in all areas of thought—religious, political, social, and economic. Their skepticism toward beliefs that could not be proved by science or clear logic naturally led to Deism. : 

34 Also known as the Age of Reason, it was an intellectual movement that spread through Europe and America in the eighteenth century. Followers championed the principles of rationalism and logic in all areas of thought—religious, political, social, and economic. Their skepticism toward beliefs that could not be proved by science or clear logic naturally led to Deism. Enlightenment The American Revolution/Constitution

They led colonial opposition to the Stamp Act. The organization brought a new level of sophistication to mass demonstrations, forbidding followers to carry weapons and using strict discipline and military formations to direct protesters. : 

35 They led colonial opposition to the Stamp Act. The organization brought a new level of sophistication to mass demonstrations, forbidding followers to carry weapons and using strict discipline and military formations to direct protesters. Sons of Liberty The American Revolution/Constitution

They were the first battles of the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to _______ to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in _________, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston. : 

36 They were the first battles of the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to _______ to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in _________, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston. Battles of Lexington and Concord The American Revolution/Constitution

Benjamin Franklin submitted it at the 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in New York. It called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved it, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan, either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies. : 

37 Benjamin Franklin submitted it at the 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in New York. It called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved it, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan, either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies. Albany Plan The American Revolution/Constitution

Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the they established the United States of America. They granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn’t govern the country’s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789. : 

38 Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the they established the United States of America. They granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn’t govern the country’s finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789. Articles of Confederation The American Revolution/Constitution

They were opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution’s powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave the federal government too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states. : 

39 They were opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution’s powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave the federal government too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states. Anti-Federalists The American Revolution/Constitution

Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation. : 

40 Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation. Annapolis Convention The American Revolution/Constitution

Presented at the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan. It favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral congress with equal representation for each state. : 

41 Presented at the Constitutional Convention as an alternative to the Virginia Plan. It favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral congress with equal representation for each state. New Jersey Plan The American Revolution/Constitution

It DEFINED THE PROCESS by which new STATES COULD BE ADMITTED into the Union from the Northwest Territory. It forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. It was the MOST LASTING MEASURE OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. : 

42 It DEFINED THE PROCESS by which new STATES COULD BE ADMITTED into the Union from the Northwest Territory. It forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. It was the MOST LASTING MEASURE OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. Northwest Ordinance, 1787 The American Revolution/Constitution

Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools, setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. ONE OF THE FEW SUCCESSES OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION! : 

43 Congress enacted this law to set a uniform procedure for surveying land in 1785. It established that the settlement of a town would be six square miles and would contain land set aside for schools, setting a precedent for the public education system in the United States. ONE OF THE FEW SUCCESSES OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION! Land Ordinance of 1785 The American Revolution/Constitution

He published Common Sense in 1776, urging Americans to rise in opposition to the British and establish a new government based on Enlightenment ideals (helped spark the revolutionary war). He also criticized religion in The Age of Reason. : 

44 He published Common Sense in 1776, urging Americans to rise in opposition to the British and establish a new government based on Enlightenment ideals (helped spark the revolutionary war). He also criticized religion in The Age of Reason. Thomas Paine The American Revolution/Constitution

After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to _____________________ in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under an Ottawa chief to keep the colonists from taking over their land. It led to Britain’s Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains : 

45 After the French and Indian War, colonists began moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to _____________________ in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes banded together under an Ottawa chief to keep the colonists from taking over their land. It led to Britain’s Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains Pontiac’s Rebellion The American Revolution/Constitution

Made by the British government after the French and Indian War, it forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east (Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians). MADE COLONISTS ANGRY! : 

46 Made by the British government after the French and Indian War, it forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east (Britain explained it was only temporary, for it was meant to calm the Indians). MADE COLONISTS ANGRY! Proclamation of 1763 The American Revolution/Constitution

This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. They agreed that external taxes were ok, but argued that only colonial legislatures had the authority to tax the colonists) met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. (EXAMPLE OF INTER-COLONIAL COOPERATION) : 

47 This was an assembly of delegates from nine of the original thirteen colonies in 1765 which was intended to protest the Stamp Act. They agreed that external taxes were ok, but argued that only colonial legislatures had the authority to tax the colonists) met in New York City and presented the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, but the group’s demand for no taxation without representation was refused by the House of Commons. (EXAMPLE OF INTER-COLONIAL COOPERATION) Stamp Act Congress, 1765 The American Revolution/Constitution

He played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. He was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party. : 

48 He played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence. He was crucial in spreading the principle of colonial rights throughout New England and is credited with provoking the Boston Tea Party. Samuel Adams The American Revolution/Constitution

When colonists argued “no taxation without representation”, Grenville and Parliament argued that the members of Parliament represented ALL BRITISH SUBJECTS whether in the mother country or its colonies. This was called? : 

49 When colonists argued “no taxation without representation”, Grenville and Parliament argued that the members of Parliament represented ALL BRITISH SUBJECTS whether in the mother country or its colonies. This was called? Virtual Representation The American Revolution/Constitution

Letter written by Samuel Adams that argued there was NO difference between external or internal taxes and that the Townsend Acts should be immediately repealed. Helped spark new non-importation agreements. : 

50 Letter written by Samuel Adams that argued there was NO difference between external or internal taxes and that the Townsend Acts should be immediately repealed. Helped spark new non-importation agreements. Massachusetts Circular Letter,1768 The American Revolution/Constitution

Legalized by Parliament during the French and Indian War, they were general search warrants that allowed British customs officers to search any colonial building or ship that they believed might contain smuggled goods, even without probable cause for suspicion. The colonists considered them to be a grave infringement upon their personal liberties. : 

51 Legalized by Parliament during the French and Indian War, they were general search warrants that allowed British customs officers to search any colonial building or ship that they believed might contain smuggled goods, even without probable cause for suspicion. The colonists considered them to be a grave infringement upon their personal liberties. Writs of Assistance The American Revolution/Constitution

In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. They persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions. These were known as? : 

52 In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. They persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions. These were known as? Virginia Resolves The American Revolution/Constitution

It was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. It favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. : 

53 It was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. It favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. Virginia Plan The American Revolution/Constitution

Signed with Spain in 1795 it gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and established the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida. : 

54 Signed with Spain in 1795 it gave the U.S. unrestricted access to the Mississippi River and established the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida. Pinckney’s Treaty or Treaty of San Lorenzo The American Revolution/Constitution

Signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, it ended the Revolutionary War and granted the U.S. its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, it opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes. : 

55 Signed in September 1783 and ratified by Congress in January 1784, it ended the Revolutionary War and granted the U.S. its independence. It further granted the U.S. all land east of the Mississippi River. While generally accepted, it opened the door to future legislative and economic disputes. Treaty of Paris ( 1783) The American Revolution/Constitution

After their defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement. : 

56 After their defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement. Treaty of Greenville The American Revolution/Constitution

In1767, it taxed (indirect tax) glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British Empire. : 

57 In1767, it taxed (indirect tax) glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British Empire. Townshend Duties The American Revolution/Constitution

They were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution (also known as “Loyalists”). : 

58 They were colonists who disagreed with the move for independence and did not support the Revolution (also known as “Loyalists”). Tories The American Revolution/Constitution

During the framing of the Constitution, Southern delegates argued that slaves count toward representative seats, while the delegates of Northern states argued that to count slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the Southern states in Congress. The result of this debate was the adoption of the this, which allowed a proportion of all slaves to be counted as people. : 

59 During the framing of the Constitution, Southern delegates argued that slaves count toward representative seats, while the delegates of Northern states argued that to count slaves as members of the population would grant an unfair advantage to the Southern states in Congress. The result of this debate was the adoption of the this, which allowed a proportion of all slaves to be counted as people. Three-fifths Compromise The American Revolution/Constitution

In 1773, it allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. This act effectively created a monopoly for the East India Company, which had been in financial difficulties. It outraged many colonists and prompted the Boston Tea Party. : 

60 In 1773, it allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. This act effectively created a monopoly for the East India Company, which had been in financial difficulties. It outraged many colonists and prompted the Boston Tea Party. Tea Act The American Revolution/Constitution

It replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sweeteners (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies. : 

61 It replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sweeteners (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies. Sugar Act The American Revolution/Constitution

The First Continental Congress endorsed Massachusetts’s ___________, which declared that the colonies need not obey the 1773 Coercive Acts, since they infringed upon basic liberties. : 

62 The First Continental Congress endorsed Massachusetts’s ___________, which declared that the colonies need not obey the 1773 Coercive Acts, since they infringed upon basic liberties. Suffolk Resolves The American Revolution/Constitution

They favored a strict reading of the Constitution, especially the elastic clause, in order to limit the powers of the central government. Led by Thomas Jefferson, they comprised the ideological core of the Democratic-Republican Party. : 

63 They favored a strict reading of the Constitution, especially the elastic clause, in order to limit the powers of the central government. Led by Thomas Jefferson, they comprised the ideological core of the Democratic-Republican Party. Strict or narrow constructionists The American Revolution/Constitution

It (1765) required colonial Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents. Violators faced juryless trials in vice-admiralty courts, as under the 1764 Sugar Act. It provoked the first organized response to British impositions. : 

64 It (1765) required colonial Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents. Violators faced juryless trials in vice-admiralty courts, as under the 1764 Sugar Act. It provoked the first organized response to British impositions. Stamp Act The American Revolution/Constitution

In 1781, French and American forces encircled and trapped British General Cornwallis’s army, forcing surrender of 8,000 troops. : 

65 In 1781, French and American forces encircled and trapped British General Cornwallis’s army, forcing surrender of 8,000 troops. Siege of Yorktown The American Revolution/Constitution

British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own, and surrendered on October 17, 1777. This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. IMPACT: the U.S. victory at the here convinced the French that the U.S. deserved diplomatic recognition. : 

66 British General John Burgoyne felt overwhelmed by a force three times larger than his own, and surrendered on October 17, 1777. This forced the British to consider whether or not to continue the war. IMPACT: the U.S. victory at the here convinced the French that the U.S. deserved diplomatic recognition. Battle of Saratoga The American Revolution/Constitution

Convened in May 1775, it opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition. : 

67 Convened in May 1775, it opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition. Second Continental Congress The American Revolution/Constitution

It lasted from the Declaration of Independence in 1776 until the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The American colonists defeated the British and won independence. : 

68 It lasted from the Declaration of Independence in 1776 until the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The American colonists defeated the British and won independence. Revolutionary War The American Revolution/Constitution

Heavily influenced by the Enlightenment, it criticized most traditional religion as irrational and thus unfounded. Proponents of it held that religious beliefs should not simply be accepted but should be acquired through investigation and reflection. : 

69 Heavily influenced by the Enlightenment, it criticized most traditional religion as irrational and thus unfounded. Proponents of it held that religious beliefs should not simply be accepted but should be acquired through investigation and reflection. Rationalism The American Revolution/Constitution

It required colonists to provide room and board to British troops. British troops could be quartered anywhere, even homes (it was laxly enforced). : 

70 It required colonists to provide room and board to British troops. British troops could be quartered anywhere, even homes (it was laxly enforced). Quartering Act The American Revolution/Constitution

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