US History MAIN Wild Wild West 2011-2012 UPLOAD

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Chapter 4:

Chapter 4 The Wild, Wild West?

Wild, Wild West:

Wild, Wild West Chapter 4 1860-1890

“Manifest Destiny”:

“Manifest Destiny” WHAT: The concept that the nation was meant (by god) to spread west to the Pacific. SIGNIFICANCE: People moved West! WHY: California Gold Rush, 1849 TRIVIA: First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan (Jane Cazneau) in 1845. Donner Party??

James K. Polk:

James K. Polk WHEN: 1840s WHAT: President of U.S during era of expansion (Manifest Destiny)

Wilmot Proviso:

Wilmot Proviso WHEN: 1846 WHAT: proposal that would have outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the Mexican-American War SIGNIFICANCE: Stirred up debate over slavery in the territories!

The Doomed Donner Party:

The Doomed Donner Party April, 1846 – April, 1847

The Doomed Donner Party:

The Doomed Donner Party James Reed & Wife Margaret Patrick John Breen Breen Breen Of the 83 members of the Donner Party, only 45 survived to get to California! CANNIBALISM ! !

Who went WEST?:

Who went WEST? WHO: Whites from Eastern U.S. Immigrants (from other countries) African-Americans from south (Exodusters) Fled racial violence in the south

Why did people go WEST?:

Why did people go WEST? REASONS: New life, opportunities Cheap land from the government Homestead Act, 1862 Government land grants Government wanted west the settled Demand for minerals rose Manifest destiny

Homestead Act 1862:

Homestead Act 1862 WHAT: Government program that sold land to settlers for $10 fee Conditions for purchasers 160 acres (1/4 mile square) Must be 21 years of age and head of household Must be American citizens or immigrants filed for citizenship Must farm land for 5 years EFFECT: Created 372, 000 farms

So based on everything we’ve looked at concerning Chapter 4…:

So based on everything we’ve looked at concerning Chapter 4… WHAT CHANGED AFTER THE CIVIL WAR?

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GOLD RUSH OF 1849

Mining…:

Mining… WHY: Gold and silver strikes in West Miners wanted to get rich KEY EVENT: California gold rush of 1849 Mining techniques – Change over time… Placer mining – by hand Sluice mining – by diverting a river through a sluice Hydraulic mining – by spraying high pressure water to wash away dirt and rock

Comstock Lode, 1858:

Comstock Lode, 1858 WHAT: Discovery of one of the largest silver deposits in the world ($230 million) in Virginia City, Nevada. WHO: Henry Comstock RESULT: Encouraged people to move to Nevada!

BOOMTOWNS “Helldorados”:

BOOMTOWNS “Helldorados” WHAT: Towns they grew up over night in the west providing: restaurants, laundries, hotels for miners CONDITIONS: mining towns were often dangerous: little law enforcement VIGILANCE COMMITTEES Volunteers who took the law into their own hands! END RESULT: they died when strikes petered out then all that was left of the boom town was a GHOST TOWN

Other… Mining - EFFECTS:

Other… Mining - EFFECTS WHAT: led to new states: Colorado, Arizona, the Dakotas, Montana growth of railroads

Open Range:

Open Range WHAT: Vast area of grassland owned by the government Provided free grazing land for cattle herds

Cowboys, Cattle, and the Long Drive:

Cowboys, Cattle, and the Long Drive Lots of cattle in Texas: Grassy plains of Texas supported several million longhorn cattle TEXAS LONGHORNS High demand for BEEF to feed soldiers during the Civil War! WHAT: Long drives : cowboys to drove the cattle to railheads for shipment to eastern markets Cowboys drove cattle across Texas and into Kansas In Kansas they were sold and put on railcars for shipment to the stockyards of Kansas City and Chicago In the stockyards they were slaughtered and their meat was packaged for shipment to consumers in the east COWBOYS: cowboys were Black, White, and Mexican had to endure the hardships of the trail: Indians, stampedes, cattle fever, and other hazards

Range Wars:

Range Wars WHAT Fights over land (open range) between farmers and ranchers WHY: BARBED WIRE: Joseph Glidden, 1874 cheap to fence large area kept livestock away from crops RESULTS: Over time long drives ended and big-business ranches developed!

Settling the Hispanic Southwest:

Settling the Hispanic Southwest Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: gave U.S. most of the present day southwest! Haciendas huge Spanish ranches in the southwest owned by the rich! CHANGES: Land was often taken by U.S. courts from Hispanics allowing others to stake a claim to it  Barrios Spanish-speaking neighborhoods

Las Gorras Blancas:

Las Gorras Blancas WHO: The White Caps group of Mexican-Americans living in New Mexico Late 1880s – early 1890s WHAT: Attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners. burned houses, barns, fences, railroad ties RESULT: Raids ended when Federal troops threatened

SECTION 2 - Farming the Great Plains…:

SECTION 2 - Farming the Great Plains…

Great Plains:

Great Plains WHAT: Major Stephen Long (an explorer) labeled called this region the “GREAT AMERICAN DESERT” in 1819 CHANGE: By the late 1800s, it was called the “Bread Basket” of America! HOW???...

Why did farmers move WEST again?:

Why did farmers move WEST again? FACT: Population in the Great Plains grew after the Civil War WHY: Cheap land Homestead Act, 1862 Railroads sold land cheap and offered credit!

Homestead:

Homestead WHAT: public land available for settlement (think Homestead Act!)

What was life like farming on the Great Plains?:

What was life like farming on the Great Plains? WHAT: farming difficult for Homesteaders “If you can’t beat em, eat em!” Sodbusters: People who plowed and farmed the Great Plains! DIFFICULTIES: soddies: sod homes built from chunks of sod because there weren’t many trees on the Great Plains bugs – grasshoppers ate crops needed deep wells to get to water weather (blizzards and droughts) isolation RESULT: Families pulled together and worked!

New Technology for Farmers:

New Technology for Farmers WHAT: New inventions saved farmers time and effort Great Plains became…THE WHEAT BELT! EXAMPLES: Dry farming techniques plant seeds (drought resistant seeds deeper)! Mechanized reaper (Cyrus McCormick) 5 times as much! Steel plow (think John Deere) broke up the hard soil! Barbed wire saved crops Joesph Glidden Greatest invention of 1800’s Kept livestock away from crops RESULT: Farmers could grow more crops! (wheat, corn, etc)

Bonanza Farms:

Bonanza Farms WHAT: Large farms on the Great Plains that made huge profits! Usually WHEAT FARMS! They turned into big businesses! – AGRI-BUSINESS

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Where are the farming areas located?

Problems on the Farm:

Problems on the Farm WHAT: Increased crop production in U.S. leads to wheat surplus Caused crop prices to drop RESULT: Farmers lost money PROBLEM: Railroads charged high prices to ship crops!

Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis…:

Frederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis… WHAT: By 1890, there was technically no frontier left! PROBLEM: Frontier had been like a “safety-valve” for population in the EAST. Frontier had shaped American Character rugged individualistic adventurous democratic People on the frontier brought it hard yo!

THE INDIAN WARS:

THE INDIAN WARS 1860-1890

Life of the Plains Indians:

Life of the Plains Indians Nomads people who move from place to place! Great Plains Indians: hunters/warriors used horses established warrior societies relied on the buffalo! Very different culture from most settlers

Reasons for Indian Wars:

Reasons for Indian Wars WHY: Indians fought against white settlers for land. Indians wanted to hunt and roam. Whites wanted to farm, ranch, and mine. RESULTS: Whites forced Native Americans to live on reservations

Western Warfare:

Western Warfare HOW: Indians used hit and run tactics (guerilla warfare) U.S. Cavalry protected settlers with forts, outposts, and patrols Both sides used brutal tactics

U.S. SOLDIERS:

U.S. SOLDIERS WHAT: Faced harsh conditions Earned low pay Many died from disease Many immigrants Buffalo Soldiers: African American cavalry soldiers 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Indian Wars

Receding Native Population:

Receding Native Population WHAT: The Indian wars in the West were often savage EXAMPLE: Sand Creek Massacre (Colorado) - 1864 Colonel J.M. Chivington’s militia massacred some 600 Indians. The Indians thought that they were going to negotiate a peace treaty. women were shot while praying children were killed braves were tortured and mutilated

The Indians fought back!:

The Indians fought back! Fetterman’s Massacre, 1866 WHY: The Sioux tried to block the Bozeman Trail through their territory WHAT a Sioux war party ambushed Captain Fetterman’s command of 81 soldiers and killed all of them and mutilated them a soldier had 105 arrows in his face! RESULT: The government abandoned the Bozeman Trail!

Battle of the Little Bighorn - 1876:

Battle of the Little Bighorn - 1876 WHY: Prospectors were looking for gold in the Black Hills of South Dakota PROBLEM: It was within the Sioux reservation! caused the Sioux to take to the warpath under leader, Sitting Bull BATTLE: Major Indian victory Sioux led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse 7 th Cavalry led by general George A. Custer Called “Custer's last stand” RESULT: Over 200 men from seventh cavalry killed

Chief Joseph:

Chief Joseph WHAT: best known leader of the Nez Perce (Pacific Northwest) a humanitarian and peacemaker famous for resistance to against American encroachments on their land KEY: Didn’t want to be moved to a reservation in Idaho… Tried to flee to Canada!

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“Our chiefs killed…The little children are freezing to death. My people…have no blankets, no food…Hear me, my chiefs; I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.” -Chief Joseph

Ghost Dance:

Ghost Dance WHAT: Native Americans would be taken up into the sky and Earth would open up to swallow all Whites and revert back to its natural state WHO: Wovoka (aka Jack Wilson)– Paiute spiritual leader and creator of the Ghost Dance

Wounded Knee:

Wounded Knee Miniconjou (Lakota Sioux) Chief Big Foot lies dead in the snow WHAT: Last major armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States later described as a "massacre" in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs

New government policies after Indian wars:

New government policies after Indian wars Assimilation Dawes act-1887 Native Americans are to be educated Native Americans are to become farmers Native Americans can become citizens

Dawes Severalty Act “in a Nutshell”:

Dawes Severalty Act “in a Nutshell” GOAL: The goal was to assimilate Native Americans into white culture quickly WHAT: outlawed tribal ownership of land forced 160-acre homesteads into the hands of individual Indians and their families the promise of future citizenship (after 25 years) RESULTS: stripped tribes of their land FAILED to incorporate Native Americans into U.S. society

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NATIVE AMERICANS ARE TO BECOME FARMERS NATIVE AMERICANS ARE TO BE EDUCATED PASSED IN 1887 NATIVE AMERICANS CAN BECOME CITIZENS DAWES ACT

Carlisle Indian School:

Carlisle Indian School WHAT: - ASSIMILATE Pennsylvania Native American children were separated from their parents and taught English and white values and customs WOW: “Kill the Indian and save the man” was the motto of the school

OPENING OF INDIAN TERRITORY :

OPENING OF INDIAN TERRITORY WAS: Indian Territory NOW: known as Oklahoma WHAT: Opened to whites on 22 April 1889 Thousand raced to claim land Boomers Sooners

The End of the Trail:

The End of the Trail WHAT : Helen Hunt Jackson published “ A Century of Dishonor ” 1881 detailing the federal government’s heinous record of ruthlessness in dealing with the Indians EFFECT : created a certain amount of sympathy for the plight of the Indians Humanitarians wanted to help the Indians and treat them kindly Yet, they wanted the Indians to become Christians and adapt to white dress and ways PROBLEM : Still others wanted to continue the policy of forced containment on the reservations

PowerPoint Presentation:

MANIFEST DESTINY ACHIEVED IN 1890, CENSUS BUREAU DECLARED OFFICIAL END TO THE FRONTIER

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