Curriculum Development by Betty J. Torrecampo BSEd-UI-PHINMA

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Curriculum Development

What is Curriculum ? : 

What is Curriculum ? Curriculum comes form the Latin root, "currere" which means "to run", which later came to stand as the "course of study.“ Curriculum is the sum total of all learning content, experiences, and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development.

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Curriculum Development Development - is a specific word that connotes change. Change means any alternation or modification in the existing order of things. Change may not necessarily result in development. Only positive change brings about development. For change to be positive and result in development, it must be Purposeful, Planned, and Progressive. Positive change brings about improvement. It takes a person or a group to higher levels of perfection.

Curriculum From Different Points of View : 

Curriculum From Different Points of View Traditional Points of View: Curriculum is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. A "course of study" and "syllabus." It is a field of study. It is made up of its foundations (philosophical, historical, psychological and social foundations; domains, of knowledge as well as its research and principles.

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Progressive Points of View: Curriculum is the total learning experiences of the individual. This is anchored on John Dewey's definition of experience and education. He believed that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements. Thought is not derived from action but tested by application.

Models of Curriculum Development : 

Models of Curriculum Development Ralph Tyler's Model/RationaleRalph Tyler considered four considerations in curriculum development: 1. purposes of the school2. educational experiences related to the purposes3. organization of the experiences4. evaluation of the experiences

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Hilda Taba's Linear ModelHilda Taba believed that teachers who teach or implement the curriculum should participate in developing it. Her advocacy was commonly called the "grassroots approach" where teachers could have a major input. She presented seven major steps:1. diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society2. formulation of learning objectives3. selection of learning content4. organization of learning content5. selection of learning experiences6. organization of learning activities7. determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.

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CURRICULUM COMPONENT INSTRUCTION COMPONENT LINEAR MODEL OF CURRICULUM PLANNING IMPLEMENTING Sub-system Learning Objectives 1 Sub-system Learning Content 2 Sub-system 3 Learning experiences Sub-system 4 Evaluation of learning Outcome

Three (3 ) interacting process in Curriculum Development : 

Three (3 ) interacting process in Curriculum Development Planning Implementing Evaluating

Types of Curriculum Operating in SchoolsAllan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools: : 

Types of Curriculum Operating in SchoolsAllan Glatthorn (2000) describes seven types of curriculum operating in the schools: 1. Recommended curriculum - proposed by scholars and professional organizations2. Written curriculum - appears in school, district, division or country documents3. Taught curriculum - what teachers implement or deliver in the classroom and schools

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4. Supported curriculum - resources-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of the curriculum5. Assessed curriculum - that which is tested and evaluated6. Learned curriculum - what the students actually learn and what is measured7. Hidden curriculum - the unintended curriculum

Historical Foundations of Curriculum. : 

Historical Foundations of Curriculum. Curriculum is not an old field. Philippine education came about from various foreign influences. This can be traced back to the glorious history. Of all foreign educational systems, the American educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system.

Six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum: : 

Six curriculum theorists contributed their views on curriculum: 1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956)- presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students' need.2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) - considered curriculum also as a science which is based on students' need, and the teachers plan the activities.3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities which are child-centered.

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4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans the lesson in advance.5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and earner's interests.6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. based on students' need and interests.

Elements/Components of the Curriculum : 

Elements/Components of the Curriculum Most curricula, major components or elements are : 1.aims,goals and objectives; 2.Subject matter or content; 3.Learning experiences and 4.Evaluation approaches

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Component 1: Curriculum Aims, Goals and ObjectivesAims: Elementary, Secondary, and TertiaryGoals: School Vision and MissionObjectives: educational objectives The Philippine educational system is divided in three educational levels : primary , secondary , and tertiary levels. Based on the Philippine Constitution of 1987, all schools shall aim to : Inculcate patriotism and nationalism Foster love of humanity Promote respect for human rights Appreciate the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country Teach the rights and duties of citizenship Strengthen ethical and spiritual values Develop moral character and personal discipline Encourage critical and creative thinking Broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency

Aims of Elementary Education (Education Act of 1982) : 

Aims of Elementary Education (Education Act of 1982) 1. To provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu;  2. To provide learning experiences which increase the child's awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society and to prepare him for constructive and effective involvement;  3. To promote and intensify the child's knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and 4. To promote work experiences which develop the child's orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare himself to engage in honest and gainful work.

Aims of Secondary Education : 

Aims of Secondary Education 1. To continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and 2. To discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of the students so as to equip him with skills for productive endeavor and/or prepare him for tertiary schooling.. Aims of Tertiary Education 1. To provide a general education program that will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor; 2. To train the nation's manpower in the skills required for national development; 3. To develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and 4. To advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions.

Example of school’s vision : 

Example of school’s vision A model performing high school where student are equipped with knowledge , skills and strength of character to realize their potential to the fullest. Example of school’s mission To produce globally competitive lifelong learners. Example of school goals : Build a strong foundation of skills and concepts

Domains of Objectives (by ; Blooms Taxonomy) : 

Domains of Objectives (by ; Blooms Taxonomy) Cognitive – knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation Affective – receiving, responding, valuing, organization, characterization psychomotor – perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation, origination

Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter : 

Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter Information to be learned in school, another term for knowledge ( a compendium of facts, concepts, generalization, principles, theories. Subject-centered view of curriculum: The Fund of human knowledge represents the repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to man’s exploration of his world 2. Learner-centered view of curriculum: Relates knowledge to the individual’s personal and social world and how he or she defines reality.Gerome Bruner: “Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience”

Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum : 

Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum 1. Self-sufficiency – “less teaching effort and educational resources, less learner’s effort but more results and effective learning outcomes – most economical manner (Scheffler, 1970)2. Significance – contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, develop learning skills3. Validity – meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational and social value

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4. Utility – usefulness of the content either for the present or the future 5. Learnability – within the range of the experience of the learners6. Feasibility – can be learned within the tile allowed, resources available, expertise of the teacher, nature of learner

Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992) : 

Principles to follow in organizing the learning contents (Palma, 1992) 1. BALANCE . Curriculum content should be fairly distributed in depth and breath of the particular learning are or discipline. This will ensure that the level or area will not be overcrowded or less crowded.2. ARTICULATION. Each level of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next, glaring gaps or wasteful overlaps in the subject matter will be avoided.3. SEQUENCE. This is the logical arrangement of the subject matter. It refers to the deepening and broadening of content as it is taken up in the higher levels.

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4. INTEGRATION - The horizontal connections are needed in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be elated to one another. 5.CONTINUITY - Learning requires a continuing application of the new knowledge, skills, attitudes or values so that these will be used in daily living. The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning. Component 3 – Curriculum Experience Instructional strategies and methods will link to curriculum experiences, the core and heart of the curriculum. 1. teaching methods are means to achieve the end2. there is no single best teaching method3. teaching methods should stimulate the learner’s desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual

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4. in the choice of teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered 5. every method should lead to the development of the learning outcome in three domains 6. flexibility should be a consideration in the use of teaching methods Component 4 – Curriculum Evaluation To be effective, all curricula must have an element of evaluation. Curriculum evaluation refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and product of the curriculum.

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Steps for Curriculum Evaluation Process : 1. Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. Will it be subject area, the grade level, the course, or the degree program? Specify objectives of evaluation.2. Collect or gather the information. Information is made up of data needed regarding the object of evaluation.3. Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing and retrieving data for interpretation.

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4. Analyze information. An appropriate way of analyzing will be utilized.5. Report the information. The report of evaluation should be reported to specific audiences. It can be done formally in conferences with stakeholders, or informally through round table discussion and conversations.6. Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modifications and adjustments to be made.

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End….