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contents : 

contents 1. Introduction. 2. Advantages. 3. Disadvantages. 4. Shapes Of Capsules. 5. Anatomy Of Soft Gelatin Capsule. 6. The Nature Of Capsule Shell. 7. The Nature Of Capsule Content. 8. Encapsulation Plant Layout

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9. Manufacturing Process Of Soft Gelatin Capsule. 10. Product Quality Considerations. 11. In Process Testing. 12. Finished Product Testing. 13. Vegicaps Soft Capsule. 14. Benefits of Vegicaps®Soft capsules

Soft gelatin capsule : 

Soft gelatin capsule DEFINITION:- soft Gelatin capsules are one piece, hermetically sealed, soft gelatin shells containing a liquid, a suspension, or a semisolid. The Nomenclature for this dosage form has now been changed to soft gel . They have long been preferred dosage form for those, taking Health & Nutritional supplements.


ADVANTEGES Easy to administer Easy to Manufacture Liquids can be encapsulated ( non water soluble) Small to large sizes possible Elegance Portability Odour and taste masking Ready availability of drug hence faster action. Specialised dosage forms can be made e.g. chewable, extended release, captabs etc. Can be used for ophthalmic preparations e.g. aplicaps, vaginal / rectal suppositories


DISADVANTEGES Water soluble material are difficult to incorporate Highly Moisture sensitive Efflorescent material cannot be incorporated, they may cause softening / leaching Deliquescent materials cannot be incorporated, they may cause hardening or brittle capsules.

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Shapes of Capsules -


CAPSULE SHELL The capsule shell is basically composed of Gelatin, a plasticizer & water, it may contain additional ingredients such as preservative ,coloring &opacifying agents, flavorings, sugars, acids & medicaments to achieve desired effects. GELATIN:-Obtain from partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from the skin, connective tissue & Bones of animals. may have viscosity of 38 mpa Bloom strength:-150-250 cost of gelatin a Bloom strength

Capsule shell : 

Capsule shell WATER:-n.m.t. 45% w/w The ratio by weight of water to dry gelatin can vary from 0.7 to1.3(water) to 1.0(dry gelatin) depending on the viscosity of the gelatin being used. PLASTICIZER:-Used to make the soft gel shell elastic & pliable. Ratio used is between 0.3 to 1.8 for soft to hard shell on dry basis. E.g. glycerin , sorbitol .

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COLOUR used in shell has to be darker than colour of encapsulating material colours may be natural or synthetic. OPACIFIER, usually titanium dioxide, may be added to produce an opaque shell ,when the fill formulation is a Suspension or to prevent photo degradation of light sensitive fill ingredients. Conc. Of opacifier may be up to 0.5%

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Chelating Agents:- Iron is always present in raw gelatin, & should not contain iron more than 15 ppm Additionally chelating agent may be used for preventing the reaction of iron with materials or colours.

Typical formula for gelatin sheet : 

Typical formula for gelatin sheet Glycerin I.P. 52.0 Kg PropMethyl Paraben I.P. 0.512Kg Methyl Paraben I.P. 0.128Kg Gelatin 120 Bloom I.P. 152.000Kg Brilliant Blue Ponceau 4R 0.300Kg Sunset Yellow I.P. 0.300Kg TiO2 I.P. 16.000Kg Water I.P. 120.00Ltr Sorbitol Liq. I.P. 16.00Kg

Gelatin Mass Manufacture : 

Gelatin Mass Manufacture The gel is prepared in a 300-litre stainless steel vessel. Gelatin powder is mixed with water and glycerine. Heating Stirring The molten gelatin mass is formed. It is decanted into 200-kg mobile vessels. Turbine mixing where colours and flavours can be added.

It ensures consistency of gelatin mass. This mass is kept at a constant temperature until it is needed for the next stage of the process.

Capsule content : 

Capsule content Content may be liquid, or a combination of miscible liquids, A solution of a solid(s) in a liquid(s) or a suspension of a solid(s) in a liquid(s). It can be a liquid like a volatile oil composition e.g.Pudin hara. Vegetable oils like arachis oil or aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons, ethers, esters, or alcohols.

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Solids that are not Sufficiently soluble in liquids or in combination of liquids are capsulated as Suspension. Suspending agents used are Lecithin, Soyabean oil, yellow wax.

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Encapsulation Manufacturing process The gel and fill mobile vessels are then taken to the encapsulation bays. Where each encapsulation machine is segregated in individual bays. The molten gel is pumped to the machine. Two thin ribbons of gel are formed, one either side of the machine.

These ribbons then pass over a series of rollers and over a set of dies that determine the size and shape of the capsules



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Capsule Manufacturing : 

Capsule Manufacturing Encapsulation Tumble Drying :-Dry, sterile air is forced across the tumbler and removes the moisture from the outer surface of the capsules. Supplemental Drying (curing):- After the tumbler dryers, the soft capsules are placed on special trays for final drying in the drying room. For a period up to 48 hrs.

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Sizing:- Automatic capsule sizing machine eliminates undersized and oversized capsules. Inspection:- includes visual inspection to check malformed, damaged or improperly filled capsules. Packaging:- capsule may be packaged in glass or plastic containers or may be strip-packaged, so long as such packaging involves tight closures & plastics having a low moisture vapor transfer rate.


PRODUCT QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS Ingredient specifications all ingredients of a soft gel are controlled and tested to ensure compliance with pharmacopoeial specifications. E.g. Impurities such as aldehydes & peroxides which may be present in polyethylene glycols. Presence of high levels of these impurities gives rise to cross-linking of the gelatin polymer, leading to insolubilization through further polymerization.

In-process testing : 

In-process testing During the encapsulation process the four most important tests are:- The gel ribbon thickness; Soft gel seal thickness at the time of encapsulation; Fill matrix weight & capsule shell weight; Soft gel shell moisture level and soft gel hardness at the end of the drying stage.

Finished product testing : 

Finished product testing These normally includes Capsule appearance, active ingredient assay & related substances assay Fill weight Content uniformity and Microbiological testing.


VEGICAPS SOFT CAPSULES Vegicaps®Soft capsules are an alternative animal free capsule. The shell is made from seaweed extract and gluten free starch, and contains no modified sugars or artificial ingredients. The shell can be clear or coloured and there is a wide range of shapes, sizes and colours available.

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An alternative to gelatin for those who prefer an animal free product Those with a level of concern about animal-derived products Vegetarians Those with religious or cultural restrictions Consumers looking for the most natural alternative.

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Benefits of Vegicaps®Soft capsules Free of all animal derivatives – no pork or beef content.  Easy to swallow Soft Natural Perception of a healthier product Plant based shell Low shell odour.

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