Genetic engineering new


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Genetic engineering:

Genetic engineering


What is genetic engineering ?

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Directly altering/ manipulating structure and characteristic of the gene so as to manipulate biological processes and/ or organisms

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In 1972, Paul Berg joined DNA from E.coli and a primate virus called SV40 He cut both with EcoRI (restriction enzyme) He then added fragments to tube with DNA ligase This became 1st recombinant DNA molecule

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Genetic tools…

Restriction enzymes:

Restriction enzymes Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes that are found in bacteria They are also called endonucleases Microbiologists from 1960s discovered that some bacteria are protected from destruction by viruses because they cut viral DNA, restricting viral replication


Plasmids Plasmid DNA is circular form of self-replicating DNA Found primarily in bacteria They are small (~1000 - 1400 base pairs) in size Considered extrachromosomal DNA because they are present in addition to chromosomes

Types of Vectors:

Types of Vectors Bacteriophage vectors Expression vectors Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) Tumor-inducing (Ti) vectors One primary limitation of bacterial plasmids as vectors is the size of DNA fragments (usually cannot exceed 6000-7000 base pairs).

Insertion of Gene:

Insertion of Gene Eletroporation Bacterial cell treated with calcium chloride, chilled on ice, then briefly heated . Brief pulse of high- voltage are give which create tiny pores in bacterial cell wall allowing plasmid DNA to enter .


Biolistics Used in order to have foreign DNA enter a cell DNA is blasted into the cell using tiny bullets composed of tungsten or gold particles with DNA attached Can be used on bacteria, yeasts, & mammalian cell lines

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Techniques used

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Cloning Recombinant DNA or DNA cloning Therapeutic cloning Reproductive cloning

DNA Cloning:

DNA Cloning To "clone a gene," a DNA fragment that has a specific gene is isolated from chromosomal DNA using restriction enzymes and then united with a plasmid that has been cut with the same restriction enzymes. .

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Therapeutic cloning, also called "embryo cloning," is the production of human embryos for research. The goal of this process is not to create cloned human beings, but rather to create stem cells that can be used to study human development and to treat disease. Stem cells are important to researchers because they can be used to generate virtually any type of specialized cell in the human body. Stem cells are extracted from the egg after it has divided for 5 days. The egg at this stage of development is called a blastocyst. The extraction process destroys the embryo, which raises a variety of ethical concerns. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer, and other diseases.

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Reproductive cloning

Reproductive Cloning:

Reproductive Cloning Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an organism that has the same DNA as another currently or previously existing animal . Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. In a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT), scientists transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic material, has been removed (enucleated). The new egg containing the DNA from the donor cell and starts replicating. Once the cloned embryo reaches enough cells (blastula), it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth.

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