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FOOD PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY Made by: Dr. Neetu singh Assistant Professor School for Home Sciences


WHAT IS FOOD PACKAGING? Food packaging is packaging for food. A package provides protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It may bear a nutrition facts label and other information about food being offered for sale.

What does packaging do?:

What does packaging do? packaging preserves food and prolongs its shelf life by protecting it from bacterial damage, moisture and insect attack. Some packaging preserves food for a very long time, such as tins. Today, due to the way we shop , packaging also prevents tampering , provides information and attracts customers.

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General requirements of food packagin g: Nontoxic Prevent contamination from microorganisms & environmental toxicants Barrier to moisture , oxygen, UV light & odors Provide resistance to physical damage Be tamper-resistant or tamper-evident Easy to open Have dispensing & resealing features Be disposed of easily Meet size, shape & weight requirements Have appearance, printability features Have low cost Be compatible with food Be transparent


OBJECTIVES The objectives of packaging include: • prevent physical damage, e.g. from knocking, shaking or crushing; • prevent contamination from micro-organisms, pollution or vermin; • protect against dehydration or dampness; • protect the product’s nutritional and sensory characteristics;

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c ontain the product and keep it intact. liquid products do not leak and that dry materials, such as flour, do not spill out. Well protection form damage keep the product in peak condition ; help to increase a product’s shelf life.


FUCNTIONS OF PACKAGING To protect a product from damage or contamination . To keep the product together, to contain it (i.e. so that it does not spill). To identify the product . Protection during Transport and Ease of Transport . Stacking and Storage.


Types of PACKAGING Aluminium container Aluminium foil Paper kraft paper coated paper brown paper for packing and wrapping greaseproof Plastics Polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride Polystyrene Polyester Cellulose film Glass laminates


Glass As related to food packaging is chemically inert. The principle limitation is susceptibility to breakage which may be from internal pressure , impart thermal shock. Preparation: soda ash ,lime stone and other material moulded by heating to about 1500 Celsius and send to oven to impart toughness. The average life of a glass water in a soft drink industries is 4-6 years ADVANTAGES: free of corrosion Glasses impermeable to both gas and liquid odourless permitting full vision of package product and give the feeling of cleanliness .

Functional requirements of glass containers:

Functional requirements of glass containers Mechanical impact strength Resistance to thermal shocks. Thermal endurance Resistance to internal pressure. Resistance to collapse Dimensional conformance of the finish Dimensional conformance of the body. Capacity Chemical durability Visual appeal.


TESTING OF GLASS CONTAINERS VISUAL DEFECTS: It is examined against a glare-free illumination from a suitable light source. CRITICAL DEFECTS: cracked or broken glass choked bore internal fins flanged fins over press Split finish Channelled and wrapped sealing surface Shifted finish Rocker bottom

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MAJOR DEFECTS: stones seeds cords blisters rough sealing surface crizzle oil marks bad distribution Deformation HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST: Bottles are filled with water and pressure is applied by a pump. Pressure is raised to a specified limit at which the container should not break


CHEMICAL DURABILITY TEST OF GLASSES Low alkali glass like “neutral "or “boro silicate "is used. Glasses are grouped into various types ( 1 to 5) according to their chemical durability i ;e , extractible alkalinity. Alkalinity is measure by treating it with a standard acid solution. The user should be more concerned with the inside surface of the container


MAKING OF GLASS BOTTLES Hot End Process: It employs high amounts of heat to produce and shape a glass container. A furnace is first used to mould molten glass(glass feed stock). calcium oxide,lime,silica,Soda-lime glass and small amounts of aluminium oxide, ferric oxide, barium oxide, sulphur trioxide, and magnesia for about 5 percent of soda-lime glass. Before melting, cullet (recycled glass) is added to the stock, accounting for anywhere between 15 and 50 percent of the final glass composition .

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After stock has been fed into furnace temp. is increased to 1675°F. Next, one of two method forming methods is applied press-and-blow or blow-and-blow

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ANNEALING: Once formation is complete, some bottles may suffer from stress as a result of unequal cooling rates. An annealing oven can be used to reheat and cool glass containers to rectify stress and make the bottle stronger. COLD END PROCESSES: In this stage, the bottles or glass containers are inspected and packaged. Inspection is often done by a combination of automated and mechanical inspection, to ensure the integrity of the final product. Common faults include checks, stones etc.which are important to catch because they can compromise the component.


CLOSURES Closures are devices and techniques used to close or seal a bottle, jug, jar, tube, can, etc. Closures can be a cap, cover, lid, plug, etc. Metals and plastics are basically used for their manufacturing. Fabricated from tinplate, steel plate or aluminium. Many containers and packages require a means of closing. It can be a separate device or seal or sometimes an integral latch or lock.

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PURPOSE OF CLOSURE: Keep the container closed and the contents contained for the specified shelf life until time of opening Provide a barrier to dirt, oxygen, moisture, etc. Control of permeation is critical to many types of products: foods, chemicals, etc. Keep the product secure from undesired premature opening Provide a means of reclosing or reusing the container Assist in dispensing and use of product Allow reasonable ease to open the container by the intended user.


TYPES OF CLOSURES METAL CLOSURES: Fabricated from tinplate, mild steel plate or aluminium, they take different forms depending upon their needs of usage. They have EOE (easy opening ends) CROWN CAPS: Used mostly for beverage bottles and other processed products. These are Shallow metal caps that are crimped into locking position around the head of the bottle.

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LUG CAPS: They seal the vacuum inside the headspace of the glass bottle, they require puncturing to open it. Also known as twist-on twist-off caps. Used for jam bottles and other similar products. PLASTIC CLOSURES: They are produced from polypropylene and are injection moulded .They allow venting out excess gas pressure to prevent bursting.

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Corkers Corks are mainly used to close wine bottles by pressing them into the neck under considerable pressure while at the same time squeezing them, to reduce the diameter so that they will enter the bottle neck . The corks are wetted before use so that they will slide more easily into the bottle neck . they are soaked in a solution of sodium met bisulphite to avoid contamination to avoid contamination. Plastic hinge-open snap-shut closures They are becoming increasingly common for liquid products that are opened and closed several times in use . Simple hand-operated presses are available to fit this type of closure. Common applications include cooking oils, sauces and fruit toppings.

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DISPENSING DEVICES: D ispensing device range from flip top caps to cans. Used to dispense measured dosages. In aerosol sprays, specially designed valve is used for uniform spraying having a definite particle size. They are designed to ensure complete emptying of the container and avoiding wastage particularly for high value products

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The design of the dispensing device depends on the following: Viscosity or flow properties of the product Value of the product Accuracy of the output required Nature of the product

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BAG-IN BOX SYSTEM: In packaging, a bag-in-box or BiB is a type of container for the storage and transportation of liquids . usually made of several layers of metallised film or other plastics, seated inside a corrugated fibreboard box . Used to dispense bulk supplied condiments such as ketchup or mustard in the foodservice industry specifically in fast food outlets.


advantages it is inexpensive. The bag allows a contents of 1.5–1000 litres, so that less packaging or labelling is required. The material it is made from is lighter than the other plastic alternatives providing it with a better carbon footprint.


Cans Cans were traditionally made from tin plate sheet, but now more commonly aluminium is used (for drinks). The inside of the can is often sheet coated with lacquers to prevent the cans rusting and reacting with the contents, especially acidic foods. The effectiveness of tin coating depends upon its thickness method of applying (electrolytic plating ,composition of the under living steel) types of food and other factor(temp., pressure, humidity etc.)


TYPES OF CANNS FULL TOP CANN- mostly made of Al+2 which has a key opening device it contains a lacquer waiting for packaging the acidic foods PASSIVATION-external surface of a cann are treated when canns are held in or exported to warm humid areas ,dis treatments prevents resulting of canns . SLIP OVER LID- This is the sanitary opening cover is reversible ,air tight and temper to sealing can be done . COFEE CANNS- guiding a plastic lid convenient to open . COLAPSE CANNS- bulkiness and transportation can be achieved at low cost by delivering fatten cann bodies. They are reformed and bottoms are attached prior to filling. AEROSOL CANNS- (pressurised cans) pressurised food packages or aerosol packages are two types-

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A- Aerosal type-(foam) B-Wax spray – non aerated container ,(liquid) dispenses material as a foam like whipped cream and wet spray non aerated container which dispenses material as a liquid for packaging in aerosol cans . FOIL LAMINATED FIBRE CANNS - lighter in weight ,and lower in price example-fruit juice or juice concentrates. UNIT PACKED CANNS –has both top and bottoms made of Mattel's which are seamed (sealed) of any type of martials ex-card board and are not made for reuse metal provide easy stacking .

Testing methods of tin containers:

Testing methods of tin containers The testing methods include: Visual inspections for printing and manufacturing defects Dimensions inspection Ready container height, capacity or over seam diameter. Air pressure test for leakage Handle pull test Crush resistance test Product compatibility.


Plastics Food packaging uses a wide range of both rigid and flexible plastic materials including: polythene – low density is used as a film wrapping, resistant to water. High density is used for ‘boil-in-the-bag’ products ; polyamide (nylon) – provides a very good barrier to oxygen, so used for vacuum packaging, especially for foods containing fat (which can be susceptible to oxidation). Type 1 – PET is the most commonly used one (water containers); APET (fizzy drinks); CPET is heat resistant (oven ready-meal trays)

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Type 4 – LDPE (plastic bags and bin liners) Type 5 – PP (margarine tubs and microwaveable meal trays) Type 6 – PS is polystyrene (yoghurt pots, plastic cutlery, egg cartons, vending cups and burger cartons) Type 7 – other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories (melamine and non-breakable plates and cups ). Type 2 – HDPE (milk and detergent bottles) Type 3 – PVC is banned in some countries (food trays, cling film, bottles of squash, water and shampoo)


MAKING OF PLASTIC BOTTLES Injection moulding Here grains of plastic polymer are heated by a screw in a moulding machine and then injected under high pressure into a cool mould. The method is mainly used for wide necked containers and lids. Injection blow moulding- Polymer is injection moulded around a blowing stick and, while molten is transferred to the blowing mould. It is then blown into shape by compressed air.

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Extrusion blow moulding- In this method a continuously extruded tube of softened polymer is trapped between the two halves of a mould. It is then inflated by compressed air into the mould. Stretch blow moulding - A shape is prepared by either injection or extrusion moulding. It is then re-heated, which causes the molecules of plastic to 'line up'. This gives a glass clear container of greater strength which has good barrier properties to gases and moisture over a wide temperature range. Blow moulding : is similar to glass bottle making and is used as a one or two stage process to make bottles, jars and pots


LAMINATES Excellent barriers against microbes and dirt. Eg . Of laminates include: polymer coated cellofin , metallic foil , polythene combined with aluminium foil.

Cellulose films:

Cellulose films Cellulose films are used for different types of food packaging, because they have a range of characteristics such as different degrees of moisture proofing. Some cellulose films are heat sealable. They can be used, for example, as window patches in cartons.


PAPER Often used for printing containers. Made from natural and occasionally synthetic fibrous material being the precipitate of its suspension in water. coated with waxes,raisins,plastics, laminates of aluminium to improve vapour and gas permeability. Types of packaging paper Grease proof paper Kraft paper Pouch papers Cardboard

Pulping methods:

Pulping methods MANUFACTURING OF PAPER: Raw material preparation Pulping Bleaching Stock preparation sheet formation Consolidation drying Finishing Pulping methods can be divided into : Chemical pulping Semi-chemical pulping Mechanical pulping

Bleaching of paper:

Bleaching of paper Only required in those grades where higher brightness level is desired. Common bleaching chemicals used are- chlorine and hypochlorite. BRIGHTNESS OF DIFFERENT PULPS Type of pulp Brightness (%) UNBLEACHED SULFATE 20-45 BLEACHED SULFATE 70-85 UNBLEACHED SULPHITE 50-65 BLEACHED SULPHITE 75-85 SPECIALLY PURIFIED PULPS UPTO 90-94 GROUNDWOOD 55-60


PAPER MAKING Suspension of the fibre from its suspension in water Removal of water occurs by gravity and then vacuum is applied. Next, in the press section 42% dryness is removed Followed by water removal in a battery of steam heated drying cylinders. Lastly it is passed through a calendar to remove uneven surfaces

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Grease proof paper: Use in packaging of butter, margarain etc. Kraft paper: Also know as unbleached heavy duty paper. Mostly used for printing containers. Pouch papers: Made up of special kind of laminated paper. Smooth surface Used for packaging of coffee,dehydrated soups,milk foods etc.

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Cardboard: Made of sulphate pulp for packing ice-cream etc. The pulp gives it water and oil resistance. Other types include glazing type paper made of long wood pulp for imparting physical strain.

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