logging in or signing up SOLUBILIZATION bhaskerreddy1149 Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINT lite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 1433 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (0) Dislike it (0) Added: May 26, 2011 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 3 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: kyugandharnaidu (8 month(s) ago) send to my mail monoclonal antibodies ppt $ mail id email@example.com Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... 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Importance of solubility: It is an important physico-chemical property of the drug, It is an important parameter to achieve desired concentration in systemic circulation Solubility behavior of the drug is a one of the important aspects of preformulation testing for poorly soluble drugSlide 3: Descriptive terms Relative amounts of solvents to dissolve 1 part of solute Very soluble Less than 1 Freely soluble From 1-10 Soluble From 10-30 Sparingly soluble From 30-100 Slightly soluble From 100-1000 Very slightly soluble From 1000-10,000 Insoluble or practically insoluble More than 10,000 Expression for approximate solubilitySlide 4: Problems with poor solubility: Reduced drug efficiency Reduced absorption of drug May cause side effects Solubilization: It can be defined as the preparation of a thermodynamically stable isotropic solution of a substance normally insoluble or very slightly soluble in a given solvent by the addition of component or components or by any suitable methodsSlide 5: Process of Solubilization: Breaking of inter-ionic or inter–molecular bonds in the solute Separation of solute molecules to provide space for the solute Interaction between the solvent and solute molecule or ion a) Molecules of solids break away from bulkSlide 6: b ) Separation of solvent molecules c)Freed solid molecules is integrated into the holes of solvent moleculeSolubilization techniques : Solubilization techniquesSlide 8: Co-solvency: Substances like weak electrolytes and non-polar molecules are poorly soluble in water The solubility of these substances can be enhanced by the addition of water miscible solvents in which the drug has good solubility. This process of improving solubility is called as co-solvency and the solvents used are known as co-solvents. This technique is mainly used in the formulation of parenterals Commonly used co-solvents are Ethanol, Sorbitol, Glycerin, Polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol etc. The solubilizing effect by co-solvency is depends on the polarity of the drug with respect to solvent and co-solvent. That means more non-polar the solute the greater is the solubilization achieved by the added solventsSlide 9: Mechanism responsible for solubility enhancement through co-solvency is by reducing the interfacial tension the predominantly aqueous solution and hydrophobic solutes and reduces the contact angle between the solid and liquid Co-solvents increases the solubility by reducing the difference between the polarity of the drug and water sustem Ex. For co-solvency The solubility of diazepam can be increased by using 10% ethanol and 40% propylene glycol. Phenobarbitone is relatively insoluble in water but it solubility can be increased by using mixture of solvents like water, alcohol and glycerinSlide 10: Addition of surfactants: Surfactants are very useful as absorption enhancers and enhance both dissolution rate as well as permeability of the drug Surfactants act by reducing the surface tension and forms colloidal aggregates known as micelles. Micelles are formed at CMC Ability of a surfactant solution to dissolve or solubilise water insoluble materials starts at CMC and increases with increase in conc. Of micelles Lipophilic surfactants with HLB value higher than 15 are best solubilising agents Concentration of surfactant must be controlled very less conc. Improper solubilization very high conc. Affect on bioavailabilitySlide 11: Solid dispersion technique It is the dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inert carrier or matrix in solid state prepared by fusion or melting-solvent method. It is the dispersion of a drug or drugs in solid diluent or diluents. Solid dispersions may also be called “ solid state dispersions”. Solid dispersion provides particle size reduction and increased rates of dissolution Various systems of solid dispersions: Simple eutectic mixtures Solid solutions Glass solution and glass suspension Amorphous precipitation of drug in crystalline carrier Compound or complex formation between drug and carrier Any combination among the aboveSlide 12: Complexation: It is reversible association of a substrate and ligand molecule. The most common complexing ligands are cyclodextrins, caffeine, urea, polyethylene glycol, N methylglucamide. cyclodextrin are unique since they increase the water solubility of poorly soluble drugs by fitting them into the hydrophobic cavity of the cyclodextrin molecule. These cyclodextrins have the ability to form molecular inclusion complexes with hydrophobic drugs having poor aqueous solubility.Changing temperature: Changing temperature The solubility of a solute or solid in a liquid is dependent on temperature, nature of solute and nature of solvent ∆Hs( heat of solution) represents the heat released or absorbed when a mole of solute is dissolved in a large amount of solvent If the solution process is endothermic, increase in temperature increases the solubility of the solute And if the solution process is exothermic, increase in temperature decreases the solubility of the soluteHydrotrophy: Hydrotrophy Addition of large amount of a second solute results in an increase in the aqueous solubility of another solute. Concentrated aqueous hydrotropic solutions of sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate, urea, nicotinamide, sodium citrate and sodium acetate have been observed to enhance the aqueous solubilities of many poorly water-soluble drugs. Advantages: 1. Hydrotropy is suggested to be superior to other Solubilization method, such as miscibility, micellar Solubilization, cosolvency and salting in, because the solvent character is independent of pH, has high selectivity and does not require emulsification 2. It only requires mixing the drug with the hydrotrope in water. 3. It does not require chemical modification of hydrophobic drugs, use of organic solvents, or preparation of emulsion systemSlide 15: Drug Hydrotropic agent Riboflavin ProcaineHCl , PABAHCl , CinchocaineHCl , Resorcinol, Pyrogallol Chartreusin Sodium benzoate, Sodium p hydroxybenzoate , Sodium m- hydroxybenzoate , Sodium o- hydroxybenzoate , Sodium 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, Sodium 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate, Sodium 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, Sodium 2,4, 6-trihydroxybenzoate Diazepam, Medazepam , Oxazepam , Nitrazepam , Clonazepam Sodium salicylateSolid state manipulations: Solid state manipulations Polymorphic modifications : Solubility of each form depends upon the ability of the molecules to escape from the crystal to solvent. The stable form posses the lower free energy at a particular temperature and therefore has the lower solubility or escaping tendency where as the meta stable forms posses higher free energy hence has higher solubility. About fifty to hundred percent increase in the dissolution rate can be achieved through polymorphic modifications. Examples: Chloramphenicol palmitate (form B) Methyl prednisolone (form 2) Chlor tetracycline (form B)Slide 17: Non crystalline solutes (amorphous): As the term implies they will not contain internal crystal lattice structure. These are thermodynamicaly unstable. Amorphous solid forms give faster dissolution rates and higher solubilities than polymorphic modifications. Eg : Novobiocin Thus, the order for dissolution of different solid forms of drug is Amorphous > Metastable >StableSlide 18: Solvates (pseudo polymorphism ) The recrystallization of many drug substances from solution will results in the formation of solids containing solvent molecules as an integral part of their crystal structure. Majority of these crystalline materials referred as pseudo polymorphs, contain stoichiometric amount of solvent. Anhydrates > hydrates Organic solvates > organic non-solvates Enhances the solubility of drug markedly. Examples: pentanol solvates of fludrocortisone chloroform solvates of griseofulvin cephalexin hydrateSlide 19: Salt formation Salts have improved solubility and dissolution characteristics in comparison to the original drug. Alkali metal salts of acidic drugs like penicillin and strong acid salts of basic drugs like atropine are water-soluble than the parent drug. Precipitation: In this method, the poorly aqueous soluble drug is dissolved in a suitable organic solvent followed by its rapid mixing with a non-solvent to effect precipitation of drug in nano size particles. The product so prepared is also called as hydrosol. Ex. CyclosporineOther techniques: Other techniques Micronization Nanonisation Supercritical Fluid Recrystallization Spray freezing into liquid and lyophilization Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution Use of precipitation inhibitors Selective Adsorption on Insoluble Carriers Solvent Deposition Drug derivatisationConclusion : Conclusion The aqueous solubility of drug is often a limiting factor in developing most desirable dosage form. A highly solubilized formulation is highly desired to minimize dissolution limited absorption .Often, these early stage formulations become the backbone for the later stage commercial formulations. But still there has been a lot of research going on in this topic and many newer and advanced methods are used to enhance the solubility of the drug.References : References Leon Lachman , Herbert A.Lieberman , The Theory and Practice of Industrial pharmacy. 2009; 171-196 Purwa Jain et al, “Solubility enhancement techniques with special emphasis on Hydrotrophy”, International journal of pharma professionals research You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.