Pharmacognosy of Cocoa & Kokum butter, Bees Wax, Wool Fat


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Pharmacognosy of Crude drugs


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Synonyms : Theobroma oil, Cocoa seeds, Cocoa bean. Biological Source : It is obtained from the seeds of Theobroma cocoa Obtained from the family STERCULIACEAE. Geographical source : Srilanka , Brazil, Ecuador, Guiana, Carribean islands. Some parts of India (Assam).

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Macroscopy : Colour : Yellowish white solid Odour : Pleasant Taste : Chocolate Nature : Brittle ( < 25 o c) Solubility : Chloroform, Ether, Benzene, Pet ether. Insoluble in Water.

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Chemical constituents : Theobromine , Caffeine, Polyphenols like epicatechol , Fat (Cocoa butter), Fixed oils, Proteins, Oleic acid, Stearic acid , Palmitic acid, Arachdic acid, Linoleic acid, Stigmasterol , Glycerides (Non greasy in nature).

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Identification test : 1gm of oil + 3ml of ether (17 o c) Clear liquid should formed (Should not become turbid)

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Preperation : Fruits are collected when they are in green (Not Orange or Red) 40 to 50 seeds, Separated Fermentation for 6 days Roasted at 100 to 140 o c (Seed coat separates from the seed & water removal) Cooled , Separated from shells (Nibblers) Kernels fed into rollers to obtain cocoa butter

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Uses : Stimulant, Nutritive, Diuretic, Ointment base in suppositories and ointments, In preparation of Creams and soaps.

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Synonyms : Cera alba, Cera flava , Yellow bees wax. Biologic al source : Obtained from the Honey comb of the bees Apis mellifera belongs to the Family Apidae . (White bees wax obtained by bleaching the yellow bees wax) Geographical source : India, France, Italy, West africa , Jamica .

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Method of preparation : Wax is prepared by the worker bee It oozes out through the pores present in the chitinous sternal plates To prepare the beehive and for capping the honey cells After removing honey, immersed in the boiling water or dilute sulphuric acid The impurities and honey settles down Melted wax floats on the water surface Solidified on cooling Further purified

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Yellow bees wax Direct sunlight Charcoal KMno 4 Chromic acid Chlorine White bees wax

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Description : Colour : Yellowish brown Odour : Agreeable, Honey like Tasty : Waxy Texture : Soft Solubility : Soluble in Ether, Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride Fixed oil, Volatile oil

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Chemical constituents : Myricin , Myricyl Palmitate , Cerotic acid, Ceroline Lactone , Cholesterol esters. Identification test : 0.5g bees wax + Alcoholic NaOH Boil and cool Cloudy appearance between 59 – 61 o c

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Uses : Emulsifying agent Manufacturing candle moulds, Face creams, Plasters Shoe polish Dentistry Lipstics Paraffin ointment

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Synonyms : Lanolin, Hydrous wool fat, Aeps lanae Biological Source : Purified fat like substance (Secreted by the sebaceous glands of the sheep) obtained from the wool of the sheep Ovis aries . Belongs to family Bovidae . Geographical source : India (Less extent), Australia (Major), USA.

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Preparation : Raw wool consists of crude lanolin, wool fibres , potassium salts of fatty acids. Wool is sheared and treated with sulphuric acid or alkali soln Wool fat is removed in the form of emulsion (Wool grease and water) Emulsion consists of crude lanolin purified by caustic soda and bleaching agents Anhydrous wool fat 30% of water gives hydrous wool fat

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Description : Colour : Pale yellow solid Odour : Faint and characteristic Taste : Bland (mild, tasteless, not irritating) Nature : Greasy Chemical constituents : Cholesterol (C 27 H 45 OH). Palmitic acid, lanopalmitic acid, myristic acid, lanoceric acid.

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Identification test : 0.5 g Hydrous wool fat + 5ml chloroform + 1 ml aceti anhydride + 2 drops H 2 SO 4 . Deep green color

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Uses : Water absorbable ointment base Ingredient in several water soluble creams Cosmetic preparations Emollient Soaps

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