World Health Day 2016

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World Health Day 2016:

World Health Day 2016

Diabetes:

Diabetes Diabetes is a condition in which the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is high. The body produces insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, which breaks down the sugar consumed in food. A reduction in the production and/or utilization of insulin causes diabetes. If left untreated or uncontrolled, diabetes can lead to serious problems, such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, among others. Some of these may be life threatening.

Diabetes:

Diabetes It is increasingly hitting people of working age It is a deadly disease with life threatening complications It is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease It traps households into a vicious cycle of poverty

Type 1 diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes, the body completely stops producing insulin due to destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic cells by the body’s immune system. It was previously referred to as juvenile diabetes because it is usually diagnosed in young adults or children, or insulin-dependent diabetes, as insulin therapy is essential for survival and maintenance of good health

Type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes This is the more common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90% of cases. Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas either produces inadequate amounts of insulin, or the body is unable to use the available insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults, and is more common in people who are overweight or obese.

Type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes was previously known as maturity-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes. It is treated mostly with diet, exercise and oral medication. Insulin is given only if the blood sugar levels cannot be controlled by oral medication. More than 80% of type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by reducing the risk factors that may lead to its development and adopting healthier lifestyles.

Risk of developing type 2 diabetes:

Risk of developing type 2 diabetes Parent or sibling with type 2 diabetes, Especially after the age of 40 years. Overweight/obesity Inadequate physical activity Unhealthy diet Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes:

Gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes is a temporary type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy (gestation). A woman who had gestational diabetes in one pregnancy has a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes in future pregnancies. Although gestational diabetes reverts to normal after pregnancy, it increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in future.

Common signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes:

Common signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes Diabetes can affect the eyes. High blood sugar levels can cause the lens to swell, and the vision may become blurred or foggy. An affected person may become easily tired for no apparent reason. One may pass urine more frequently than before. Hunger may increase and the person may eat more than usual.

Common signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes:

Common signs and symptoms of Type 2 diabetes There may be weight loss despite a good appetite. A person may become overly thirsty and tend to drink excessive amounts of water. This is because the body tries to compensate for the water lost through the urine. A high blood sugar level makes it hard for the body to fight infections. Wounds do not heal easily, there may be frequent infections of the skin, bladder or gums, and itching in the genital area. There may be numbness or tingling in the hands and feet

RPG (random plasma glucose)::

RPG (random plasma glucose): This is a blood test done at any time of the day to check the blood sugar level at that point in time. If the RPG value is ≥200 mg/ dL (11.1 mmol /L) of blood, it indicates that the person has diabetes. Further tests may be required for confirmation

FPG (fasting plasma glucose)::

FPG (fasting plasma glucose): This tests the amount of sugar in the blood stream after one has not eaten for 8–10 hours (overnight fasting). This is usually done first thing in the morning before breakfast. An FPG value ≥126 mg/ dL (≥7.0 mmol /L) indicates that the person has diabetes.

Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C)::

Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C): This test measures how well the blood sugar has been controlled over the past 3 months. If the HbA1C is ≥6.5% (47.0 mmol / mol), it indicates the presence of diabetes

Prediabetes:

Prediabetes

Prediabetes:

Prediabetes Prediabetes is a condition in which the blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Millions of people worldwide do not know that they have prediabetes . Prediabetic persons may develop type 2 diabetes in later life.

Prediabetes:

Prediabetes If the HbA1C is between 5.7% and 6.4%, or The FPG is more than 110 mg/ dL but less than 126 mg/ dL , or The OGTT (2-hour glucose test) is between 140 and 199 mg/ dL , the condition is termed as prediabetes

Rule of “thirds”:

Rule of “thirds” There is a rule of “thirds” – About One third of prediabetic people will develop diabetes in the next five years, One third will remain prediabetic , While One third will revert to normal.

Good control Diabetes:

Good control Diabetes A glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) test accurately assesses how well the blood glucose has been controlled over a period of 2–3 months. For non-diabetic individuals, the normal HbA1c level is usually below 5.5%. In people with diabetes, an HbA1c level below 7.0% indicates good control

Slide 24:

“Diabetes is a chronic, debilitating and costly disease associated with severe complications”

Slide 25:

Diabetes is among the top 10 causes of disability, resulting in devastating complications such as blindness and lower limb amputations

Complications and consequences of Diabetes:

Complications and consequences of Diabetes The complications of diabetes develop gradually. When too much sugar stays in the blood stream for a long time, it can affect the blood vessels, nerves, eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. Complications include heart attack and stroke, severe foot infections (leading to gangrene, which may result in amputation), End-stage kidney failure and sexual dysfunction

Complications of diabetes can be prevented by :

Complications of diabetes can be prevented by Take medicines regularly as prescribed by the health-care provider. Keep a track of the blood sugar level by going for regular tests and check-ups. Eat healthy – more vegetables and fruit, less fatty, sugary and salty food. Stay physically active. Stay alert for skin infections and skin disorders. Go for regular eye check-ups. Watch for any tingling, burning, loss of sensation, and wounds on the bottom of the feet.

Slide 35:

We must prevent the development of type 2 diabetes wherever we can Diabetes is not only a health issue – it affects everyone and requires a collective response

Slide 36:

We know what to do – we have the evidence, we have the cost-effective solutions, we have the tools and we have the skills

“When people work with integrity and commitment for a noble cause, sometimes the world will listen” Dr Muhammed Ali Sorcar Deputy Ambassador UN Bangladesh Mission :

“When people work with integrity and commitment for a noble cause, sometimes the world will listen” Dr Muhammed Ali Sorcar Deputy Ambassador UN Bangladesh Mission

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