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A. SAL FORESTS. Sal forests are extensively found in the southern parts of the country. The Sal forests are resemble to UP, Bihar and north Bengal. (A). BHABAR-TERAI SAL FORESTS :- This sub types is well developed in the Bhabar and Terai tracts adjoining the Indo- Ganga plain. The principal spp. are:- Adina cordifolia , Dillenia pentagyna , Anogeissus latifolia , Shorea robusta , Terminalia spp. (B). HILL SAL FORESTS :- These forest are found in the Siwalik hills and foot hills. The main species:- Anogeissus latifolia , Buchanania spp., Shorea robusta , Mallotus spp .


B. TROPICAL DECIDUOUS RIVERINE FOREST This forest types is found along the rivers and streams of Bhabar , Terai and Dun tracts. The principal species are:- Acacia catechu, Adina cordifolia , Bombax ceiba , Dalbergia sissoo , Sterculia urens . C. TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS The forests types occur upto an elevation of about 1000mtrs as narrow strips along rivers and streams in the lower Himalayas. Tropical evergreen forest differs in eastern and western parts of the country. WESTERN NEPAL:- Albizzia procera , Cedralla toona , Madhuca indica , Phoebe lanceolata , Dendrocalamus strictus . EASTERN NEPAL:- Castanopsis indica , Ehretia spp., Morinda angustifolia , Mellosma spp.


D. SUB TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST The Sub-Tropical forests occur upto an elevation of about 2000mtrs. In the very high rainfall zone of the lower Himalayas. There is heavy biotic pressure on these forests. In the form of overgrazing and lopping. The principal species are :- Albizzia procera , Amoora ducandra , Cedrela toona . E. SUB-TROPICAL LOWER HIMALAYAN FORESTS The Sub- Tropical lower Himalayan forests are found upto an elevation of about 1800mtrs. In the lower Himalaya. The principal species are:- Acacia catechu, Agele marmelos , Anogeissus latifolia , Buchnania lanzan , Sterculia urens .


F. TERMINALIA FOREST This forest types found in the transition zone between the tropical and Sub-tropical forest of the outer and lower Himalaya. It is well developed in the Bhadar tract and dun valleys of eastern Nepal. The principal species are :- Adina cordifolia , Terminala bellerica , Terminalia myriocarpa , Terminalia tomentosa , Terminalia chebula . G. KHAIR-SISSOO FOREST The Khair and Sissoo forest is found along the river streams of the Terai and Bhabar tracts, Dun valley, Siwalik hills, and foot hills of the lower Himalaya. The principal species are:- Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo , Zizyphus jujuba .


H. SCHIMA CASTANOPSIS FORESTS The forest types is found between an elevation of 1000mtrs. and 2000mtrs. In the lower Himalaya. The following two sub-types occurs in Nepal. (A). SCHIMA-CASTANOPSIS INDICA SUB TYPES :- Principal sub-type:- Terminalia tomentosa , Terminalia chebula , Bombax ceiba , Rhus parvifolia , Schima wallichi , Litsea oblonga . (B). SCHIMA-CASTANOPSIS TRIBULOTIDES SUB-TYPE :- The forest occurs at higher elevation than the sub type diseased in the above tract. It attains better development on northern aspects well developed in the valleys of the valleys of river Arun , Tamur and Kosi . Principal species are:- Alnus nepulensis , Phus parviflora , Vaccinium spp., Jugluns regia .


I. SUB-TROPICAL SEMI EVERGREEN LOWER HIMALAYAN FORESTS The forest types occurs between an elevation of 1000mtrs-1600mtrs. In the lower Himalayan. Principal species:- Albizzia lucnla , Albizzia procera , Dalbergia spp., Mallotus nepulensis . J.CHIR PINE FOREST This forest type is usually found between an elevation of 1000mtrs-2000mtrs. In the lower Himalaya and in the hill tops of the Siwalik hills. Principal species are :- Pinus roxburghii , Indigofera spp., Terminalia bellerica , Rhododendron arboreum .


K. OAK FORESTS Our forests are found at elevations as low as 1400mtrs and extend right upto the timber line. Following sub-types are:- (A). LOWER OAK FOREST :- this sub-type usually occurs between elevation of 1800mtrs-2200mtrs may be found at lower altitudes in moist shady depressions. The principal species:- Quercus lauginosa , Rhododendron arboreum , Cornus capitata . (B). MIDDLE OAK FOREST :- this sub-type occurs at elevation between 2200-3200mtrs. Moru is the dominant species. This forest is best developed on moist, shady sites. The principal species:- Rhododendron spp., Lyonia ovelifolia , Quercus Himalayan, Tsuga dumosa .


L. LITHO CARPUS FOREST This forest found between 2500mtrs in the eastern parts of the country. The canopy is fairly dense and individual trees may grow to a height of about 30mtrs. The principal species:- Lithocarpus pachyphylla , Quercus lamellosa , Acer campheli , Ribes glaciale , Ibex dipyrena . M. MOIST TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST The moist temperate deciduous forest found between 2000mtrs-3000mtrs in the upper parts of the lower Himalayan ranges and on the main Himalayan; very often as narrow stripes on flat terraces along water courses. The main species:- Alnus nepalonesis , Betula alonides , Aesculus indica , Juglans regia , Picea smithiana .


N. LOWER WET MIXED BROAD LEAVED FOREST This is found in the moisture parts of the lower and main Himalayan ranges between 1800-3200mtrs. The principal species: - Acer sikkimonsis , Pintanthus nepalansis , Morus oblonga , Viburnum spp., Littea spp., Ribes glacile . O. UPPER HIMALAYAN MIXED FORESTS This forests occurs at higher elevation in the main Himalayan ranges. (A). ALNUS FOREST :- The principal species :- Rhododendron anthopogan , R. ciliatum , R. wallichii , R. pendulum, R. setosum . (B). BETULA-ABIES SPECTABILIS FOREST :- this forest occurs at elevations of 3000 mtrs . The principal species :- Abies spectabilis , Betula utilis , Pinus excelsa , Tsuga dumosa , Juniperus recurva .

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( C). TSUGA DUMORA FOREST :- This forest is well developed in western. Nepal between an elevation of 2200-3500mtrs. The principal species:- Acer sterculiaceum , Sorbus cuspidata , Jasminum humile , Hedera nepalensis . (D). BLUE PINE FOREST :- The blue pine forest is found all over Nepal above an elevation of 2300mtrs. It is a colonizer of abandoned fields, freshly laid down alluvium and recent landslides. The principal species:- Abies pindrow , Abies spectabilis , Aesculus indica , Betula utilis . (E). SPRUCE FOREST :- Spruce forest are found between an elevation of 2500-3500mtrs. Usually in tracts that are sheltered from the full force of S.W. monsoons. These forests are well developed in the valleys of the river Kali Gundaki , Bheari and Mersyandi . The principal species:- Abies pindrow , Cedrus deodara , Picea smithiana , Pinus wallichiana . (F). FIR FOREST :- Fir forest are extensively developed between 2500-3200mtrs in cooler Northern aspects and moist shady depression. The principal species:- Betula utilis , Cedrus deodara , Tsuga dumosa , Sorbus cuspidata .


P. CONIFEROUS TEMPERATE FOREST Temperate coniferous forests are very well developed in the main Himalayan ranges and on the upper slopes of the lower Himalayan of Nepal. The following sub-types occurs:- (A). DEODAR FOREST :- This forest is dominated by deodar or Himalayan cedar and occurs between an elevation of 2000-3000mtrs. Deodara forests are not found in the Eastern parts of the country. The principal constitutes of this forest are:- Cedrus deodara , Picea smithiana , Rosa sericea . (B). CYPRESS FOREST :- These forest usually occur on limestone, and dolomite topography usually between an elevation of 2300-3300mtrs. The main species :- Abelia triflora , Colauhonia coccinea , Indigofera spp., Clematis montana .

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(C). JUNIPERUS FOREST :- these forest are very well developed at higher elevations all over Nepal. Near the snowline, Junipers occur both in the form of a small tree and as an evergreen shrub. The principal species:- Juniperus recurva, Juniperus wallichiana, Lonicera myrtillus, Quercus spp . (D). LARIX FOREST :- this occurs at higher elevations in the main Himalayan ranges of Nepal. Forest found is about 3000mtrs. The principal species :- Abies spectabilis, Betula utilis, Juniperus squamata, Tsuga dumosa .


Q. SUB-ALPINE FOREST Sub-alpine forests are very well developed in the main Himalayan ranges of Nepal above an elevation of 3000mtrs. The following sub-alpine occur in Nepal. (A). ALNUS FOREST :- This forest is found at higher elevation all over Nepal. It colonizes wet and shandy sites. The main species are:- Aesculus indica , Alnus nitida , Hippophae spp., Principea utilis . (B). POPLAR FOREST :- Poplar forests are found at higher elevation in moist shady depressions and long the beds of river and streams. The main species are:- Abelia triflora , Myrica spp., Rosa macrophylla , Spiraea sorbiflora . (C). HIPPOPHAE SCRUB :- This scrub forest occurs in the form of almost pure thickets usually on gravelly sites or on unstable slopes. This scrub forest may further be sub divided into: i ). At lower elevation:- Hippophae rhamnoides dominant ii). At mid elevation:- Hippophae thibetana dominant iii). At higher elevation:- Hippophae salieifolia dominant The principal species are:- Alnus nepalensis , Hippophae salieifolia , Lonicera quinquelocularis , Clematis montana .


R.MOIST ALPINE SCRUB This forest type occurs above an elevation of 4000mtrs in the moister tracts of the main Himalaya and extends right upto the snow line. The main species are:- Juniperus racurve , Lonicera cyanocarpa , Salix calyculata , Lonicera obovata . S. DRY ALPINE SCRUB This scrub forest occurs in all the drier tracts of upper Nepal between the timber line and the line of perpetual snow. The principal species are :- Artemisia thibetuna , Lonicera spp., Spiracea arcuta , Juniperus recurva .


FOREST POLICY A national forestry plan was laid down by the govt. in 1976 The main aspects of the policy are: (1)To preserve, promote and develop forest and products. (2) Efforts to be maid for maximize the involvement of the community. (3)High priority is Given for soil and water management. (4)Exiting forest to be managed on scientific lines. (5)Ecological balance must be maintained. (6)Development of national parks and sanctuaries for preservation of the wildlife for economic benefits.

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(7) The national environment protection policy is to maintained the long term balance between man and his environment. (8)Legal provisions to be made to prohibit projects having unfavourable effects on the environment.

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Social and community Forestry Started in Nepal during the seventies after the adoption for the national forestry plan in 1976 Country divided into 5 development regions ,14 zones,75 districts . Nepal – UK forestry research project.. This is very successful project in forestry. The principal components of this project are - Forest nursery research. -Plantation silviculture research. -Natural forest silviculture and management research. -Research on the bamboos of Nepal -Soil survey ,soil and plant testing.

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THE MAIN INTEGRATED FORESTRY PROJECT OF NEPAL ARE ….. forestry development project. 2. Hill forestry development project. 3.Nepal –Australia forestry project 4.Terai community forestry project. forestry and afforestration project 6.Bagmati watershed project. 7.Bengas Tal/ Rupa Tal watershed management 8.Inergrated hill development project. 9.Kuelkhani intergrated watershed management project 10.Phewa Tal intergrated watershed management project

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11.Karnali –Bheri integrated project . 12.Rapti integrated project . 13.Rasuwa Nuwakot integrated project. 14.Resourcce conservation and utilization project . 15.Sagarmatha integrated project. 16.Tinau watershed project . 17.watershed management project.

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